This was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase 2 study in men and postmenopausal women ≥18 and ≤65 years of age with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL (3.4 mmol/L) while on low-intensity to high-intensity stable statin (the majority on moderate intensity) therapy. Sixty-six patients were randomized 1:1:1 to gemcabene 300 mg, 900 mg, or placebo QD.
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Increasing evidence suggest that the 'quality' rather than only the 'quantity' of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) exerts a great influence on the cardiovascular risk. Small, dense LDL seem to be an important predictor of cardiovascular events and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) and their predominance has been accepted as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III.
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The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) found that treatment with ezetemibe and low-dose simvastatin reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in patients with kidney disease. Due to the paucity of evidence-based interventions that lower cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population, the SHARP trial will likely have a large impact on clinical practice. However, applying the results of clinical trials conducted in select populations to the care of individual patients in real-world settings can be fraught with difficulty. This is especially true when caring for older adults with complex comorbidity and limited life expectancy. These patients are often excluded from clinical trials, frequently have competing health priorities, and may be less likely to benefit and more likely to be harmed by medications. We discuss key considerations in applying the results of the SHARP trial to the care of older adults with CKD in real-world clinical settings using guiding principles set forth by the American Geriatrics Society's Expert Panel on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity. Using this schema, we emphasize the importance of evaluating trial results in the unique context of each patient's goals, values, priorities, and circumstances.
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This article reviews the efficacy, tolerability and safety of colesevelam in clinical practice. The literature search was based on a PubMed search up to January 2008.
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In comparison to the mice in the diabetic control group (n = 6), wild-type mice (n = 6) and diabetic mice that received simvastatin (n = 6) had significantly increased ischemic/nonischemic limb blood perfusion ratio, higher capillary density (P < .05, respectively), and reduced ischemic limb damage (diabetic control, 80%; diabetic with simvastatin, 40%; diabetic with ezetimibe, 80%). However, these proangiogenic effects were not observed in diabetic mice that had been treated with ezetimibe. In addition, the number of ischemia-triggered endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly enhanced in the wild-type mice and in the diabetic mice being treated with simvastatin, but not in those being treated with ezetimibe, after ischemic surgery. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity as determined by acetylcholine-stimulated vasorelaxation recovered notably in diabetic mice that were treated with simvastatin but was not improved by ezetimibe (n = 6, each group). Moreover, simvastatin led to a significant upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation; vascular endothelial growth factor protein levels in ischemic tissues were also increased. By contrast, administration of ezetimibe did not produce these effects.
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The reports include two safety issues, firstly the need to consider HMG CoA reductase inhibitors as a cause of severe lower limb muscle symptoms even in the presence of spinal stenosis and normal CK levels and the second, the need to measure serum creatine kinase when these symptoms occur to detect progression of myopathy and potentially serious outcomes.
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Some patients with aortic stenosis develop asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH) that may influence the surgical approach and is associated with higher perioperative morbidity. The aim of this analysis was to characterize further this subtype of aortic stenosis patients.
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Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH.
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To identify patients with muscle symptoms confirmed by statin rechallenge and compare lipid-lowering efficacy for 2 nonstatin therapies, ezetimibe and evolocumab.
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Instead of LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol is proposed as a secondary lipid target when triglyceride level is above 2.3 mmol/L. Non-HDL-cholesterol target values are 0.8 mmol/L higher than those for LDL-cholesterol in the same cardiovascular risk category. Currently, the main issue of lipidology is the degree by which the cardiovascular risk can be reduced with the treatment of residual dyslipidemia that exists under statin therapy. In such a role the examined agents have essentially failed despite their more or less profound effect on HDL-cholesterol and/or non-HDL-cholesterol. The largest loser has been the nicotinic acid. The results of cardiovascular, otherwise controversial fish oil studies cannot be considered convincing because of the administered low doses. In a combination with statin (i) ezetimibe may have role if the LDL-cholesterol target cannot be reached with statin monotherapy, or (ii) fibrates, in case of large increase of triglyceride level, or in less severe hypertriglyceridemia if it is associated with considerable decrease in HDL-cholesterol level. Potential further possibilities are: (i) cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors that dramatically raise HDL-cholesterol, while reduce LDL-cholesterol, or (ii) proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 inhibitors that markedly decrease LDL-cholesterol even on the top of statin.
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Although ezetimibe and simvastatin are equipotent in lowering lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with coexisting PCOS, simvastatin exhibits a more pronounced effect on circulating androgen levels in this group of patients.
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the prevalent monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, carries the risk of premature coronary heart disease. Lipoprotein-apheresis is established in children with severe dyslipidemia. We present 3 siblings with a negative/negative residual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mutation (p.Trp577Arg), unresponsive to drug treatment.
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AIM-HIGH completed enrollment in April 2010. Follow-up is expected to continue through 2012.
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Ezetimibe significantly decreased LDL-chol levels and metabolic syndrome-related factors, including body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure; homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and urinary albumin excretion, were significantly reduced. In addition, it decreased the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a parameter of oxidative stress, and increased the urinary excretion of nitrate and nitrite (NOx). In the controls we observed no such changes. Excepting the decrease in the serum TNF-alpha level, the effects of ezetimibe were not correlated with decreased LDL-chol levels.
The existence of an independent association between elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality has been largely controversial. The main difficulty in isolating the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on CV risk is the fact that elevated triglyceride levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and other lipoproteins. As a result of this problem and in disregard of the real biological role of TG, its significance as a plausible therapeutic target was unfoundedly underestimated for many years. However, taking epidemiological data together, both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridaemia are associated with a substantially increased long term total mortality and CV risk. Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia commonly leads to reduction in HDL and increase in atherogenic small dense LDL levels. TG may also stimulate atherogenesis by mechanisms, such excessive free fatty acids (FFA) release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and impairment of fibrinolysis. Genetic studies strongly support hypertriglyceridemia and high concentrations of TRL as causal risk factors for CV disease. The most common forms of hypertriglyceridemia are related to overweight and sedentary life style, which in turn lead to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensive lifestyle therapy is the main initial treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Statins are a cornerstone of the modern lipids-modifying therapy. If the primary goal is to lower TG levels, fibrates (bezafibrate and fenofibrate for monotherapy, and in combination with statin; gemfibrozil only for monotherapy) could be the preferable drugs. Also ezetimibe has mild positive effects in lowering TG. Initial experience with en ezetimibe/fibrates combination seems promising. The recently released IMPROVE-IT Trial is the first to prove that adding a non-statin drug (ezetimibe) to a statin lowers the risk of future CV events. In conclusion, the classical clinical paradigm of lipids-modifying treatment should be changed and high TG should be recognized as an important target for therapy in their own right. Hypertriglyceridemia should be treated.
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A total of 82 patients were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 50.0 [12.0] years; 44% male; 100% white; mean [SD] weight, 73.5 [14.9] kg; combination group, 38 patients; monotherapy group, 44). Fluvastatin XL + ezetimibe and fluvastatin XL monotherapy were associated with significant decreases from baseline in mean LDL-C level (by 49.9% and 35.2%, respectively; between-group difference, P < 0.001). Fluvastatin XL + ezetimibe was associated with significantly greater reductions from baseline than fluvastatin XL monotherapy in total cholesterol (38.2% vs 27.5% P < 0.001), triglycerides (21% vs 3.8% P = 0.02) and apolipoprotein B (34.8% vs 22.5% P < 0.001). NCEP ATP III LDL-C goals were achieved by 87% of patients receiving fluvastatin XL + ezetimibe and 67% of patients receiving fluvastatin XL monotherapy (between-group difference, P = 0.042). The combination was associated with significantly lowered high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with high baseline hs-CRP (>2 mg/L; P < 0.02), >1 cardiovascular risk factor (P < 0.05), or hypertension (P = 0.015); both regimens were associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of interleukin-1B. No significant between-group differences in the incidences of AEs were found. Most AEs were mild or moderate in intensity. Headache was the most common AE, occurring in 5/44 (11.4%) patients in the fluvastatin XL group and 2/38 (5.3%) patients in the fluvastatin XL + ezetimibe group. One serious AE (convulsive crisis) occurred in a patient receiving fluvastatin XL + ezetimibe, but was not suspected to be related to study medication.
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The structure of NPC1L1(NTD) reveals a degree of flexibility surrounding the entrance to the sterol binding pocket, suggesting a gating mechanism that relies on multiple movements around the entrance to the sterol binding pocket.
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To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs).
We present clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) in the Middle East region. While guidelines are broadly applicable in Europe, in the Middle East we experience a range of confounding factors that complicate disease management to a point whereby the European guidance cannot be applied without significant modification. Specifically, for disease prevalence, the Middle East region has an established epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome that can complicate treatment and mask a clinical diagnosis of HoFH. We have also a high incidence of consanguineous marriages, which increase the risk of transmission of recessive and homozygous genetic disorders. This risk is further augmented in autosomal dominant disorders such as familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), in which a range of defective genes can be transmitted, all of which contribute to the phenotypic expression of the disease. In terms of treatment, we do not have access to lipoprotein apheresis on the same scale as in Europe, and there remains a significant reliance on statins, ezetimibe and the older plasma exchange methods. Additionally, we do not have widespread access to anti-apolipoprotein B therapies and microsomal transfer protein inhibitors. In order to adapt existing global guidance documents on HoFH to the Middle East region, we convened a panel of experts from Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran and Bahrain to draft a regional guidance document for HoFH. We also included selected experts from outside the region. This panel statement will form the foundation of a detailed appraisal of the current FH management in the Middle Eastern population and thereby provide a suitable set of guidelines tailored for the region.
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Simvastatin 40 mg/d plus ezetimibe 10 mg/d, on the background of a guideline-oriented standardized intensive cardiac rehabilitation program, can reach 95% effectiveness in achieving challenging goals (LDL < 100 mg/dl) using lipid-lowering medication in patients at high cardiovascular risk.
In the 627 subjects in the intention to treat sample, non-HDL-C levels were reduced with OM3-FFA 2 g/d and OM3-FFA 4 g/d (-3.9% and -6.9%, respectively) compared with OO (-0.9%) (both, P < 0.05), as were TG levels (-14.6% and -20.6%, respectively, vs -5.9%; both, P < 0.001). LDL-C levels increased with OM3-FFA 2 g/d (4.6%) compared with OO (1.1%) (P = 0.025) but not with OM3-FFA 4 g/d (1.3%). Total cholesterol and VLDL-C concentrations were reduced compared with OO with both OM3-FFA dosages, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and apo AI and apo B levels were significantly lowered with OM3-FFA 4 g/d only (all at least P < 0.05). Percent changes from baseline in HDL-C did not differ between OO and either OM3-FFA group. Plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were significantly increased and arachidonic acid was significantly reduced in both OM3-FFA treatment groups compared with the OO responses (all, P < 0.001). Withdrawals related to treatment-emergent adverse events ranged from 0.9% with OO to 3.2% with OM3-FFA 4 g/d.
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Simvastatin and ezetimibe were not associated with less new-onset AF. Older age and greater left ventricular mass index were independent predictors of AF development. New-onset AF was associated with a worsening of prognosis.
A 72-year-old man at high risk for cardiovascular disease, with a history of peripheral vascular disease and type 2 diabetes, presented with lipids above targets despite maximum daily treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg, fenofibrate supra 160 mg daily, and ezetimibe 10 mg. His low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 2.6 mmol/l, total cholesterol: HDL ratio 5.6, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 0.9 mmol/l. Because his lipids were not within target, he was advised to start 2250 mg of niacin in three divided doses daily. For 5 months, he mistakenly took 2250 mg of niacin three times daily, a consumption of 6750 mg/day! The effects on his lipids were: HDL-C increased nearly 100% to 1.7 mmol/l, LDL-C decreased by 50% to 1.3 mmol/l, and cholesterol: HDL ratio decreased by over 50% to 2.1. His excessive intake dramatically demonstrates the positive effect of niacin on lipids. Fortunately he did not suffer adverse effects from taking more than the recommended limit of 3000 mg/day.
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As part of its Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of evolocumab (Amgen) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of evolocumab. The appraisal assessed evolocumab as monotherapy or in combination with a statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) with or without ezetimibe, or in combination with ezetimibe (without statin therapy), in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia (which includes mixed dyslipidaemia), for whom statins do not provide optimal control of their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and/or for whom statins are contraindicated or not tolerated. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based on the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from four randomised controlled trials comparing evolocumab either with ezetimibe or placebo in adults with primary familial or non-familial hypercholesterolaemia, who were either able to take statins or who were statin-intolerant. The clinical effectiveness review found that evolocumab is efficacious at lowering LDL-C but that there was uncertainty regarding its impact on cardiovascular disease outcomes. In response to the ERG's critique of the submitted health economic model, the company submitted an amended model, which also included a Patient Access Scheme (PAS). Based on this, the deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for evolocumab against ezetimibe were above £74,000 and £45,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained within the non-familial primary and secondary prevention population, respectively, whilst the ICERs within the heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia population were approximately £23,000 per QALY gained. The final determination was that evolocumab would be a clinically and cost effective use of UK National Health Service resources in certain patient subgroups.
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To assess the impact of switches from high-efficacy lipid-lowering therapy to simvastatin on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and goal attainment in coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk-equivalent patients in a managed care setting.