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Stimulated caspase 3 activity was lower in myocardium of eNOS +/+ compared with eNOS -/- mouse hearts (5.1 +/- 0.5 vs 7.6 +/- 1.0 pmol/10 microg/min, p < 0.05). L-NAME increased enzyme activity only in eNOS +/+ mice, indicating that endogenous NO inhibits caspase 3. Stimulated caspase 3 activity was lower in control hamsters, 3.3 +/- 0.3 pmol/10 microg/min, compared with CMP hamsters, 9.6 +/- 0.7 and 6.9 +/- 0.4 pmol/10 microg/min at 4 and 9 months, respectively. This was associated with progressive ventricular dysfunction, thinning, and dilatation. L-NAME increased enzyme activity in normal but not in CMP hamsters. In failing human myocardium, L-NAME failed to alter caspase activity, indicating reduced NO availability. Enalaprilat inhibited caspase 3, which was reversed by L-NAME. S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine reversed caspase 3 activation in all groups.
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Purpose To determine if commonly administered doses of technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) mertiatide (MAG3) in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) contribute to image interpretation and justify the resulting radiation exposure. Materials and Methods The respective institutional review boards approved this HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. Baseline and furosemide (99m)Tc-MAG3 imaging examinations in 50 patients suspected of having renal obstruction and 48 patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension (RVH) were randomly selected from archived databases and were independently scored by three experienced readers without access to 2-second flow images. Readers were blinded to their original scores, and then they rescored each examination with access to high-activity 2-second flow images. Relative renal function was determined after a low activity (62.9 MBq ± 40.7) baseline acquisition for RVH and a high activity (303.4 MBq ± 48.1) acquisition after administration of enalaprilat. Data were analyzed by using random effects analysis of variance and mean and standard error of the mean for the difference between sets of scores and the difference between relative function measurements. Results There was no significant difference in the scores without flow images compared with blinded scores with high-activity flow images for patients suspected of having obstruction (P = .80) or RVH (P = .24). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the relative uptake measurements after administration of low and high activities (P > .99). Conclusion Administered doses of (99m)Tc-MAG3 in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) do not affect the relative function measurements or contribute to interpretation of images in patients suspected of having RVH or obstruction compared with administration of lower doses; unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by administering doses in the range of 37-185 MBq as recommended incurrent guidelines. (©) RSNA, 2017.
BIO1211 is a small peptidyl potent antagonist of the activated form of alpha4beta1 integrin. The effect of enalapril on the in vitro and in vivo cleavage of BIO1211 was investigated. In heparinized blood, plasma and rat liver, lung and intestinal homogenates, BIO1211 was converted rapidly to BIO1588 by hydrolytic cleavage of the terminal dipeptide moiety. This cleavage could be inhibited by EDTA and the ACE inhibitor, enalaprilat, the de-esterified acid derivative of enalapril. Enalaprilat inhibited the hydrolysis of BIO1211 in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 2 nM in human and sheep plasma and 10 nM in rat plasma. In rat lung homogenate supernatant, the maximum inhibition of the conversion of BIO1211 to BIO1588 was approximately 80% at 1 microM with no further effect up to 100 microM of enalaprilat. Following a concomitant IV administration of enalapril and BIO1211 at 3 mg/kg each, the AUC and the half-life values of BIO1211 increased 18- and 10-fold, respectively. The AUC of BIO1588 decreased approximately 2-fold with no change in its plasma half-life. When rats were dosed intravenously with enalapril followed by an intratracheal dose of BIO1211, there was approximately 2.5-fold decrease in the AUC of BIO1588 and a 2.4-fold increase in its plasma half-life.
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The simultaneous acute effects of converting enzyme inhibition by intravenous enalaprilat on the circulating renin-angiotensin system and on the brachial artery were studied in 12 hypertensive patients by a double-blind comparison with saline effects in 14 hypertensive patients. The brachial artery was investigated in terms of arterial section (measured by pulsed Doppler technique) and wall rigidity (assessed by pulse wave velocity). Arterial and biochemical parameters were measured in baseline before injection and at 20 to 40 minutes (t1) and 80 to 100 minutes (t2) after saline and drug injections. Compared with the saline vehicle, enalaprilat significantly decreased angiotensin enzyme converting activity (p less than 0.001), increased plasma renin activity (p less than 0.01) and decreased plasma aldosterone concentrations (p less than 0.01). The drug reduced blood pressure (p less than 0.01) and increased the brachial artery section (p less than 0.01), but did not change pulse wave velocity. In the enalaprilat group, significant postinjection relations were observed between: (1) enalaprilat concentration and plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity (r = -0.72, p less than 0.001); (2) plasma renin activity and mean blood pressure (r = -0.46, p less than 0.02); (3) plasma enalaprilat concentration and pulse wave velocity (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01) and (4) pulse wave velocity and brachial artery section (r = 0.42, p less than 0.05). Thus, the brachial artery effects of enalaprilat were not directly related to the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ten patients with severe pulmonary hypertension due to Toxic Oil Syndrome underwent cardiac catheterization to analyse the acute effect of intrapulmonary injection of 1.25 mg of enalaprilat. Haemodynamic parameters were obtained at basal state, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after administration of the drug. Enalaprillat did not produce any statistically significant changes in pulmonary pressures and resistances or cardiac output. This lack of response is unknown but may be related to the presence of endothelial damage and fixed pulmonary vascular lesions observed at autopsy in three patients.
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It has been recently claimed that the human B1 receptors for kinins bind angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors via a potential zinc-binding domain and are pharmacologically stimulated by these drugs. We verified whether ACE inhibitors stimulate B1 receptors in vitro. The isolated rabbit aorta or mouse stomach responded by negligible contractions to the application of captopril, enalaprilat, or zofenoprilat. The human isolated umbilical vein also failed to respond to enalaprilat. All of these preparations were responsive to the B1 receptor agonists des-Arg9-bradykinin (BK) or Lys-des-Arg9-BK. Furthermore, enalaprilat applied continuously had no significant interaction with the effects of Lys-des-Arg9-BK on the rabbit aorta. Enalaprilat failed to stimulate [3H]arachidonate release, translocate the receptors (confocal microscopy), or stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation (immunoblot) in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the rabbit B1 receptor conjugated to yellow fluorescent protein. The phospho-ERK1/2 content of arterial smooth muscle cells of human or rabbit origin was increased by treatment with Lys-des-Arg9-BK but not with enalaprilat. ACE inhibitors do not act as bona fide agonists of the kinin B1 receptors.
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The renin angiotensin system and endothelium-derived substances are important regulators of the microcirculation. The authors studied the roles of angiotensins (Ang), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, and Ang II-receptor antagonists in the porcine ophthalmic circulation.
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The di-acid metabolite of enalapril, enalaprilat, and its lysine analogue lisinopril are potent inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE); they do not contain sulphydryl groups. Both drugs can be assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography and by radioimmunoassay and plasma ACE inhibition remains stable under normal storage conditions. It is therefore possible to study their pharmacokinetics as well as their pharmacodynamic effects in man. Enalaprilat and lisinopril as well as ACE activity have been measured in blood taken during the course of two studies of the effects of these drugs on blood pressure and autonomic responsiveness. A population pharmacokinetic analysis approach applied to a few concentration-time data points in each of a relatively large number of subjects provided average population parameter estimates of the absorption rate constant, volume of distribution and clearance which correspond closely with the limited published data based on conventional pharmacokinetic approaches. It also provided estimates of pharmacodynamic parameters and the concentration of the drug required to produce a 50% ACE inhibition. Population drug concentration data obtained in the course of early clinical evaluations of new drugs may provide a rational basis for dosage regimens with improved efficacy and, in particular, reduced concentration-related toxic effects.
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Hearts with compensatory pressure-overload hypertrophy show an increased intracardiac activation of angiotensin II that may contribute to ischemic diastolic dysfunction. We studied whether pressure-overload hypertrophy in response to aortic banding would result in exaggerated diastolic dysfunction during low-flow ischemia and whether the specific inhibition of the cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme by enalaprilat would modify systolic and diastolic function during ischemia and reperfusion in either hypertrophied or nonhypertrophied hearts. Isolated, red blood cell-perfused isovolumic nonhypertrophied and hypertrophied rat hearts were subjected to enalaprilat (2.5 x 10(-7) M final concentration) infusion during 20 minutes of baseline perfusion and during 30 minutes of low-flow ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. Coronary flow per gram was similar in nonhypertrophied and hypertrophied hearts during baseline perfusion, ischemia, and reperfusion. At baseline, left ventricular developed pressure was higher in hypertrophied than nonhypertrophied hearts in untreated groups (224 +/- 8 versus 150 +/- 9 mm Hg; p less than 0.01) and in enalaprilat-treated groups (223 +/- 9 versus 145 +/- 8 mm Hg; p less than 0.01). During low-flow ischemia, left ventricular developed pressure was depressed but similar in all groups. All groups showed deterioration of diastolic function; however, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased to a significantly higher level in untreated hypertrophied than in nonhypertrophied hearts (65 +/- 7 versus 33 +/- 3 mm Hg; p less than 0.001). Enalaprilat had no effect in nonhypertrophied hearts, but it significantly attenuated the greater increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in hypertrophied hearts treated with enalaprilat compared with no drug (65 +/- 7 versus 50 +/- 5 mm Hg; p less than 0.01). The beneficial effect could not be explained by differences in coronary blood flow per gram left ventricular weight, glycolytic flux as reported by lactate production, myocardial water content, oxygen consumption, and tissue levels of glycogen and high energy phosphate compounds. During reperfusion, all hearts showed a partial recovery of developed pressure to 70-74% of initial values. No effect of enalaprilat could be detected during reperfusion on systolic and diastolic function or restoration of tissue levels of high energy compounds. In conclusion, our experiments show that hypertrophied red blood cell-perfused hearts manifest a severe impairment of left ventricular diastolic relaxation in response to low-flow ischemia in comparison with control hearts. Further, our experiments support the hypothesis that the enhanced conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in rats with pressure-overload hypertrophy contributes to the enhanced sensitivity of hypertrophied hearts to diastolic dysfunction during low-flow ischemia.
Six continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with hypertension were enrolled in the study. All 6 patients received intraperitoneal enalaprilat. Five of the patients also received oral enalapril.
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Two enzymes with tonin-like activity, designated rSMT3 and rSMT4, were purified from rat submandibular glands and another, rPT1, was obtained from the prostate. The three enzyme fractions hydrolysed angiotensin I, angiotensinogen (AG) and synthetic AG(1-14) to form angiotensin II. With angiotensin I as substrate, pH optima were 6.5 for rSMT3, 6.8 for rSMT4 and 7.5 for rPT1. With AG(1-14), the three enzymes had optimal activity at pH 7.5. The three enzymes had negligible activity upon a kallikrein substrate, Ac-Phe-Arg-Nan. The enzymes were inhibited by aprotinin, soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride but not by two angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid or enalaprilat. N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (1 mM) inhibited rPT1 and rSMT4 but not rSMT3. Molecular weights (SDS-PAGE) were 31,700 for rSMT3, 29,800 for rSMT4 and 28,100 for rPT1. Total activity in the prostate is 150-times lower than in the submandibular gland, where 92% of the tonin activity is related to rSMT4. Physical and chemical properties suggest that rSMT4 is tonin, whereas rSMT3 and rPT1 are tonin-like enzymes which can generate angiotensin II from different substrates.
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IEL-derived ACE was significantly elevated in SBS mice. The addition of an ACE-I to SBS mice resulted in a significant decline in EC apoptosis. To address a possible mechanism, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression was measured. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in SBS mice, and decreased with ACE-I. Interestingly, ACE-I was not able to decrease EC apoptosis in TNF-alpha knockout mice.
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Postoperative intensive care unit at the German Heart Institute Berlin.
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Somatic ACE (EC 126.96.36.199), a Zn(II) metalloproteinase, is composed of functionally active N and C domains resulting from tandem gene duplication. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity between the two domains, they differ in substrate and inhibitor specificity and in their activation by chloride ions. Because of the critical role of ACE in cardiovascular and renal diseases, both domains are attractive targets for drug design. Putative structural models have been generated for the interactions of ACE inhibitors (lisinopril, captoril, enalaprilat, keto-ACE, ramiprilat, quinaprilat, peridoprilat, fosinoprilat, and RXP 407) with both the ACE_C and the ACE_N domains. Inhibitor-domain selectivity was interpreted in terms of residue alterations observed in the four subsites of the binding grooves of the ACE_C/ACE_N domains (S1: V516/N494, V518/T496, S2: F391/Y369, E403/R381, S1': D377/Q355, E162/D140, V379/S357, V380/T358, and S2': D463/E431, T282/S260). The interactions governing the ligand-receptor recognition process in the ACE_C domain are: a salt bridge between D377, E162, and the NH(2) group (P1' position), a hydrogen bond of the inhibitor with Q281, the presence of bulky hydrophobic groups in the P1 and P2' sites, and a stacking interaction of F391 with a benzyl group in the P2 position. In ACE_N these interactions are: hydrogen bonds of the inhibitor with E431, Y369, and R381, and a salt bridge between the carboxy group in the P2 position of the inhibitor and R500. The calculated complexes were evaluated for their consistency with structure-activity relationships and site-directed mutagenesis data. A comparison between the calculated interaction free energies and the experimentally observed biological activities was also made. Pharmacophore refinement was achieved at an atomic level, and might provide an improved basis for structure-based rational design of second-generation, domain-selective inhibitors.
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A solid-phase immunoassay with detection based on time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FIA) has been developed for the determination of lisinopril and enalaprilat in human serum. The immunogen was prepared by coupling lisinopril to bovine serum albumin through a two-step reaction with difluorodinitrobenzene. An antiserum specific to both lisinopril and enalaprilat was used. The assay is based on the competitive immunoassay principle in which the drug competes with biotin-labeled drug for a limited quantity of primary antibody bound via sheep anti-rabbit globulin to the wells of microtitration strips. At the end of the first incubation, the unbound biotin-labeled drug is washed away. In the second step, europium-labeled streptavidin (specific to biotin) reacts with the biotin already bound to the solid-phase antibody. After a washing step, the addition of an enhancement solution dissociates the europium ions from the labeled streptavidin into solution. The fluorescence from each sample is inversely proportional to the concentration of the drug in the sample. The assay demonstrates good accuracy, reproducibility and specificity at serum concentrations down to 0.5 ng ml-1. However, the useful concentration range of TR-FIA is much narrower than that obtained by double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA).
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Frequently reported adverse inflammatory skin and airway reactions have been reported in subjects being medicated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. Intradermally evoked wheal and flare reactions to ovalbumin, capsaicin and bradykinin, in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs, was previously demonstrated to be enhanced by pretreatment with the ACE-inhibitor MK 422 (the active parent diacid of enalapril). In vitro results from this study demonstrate that the ACE-inhibitor MK 422 degranulated guinea pig lung and skin mast cells as well as human basophils, and enhanced allergen-evoked histamine release. Local capsaicin pretreatment in vivo of guinea pig skin decreased spontaneous and allergen-triggered release of histamine in vitro from skin mast cells. No clear enhancing effect of MK 422 was seen on the allergen-triggered histamine release in vitro from capsaicin pretreated skin, and the spontaneous release was unaffected by the ACE-inhibitor. The allergen-triggered wheal and flare reaction in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs was potentiated by MK 422 and the late phase reaction of the inflammatory response was especially augmented. Capsaicin pretreatment of the guinea pigs abolished this late phase reaction as well as the inflammatory enhancing effect of MK 422. Our in vitro results from capsaicin pretreated skin indicate that the reduced inflammatory response in vivo in capsaicin pretreated skin is due not only to capsaicin induced depletion of neuropeptides from sensory nerves, but also to secondary degranulation of mast cells by one or more of these peptides.
Since one of the hypotensive mechanisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) has been suggested to be mediated through the renal kinin-prostaglandin (PG) axis, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of captopril (C) or enalapril (E) on renal PGE2 excretion or synthesis. Wistar male rats (BW 200-250 g) were given orally captopril at 30 mg/kg/day or enalapril at 10 or 30 mg/kg for one week. Before and after ACEI, blood pressure (tail cuff method) as well as PRA and urinary PGE2 excretion was determined. Renopapillary slices were obtained from some of the rats including controls and incubated to determine PGE2 synthesis. C or E administration resulted in a blood pressure decrease of 21 to 36 mm Hg with an increase in PRA. Urine volume and sodium excretion increased after daily treatment with C or E at 30 mg/kg. Urinary PGE2 excretion increased 1.4-fold in response to C, but not to E. Papillary PGE2 synthesis demonstrated a marked decrease 2 h after in vivo administration of either ACEI compared to controls. However, when C or enalaprilat was added in vitro to renal slices obtained from controls, only C at 10(-5) M showed a significant 2-fold increase in renal PGE2 synthesis. These results suggest that (1) renal PGE2 synthesis may be dependent on circulating angiotensin II. (2) C, but not enalaprilat, has a direct stimulatory effect on renal PGE2 synthesis and (3) renal PGE2 may not be involved very much in the hypotensive effect of ACEI.
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The effects of enalaprilat (MK-422), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, were compared to those of SCRIP, a renin inhibitor, in experimentally induced left ventricular failure. In anesthetized dogs, acute left ventricular failure was induced by repeated embolization, via the left main coronary artery, with 50 microns plastic microspheres. Embolization significantly increased left ventricular enddiastolic pressure from 6 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 1 (p less than 0.05) mm Hg and decreased both left ventricular maximal dP/dt (3,135 +/- 338 to 1,636 +/- 126 mm Hg/second, p less than 0.05) and cardiac output (3.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.6 +/- 0.1 liters per minute, p less than 0.05). Embolization also significantly reduced heart rate and mean arterial pressure. These parameters remained stable after induction of heart failure. Forty-five minutes after embolization, 16 dogs received enalaprilat (100 microns/kg intravenously) and six dogs received SCRIP (100 microns/kg intravenously followed by 10 microns/kg per minute). Both agents caused similar reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (21 percent versus 26 percent) and total peripheral resistance (25 percent versus 32 percent) and rise in peak positive cardiac contractility, as measured by (dP/dt)/P, (12 percent versus 11 percent). The data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin II formation by two agents, each or which acts at a different point in the cascade, results in similar beneficial hemodynamic effects in dogs with acute left ventricular failure. In addition, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition failed to further increase sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate caused by embolization. In summary, inhibition of angiotensin II production by two different inhibitors of the renin system causes an improvement in left ventricular performance in a model of acute experimental left ventricular failure.
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At 103 Scandinavian centers patients with acute myocardial infarctions and blood pressure above 100/60 mm Hg were randomly assigned to treatment with either enalapril or placebo, in addition to conventional therapy. Therapy was initiated with an intravenous infusion of enalapril (enalaprilat) within 24 hours after the onset of chest pain, followed by administration of oral enalapril.
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Captopril renography is a powerful tool for evaluating renovascular hypertension. In this article we examine four different protocols: 99mTc-DTPA, [131I]hippuran with captopril, [131I]hippuran with enalaprilat, and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). In our experience, [131I]hippuran renograms are a reliable and reproducible test in patients both with and without azotemia. Although our experience with the new 99mTc-MAG3 technique is somewhat limited, it appears that this will also be a valuable test, which additionally has several advantages over hippuran, namely, a smaller turnaround time between test and baseline study, a smaller dose of radioactivity, better images, and more accurate counts. We look forward to the future development of this technique.
We examined whether performing renal venous renin studies under stringent conditions might predict BP improvement. Patients with at least 60% RAS who underwent renal venous renin measurements in 2008-2013 were identified. Renal venous renin lateralization ratios (RVRRs) were calculated by dividing venous renin from the stenotic kidney with contralateral levels before and after stimulation with enalaprilat or captopril. Benefit was defined as BP less than 140/90 mmHg without medication, 10% decreased mean BP without increased daily defined doses (DDDs) or decreased DDD without a significant increase of mean BP.
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Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies have implicated nitric oxide as a mediator of the vascular effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). In the present study we hypothesized that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), by increasing the availability of reduced sulfhydryl groups, would enhance the antihypertensive response to the ACEIs captopril and enalaprilat by a mechanism dependent on nitric oxide. The experiments were performed on instrumented, indomethacin-pretreated, awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty minutes after a bolus of captopril (10 mg/kg iv) was administered, blood pressure decreased from 167 +/- 5 to 147 +/- 6 mmHg (n = 8). The pretreatment with the donor of thiol groups NAC (300 mg/kg iv) potentiated the depressor response to captopril because blood pressure decreased from 172 +/- 3 to 139 +/- 4 mmHg (n = 6). At the dose of 60 micrograms/kg iv, the ACEI enalaprilat did not acutely modify the blood pressure of SHRs (from 172 +/- 5 to 167 +/- 4 mmHg; n = 6). However, when the SHRs were pretreated with NAC, the same dose of enalaprilat significantly reduced blood pressure from 176 +/- 5 to 151 +/- 5 mmHg (n = 6). This potentiation of the depressor response to ACEIs, due to NAC, was not observed when SHRs were pretreated with the nitric oxide inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv). The results of this study suggest that NAC, a donor of sulfhydryl groups, potentiates the antihypertensive response to captopril and enalaprilat in SHR by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.
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Severe myocardial damage in rat occurred early after burns. Enalaprilat injection can markedly alleviate myocardial damage.
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Our data indicate that stimulation of local kinin formation by use of a precursor for kinin formation or inhibition of kinin degradation by use of ACE inhibitors increases NO formation and is important in the control of cardiac O2 consumption. Vasodilation and control of myocardial O2 consumption by NO may contribute importantly to the therapeutic actions of ACE inhibitors in cardiac disease states.
This study examines the effects of two converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril and enalaprilat) and two alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists (phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine) on the pressor response produced by exogenous angiotensin I ([Asp1, Val5, Ser9] ANG I, fowl) and [Val5] angiotensin II (ANG II) in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Bolus administration of ANG I at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 micrograms/kg; ANG II at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 micrograms/kg; or norepinephrine (NE) at 2 micrograms/kg elicited dose-dependent increases in arterial blood pressure. Captopril (0.5 mg/kg/hr) and enalaprilat (300 micrograms/kg/hr) significantly reduced the response to ANG I, but not ANG II or NE. Both phenoxybenzamine (0.25 mg/kg/min) and phentolamine (1 mg/kg/hr) effectively blocked the NE pressor response (84 and 88%, respectively) and attenuated (42-80%) the pressor effects of ANG I and ANG II. These results support previous work suggesting the alligator may possess a renin-angiotensin system with characteristics similar to those found in mammals and other vertebrates. In addition, the pressor response to exogenously administered ANG I and ANG II was attenuated by alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and thus may be due, in part, to secondary catecholamine release.
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Responses to T-kinin, a peptide formed from the acute-phase substrate T-kininogen, were investigated in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat. Under constant-flow conditions, injections of T-kinin into the perfusion circuit in doses of 0.03-1 nmol induced rapid dose-related decreases in perfusion pressure. Responses to T-kinin were similar in time course and magnitude to responses to bradykinin and kallidin and were inhibited by the kinin B2-receptor antagonist, Hoe-140. Responses to T-kinin were attenuated by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and by tetraethylammonium chloride and were enhanced in duration by the guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast. Responses to T-kinin were not altered by inhibitors of K+(ATP) channels, by the cyclooxygenase pathway, or by muscarinic or beta-adrenergic-receptor antagonists. These data suggest that vasodilator responses to T-kinin are mediated by kinin B2-receptor-stimulated release of nitric oxide from the endothelium and increased smooth muscle cGMP levels. These results indicate that activation of K+(ATP) channels and muscarinic or beta-adrenergic receptors and the release of vasodilator prostaglandins are not involved in mediating the response to T-kinin in the hindlimb circulation of the cat.