zocor pill identifier
We report a case of a 70-year-old obese white man with sudden onset of severe rhabdomyolysis with consecutive renal failure. His medication included low-dose simvastatin, which he had taken for 6 years up until the event. The statin was withdrawn immediately. After 3 days of veno-venous hemofiltration his renal function was completely restored.
zocor 40mg tab
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling plays an important role in tumor progression in patients with certain gastrointestinal tract cancers. In addition to lowering cholesterol in serum, statins have pleiotropic effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory or anti-neoplastic effects. Therefore, the present study investigated whether statins could induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells and regulate the expression of IGF-1R and its associated signaling pathways in the present study. It was demonstrated that simvastatin and pravastatin suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in human HT-29 cells, but simvastatin was more potent than pravastatin. Simvastatin induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, simvastatin suppressed the expression of IGF-1R and inhibited the activity of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and phosphorylated-Akt activated by IGF-1. Simvastatin and IGF-1 each stimulated the activity of phosphorylated ERK1/2. However, simvastatin inhibited cell proliferation and IGF-1 stimulated cell proliferation. Mevalonic acid and PD98059 reversed the ERK activation and apoptosis induced by treatment with simvastatin. It was concluded that simvastatin induces the apoptosis of human colon cancer cells and inhibits IGF-1-induced ERK and Akt expression via the downregulation of IGF-1R expression and proapoptotic ERK activation. Simvastatin may be beneficial for the treatment of colon cancer. The present study suggested that statin may possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of colon cancer.
Coadministration of ezetimibe/simvastatin was significantly (P<.001) more effective than simvastatin alone in reducing LDL-C levels for the pooled ezetimibe/simvastatin vs pooled simvastatin analysis and at each specific dose comparison. The decrease in LDL-C levels with coadministration of ezetimibe and the lowest dose of simvastatin, 10 mg, was similar to the decrease with the maximum dose of simvastatin, 80 mg. A significantly (P<.001) greater proportion of patients in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group achieved target LDL-C levels compared with those in the monotherapy group. Treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin also led to greater reductions in total cholesterol, triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels compared with simvastatin alone; both treatments increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels similarly. The safety and tolerability profiles for the ezetimibe/simvastatin and monotherapy groups were similar.
zocor simvastatin reviews
Simvastatin treatment significantly increased EPC in the hypercholesterolemic group, but failed to improve the EPC levels in the SSc patients, mainly in patients with late disease. Baseline levels of CEC were significantly higher in SSc patients compared with controls and at the end of the treatment they were significantly decreased. Regarding other markers of endothelial activation, we found that all the cytokine levels decreased in a statistically significant manner in the treated patients.
zocor 40 mg
This post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, 6-week parallel study assessed the proportion of T2DM patients who attained specified LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C, ApoB, and hs-CRP with usual, recommended starting doses of E/S (10/20 mg) vs A (10 or 20 mg) and next highest doses of E/S (10/40 mg) vs A (40 mg) by logistic regression. Baseline triglyceride and hs-CRP effects were also evaluated.
Ezetimibe does not increase circulating PCSK9 concentrations while simvastatin does. When added to simvastatin, ezetimibe does not cause an incremental increase in PCSK9 concentrations. Changes in PCSK9 concentrations are tightly regulated and mainly influenced by baseline PCSK9 levels and changes in LDL cholesterol.
zocor 60 mg
There were no significant associations between the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin lactone and gender. For simvastatin hydroxy acid, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and dose-normalized by the subject weight Cmax (NCmax) were higher in females than in males. Furthermore, NCmax and dose-normalized by the subject weight AUC (NAUC0-24h, NAUC0-∞) ratios of simvastatin hydroxy acid to simvastatin lactone in females were higher than in males.
zocor 30 mg
Although intensive-dose statin therapy was associated with a reduced risk for important CV events, it was also associated with an increased risk for statin-induced adverse events. Therefore, moderate-dose statin therapy may be the most appropriate choice for achieving CV risk reduction in the majority of individuals, whereas intensive-dose statin therapy may be reserved for those at highest risk.
zocor blockbuster drug
Four of 5 patients with 2 defective CYP2D6 alleles discontinued the therapy at a low daily dose because of adverse events, with a significant mean decrease in the cholesterol levels of 0.23 mmol/L per milligram of simvastatin in the daily dose. In the group of 28 patients with 1 mutated CYP2D6 gene, 13 did not tolerate the therapy, whereas a mean decrease in the cholesterol levels of 0.20 mmol/L per milligram of simvastatin was found. One patient with a multiplication of the CYP2D6 gene showed a cholesterol reduction of only 0.01 mmol/L per milligram of simvastatin, at a maximal daily dose of 40 mg. Only 9 patients of the group of 54 persons who were homozygous for the wild-type allele discontinued the therapy because of intolerance. In that group, a mean decrease of cholesterol of 0.10 mmol/L per milligram of simvastatin was observed.
zocor patient reviews
Evacetrapib, as monotherapy or with statins, significantly reduces the concentrations of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, including Lp(a), LDL-P, and sLDL.
zocor missed dose
Data were collected from 96 patients with a median age of 56 years; patients exhibited tendinitis (n = 63) and tendon rupture (n = 33). Tendinopathy more often occurred within the first year after statin initiation (59%). Tendon manifestations were related to atorvastatin (n = 35), simvastatin (n = 30), pravastatin (n = 21), fluvastatin (n = 5), and rosuvastatin (n = 5). Statin was reinitiated in 7 patients, resulting in recurrence of tendinopathy in all cases.
zocor recommended dosage
Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also stimulates oral bone growth when applied topically, without systemic side-effects. However, the mechanisms involved in vivo are not known. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein-2, nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 are involved, based on prior in vitro evidence.
zocor normal dosage
The beneficial effects of statins in reducing cardiovascular events have been attributed predominantly to their lipid-lowering effects, recent studies suggest that these effects might be due to their anti-inflammatory properties. We here investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of simvastatin on cytokine production in pre-dialysis chronic renal failure patients.
Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into: five groups, 8 rats in each group: control untreated group, atherosclerosis group, atherosclerosis with Shenshao Decoction (low dose) group, atherosclerosis with Shenshao Decoction (high dose) group, atherosclerosis with simvastatin group. To stimulate atherosclerosis, the rats were fed vitamin D3 and a high-cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, treatments were maintained for eight weeks. Morphology changes were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were obtained by enzymatic assays with use of an automated biochemical analyzer. The expression of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were detected by enzyme-enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A, and IL-23 were detected by linked immunoblotting.
zocor pill cutter
In the IMPROVE-IT trial, post-ACS patients with mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 93.8 mg/dL at presentation were randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe or simvastatin/placebo. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, major coronary event or stroke, and the median follow-up was 6 years. Efficacy and safety endpoints were examined by prior CABG status. Among 18 134 patients, 1684 (9.3%) had a prior CABG (median age 69 years, 82% male). During the trial, the median time-weighted LDL-C level was 55.0 mg/dL with simvastatin/ezetimibe vs. 69.9 mg/dL with simvastatin/placebo in patients with prior CABG (P < 0.001), and it was 53.6 mg/dL vs. 69.5 mg/dL, respectively, in patients without prior CABG (P < 0.001). The rate of the primary endpoint was higher in patients with vs. without prior CABG [56% vs. 32%, adj. hazard ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.58]. Patients with prior CABG receiving simvastatin/ezetimibe had an 8.8% (95% CI 3.1-14.6%) lower absolute risk over simvastatin/placebo in the primary endpoint, whereas patients without prior CABG had a 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.6%) lower absolute risk (P-interaction = 0.02). There were no between-group significant differences in safety endpoints.
zocor tab 40mg
Rosuvastatin is a cost-effective therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia versus simvastatin, atorvastatin and pitavastatin, especially in specific profiles of patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk factors, according to the SCORE system, in Spain.
zocor cold medicine
Currently, 6 hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are marketed in the United States (US). Given the wide variation in the prices and efficacy of statins, formal cost-effectiveness analysis may improve drug selection decisions. To assess the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, we developed a model of the costs and consequences of lipid-regulating therapy and estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of 5 statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) at usual starting doses versus no therapy. Drug effects on serum lipids were assessed using data approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for product labeling. Annual risks of coronary event occurrence were estimated using Framingham Heart Study coronary risk equations developed for use in this model. Current estimates of direct medical costs of coronary heart disease were used to assign costs to health states and acute coronary events. Main outcome measurements were net cost (statin therapy minus savings in coronary heart disease treatment), gain in life expectancy, and cost per life-year saved. The maximum gain in life expectancy was achieved with atorvastatin, which also had a lower net cost than lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. Compared with fluvastatin, atorvastatin's greater effectiveness is attained at a lower cost per life-year saved. The cost-effectiveness of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease has been improved with the introduction of atorvastatin.
zocor 20 mg
ClinicalTrails.gov NCT01999309; EudraCT-number 2013-000834-36.
zocor 10 mg
These results provide rationale for evaluating intraosseous injection of simvastatin in poloxamer 407 to enhance implant fixation in patients with osteoporosis.
zocor dosage timing
Recent studies have suggested that simvastatin may exert endothelial-protective and anti-ischemic effects via nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in isolated working rat hearts, the effect of acute simvastatin administration on endothelial and inducible NO-synthase (eNOS and iNOS) mRNA and on myocytic apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion. We used isolated working rat hearts submitted to 15 min global, no-flow, normothermic ischemia and 180 min reperfusion. To detect myocytic apoptosis we used DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and Tunel technique; eNOS and iNOS expression were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was used as standard. The eNOS and iNOS mRNAs were expressed as G3PDH/eNOS and G3PDH/iNOS densitometric ratio (BioRad Gel Doc 1000). Hearts were divided into four groups: A) hearts excised and used as histological controls; B) untreated hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion; C) actinomicin D-treated (1.5 mg/kg) hearts, perfused with 25 microM simvastatin, subjected to ischemia and reperfusion; D) hearts treated with simvastatin 25 microM and submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. In Group B we evidenced a significant myocytic apoptotic damage, reduced in groups C and D. In Group B an increase in G3PDH/eNOS ratio vs Group A was detected; in Group D a reduction in G3PDH/eNOS ratio vs Group B occurred; no significant changes were observed between groups C and D. As for G3PDH/iNOS ratio, it was significantly increased in Group D with respect to groups A and B. Our data suggest that simvastatin in acute may modulate NO-synthase mRNA expression (induction of eNOS mRNA by means of post-transcriptional mechanisms and inhibition of iNOS postischemic overexpression) and reduce myocytic apoptosis.
zocor 5 mg
The hypothesis was tested by experiments in which rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and retinal endothelial cells maintained in high-glucose medium were treated with simvastatin. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) function was assayed by determining extravasation of albumin. Oxidative stress was assayed by measuring lipid peroxidation, protein nitration of tyrosine, dihydroethidine oxidation, and chemiluminescence. Immunoprobe techniques were used to determine the levels of NADPH oxidase subunit expression and STAT3 activation.
zocor 80 mg
Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important modulator of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, regulating its particle size, composition, and mass. In patients with low HDL and cardiovascular disease (CVD), plasma PLTP activity is positively correlated with the concentration of HDL particles containing apo A-I but not apo A-II (Lp(A-1)). We recently completed a study to determine the effect of simvastatin and niacin (S-N) therapy on disease progression/regression in these patients, and found that this therapy selectively increased Lp(A-I). To determine if PLTP was also increased with this drug therapy, we measured the PLTP activity in the plasma of 30 of these patients obtained at baseline and after 12 months of therapy, and compared the changes to a similar group of 31 patients who received placebo for the drugs. No significant increase in PLTP activity was observed in either group of patients. However, changes in apo A-I and A-II between these two time points were correlated with the corresponding change in PLTP activity. The correlation coefficients were r=0.57 (P=0.001) and r=0.43 (P=0.02) for apo A-I, and r=0.54 (P=0.002) and r=0.41 (P=0.02) for apo A-II in the placebo and S-N group, respectively. At baseline, PLTP activity correlated positively with the percent of plasma apo A-I associated with Lp(A-I) (r=0.38, P=0.04) and the amounts of apo A-I in these particles (r=0.43, P=0.02). These relationships persisted in patients who took placebo for 12 months (r=0.46, P=0.009 and r=0.37, P=0.04, respectively), but was attenuated in those treated with S-N. These data indicate that S-N-induced increase in Lp(A-I) was PLTP-independent. It also confirms our previous observation that an interrelationship exists between PLTP and apo-specific HDL particle subclasses in CVD patients with low HDL, and that this relationship is altered by drug intervention.
zocor generic simvastatin
Since we recently demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein induced human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCEC) tube formation through Ras/Raf/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation [Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (2003) 802], it is possible that lipid-lowering agents such as statins, which reduce the prenylation of Ras, could decrease such tube formation. Therefore, we investigated whether this event occurs through inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway. We developed an in vitro model of EC tube formation on a matrix gel. Simvastatin inhibited serum-induced endothelial tube formation after 18 h. The inhibition of ERK activity suppressed serum-induced tube formation. Farnesylpyrophosphate (Fpp), which translocates Ras from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane, rescued this inhibition. In addition, farnesyltransferase I inhibitor, which inhibits Ras farnesylation, and dominant-negative Ras (N17) also inhibited serum-induced tube formation. Although Fpp activated Ras assessed by a Ras pull-down assay and phospho(p)-ERK1/2, Fpp-induced p-ERK1/2 activation was not inhibited by simvastatin. In conclusion, simvastatin-induced Ras/Raf/ERK inactivation is a potent signal in the anti-angiogenic phenotype of HCECs. Fpp counteracted simvastatin-induced Ras/Raf/ERK inactivation.
zocor generic name
We conducted a retrospective cohort study on data from an integrated healthcare system. We included patients with pancreatic cancer stage I-IIb who underwent resection for curative intent between January 2005 and January 2011. Baseline statin use was characterized as any prior use as well as active use of either simvastatin or lovastatin. Intensity of exposure was calculated as average daily dose prior to surgery. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed from surgery until the end of study (April 2014). We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the impact of baseline statin use on survival, adjusting for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, resection margin, disease stage, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.