To identify the use of medicinal plants (MP) in pregnant women in primary care medicine.
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Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death.
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The isolation of jusmicranthin (1), a novel lignan from Justicia neesii, is reported. Compound 1 represents a new class of angularly fused arylnaphthalides having a gamma-hydroxylactone unit.
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Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death. A 32-year-old white caucasian male was found unresponsive in a legal poppy field in the South of Spain. The emergency medical services responded to the scene where he was pronounced dead. The friends explained that the deceased had presented with about 30min of convulsions; in spite of trying to keep his airway tract open they noted that "he stayed airless". According to them the victim suffered from epilepsy. Tools found beside his body consisted of plain wood sticks with a blade razor, a fabric handle, and paper. A comprehensive toxicological screening for abuse and psychoactive drugs was performed in the deceased samples. This included ethanol and volatile analysis by HS-GC-FID in peripheral blood and urine, enzyme immunoassay in urine by CEDIA, and a basic drug screening in all samples (including paraphernalia) by GC-MS using modes full scan for screening/confirmation and selected ion monitoring for quantitation. The peripheral blood, urine, vitreous, and gastric content contained the following concentrations of opiates expressed in mg/L (gastric content additionally also expressed in mg total): 0.10, 7.12, 0.23, and 14.80 (2.81mg total) of thebaine, 0.13, 4.50, 0.13, and 6.60 (1.25mg total) of morphine (free), 0.48, 0.88, 0.17, and 1.50 (0.28mg total) of codeine. These tree opiates were also detected in the tools (paraphernalia) used by the deceased for opium consumption. Other toxicological findings were metabolites of cocaine and cannabis. Apparently the victim stole poppy capsules and ingested an unknown quantity of the latex with the goal to obtain euphoric effects. The cause of death was considered poly-drug toxicity with a preponderant role of thebaine and morphine. In addition, the epileptic condition of the deceased could have played a role. As far as we know, there are no previous reports of fatalities occurring in legal poppy fields.
Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in MBL-null mice induced smaller infarctions, better functional outcome, and diminished C3 deposition and neutrophil infiltration than in wild-type mice. Accordingly, reconstitution of MBL-null mice with recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) enhanced brain damage. In order to investigate the clinical relevance of these experimental observations, a study of MBL2 and MASP-2 gene polymorphism rendering the lectin pathway dysfunctional was performed in 135 stroke patients. In logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and initial stroke severity, unfavourable outcome at 3 months was associated with MBL-sufficient genotype (OR 10.85, p = 0.008) and circulating MBL levels (OR 1.29, p = 0.04). Individuals carrying MBL-low genotypes (17.8%) had lower C3, C4, and CRP levels, and the proinflammatory cytokine profile was attenuated versus MBL-sufficient genotypes.
Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.
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Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation.
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A field study was carried out over a period of 1 year in Thodu hills. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews among the Kani traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through use value (UV), informant consensus factor (Fic), fidelity level (FL) and relative importance (RI).
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Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far.
The final multiple linear regression models explained 7-34% of the variance in ROCF copy scores and 21-41% of the variance in immediate recall scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on ROCF copy and immediate recall scores, none of the countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated.
An analysis was performed on 6 cross-sectional data studies in two sentinel populations of young people from the period 2007-2014. Behavioural indicators were recorded and urine specimens were collected for analysis by PCR. The prevalence and trends are described, and the variables associated with infection were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
t-tests did not show significant differences in TOMM performance between men and women in any countries of the TOMM Trial 1 or 2. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated.
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Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.
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The role of gene induction (expression of HSP72 and c-JUN proteins) and delayed ischemic cell death (in situ labeling of DNA fragmentation) have been investigated in the goat hippocampus after transient global cerebral ischemia. The animals were subjected to 20-min ischemia (bilateral occlusion of the external carotid arteries plus bilateral jugular vein compression) and allowed to reperfuse for 2 h, and then 1, 3, and 7 days. Histological signs of cell loss were not found in the hippocampus at 2 h, 1 day, or 3 days of reperfusion. However, such an ischemic insult produced extensive, selective, and delayed degeneration in the hippocampus, as 68% of the neurons in CA1 had died at 7 days, but cell loss was not detected in CA3 and dentate gyrus fields. Concomitantly, a high percentage of TUNEL-positive CA1 neurons (60+/-9%, mean +/- SEM) was seen at 7 days, but not at the earlier time points. Mild induction of HSP72 was detected in the goat hippocampus after ischemia. The maximum percentage of HSP72-positive neurons (10-15%) was shown at 3 days of reperfusion and was concentrated mainly in the CA3 field, subiculum, and hilus, rather than in the CA1 field, whereas HSP72 expression was hardly detected at 7 days. At this later time point, scattered induction of nuclear c-JUN was found in a few neurons. The results show that: 1) postischemic delayed neuronal death selectively affects the CA1 field in the goat hippocampus, a phenomenon which seems to take longer to develop than in previously reported rodent models; and 2) postischemic expression of c-JUN does not appear to be related to cell death or survival, while the inability of most CA1 neurons to express HSP72 could contribute to neuronal death.
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(a) MANCOVA revealed a significant effect for group; (b) ANCOVAs showed the highest average gains for G1 and statistically significant between-group differences in the two components of metacognition: metacognitive knowledge and self-regulation; and (c) the direction of these differences seemed to vary in each of these components.
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This study evaluates the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of J. hypocrateriformis (JH).
A method was developed for simultaneous characterization of flavonoids and their glycosides using high-pressure liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). The chromatographic separation was carried on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 2.7 µm) operated with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as the mobile phase.
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Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation. In consequence, the extension and complexity of the resulting documents disheartens their study by professionals (both jurists and geneticists) and makes a consensus very hard to reach even among the genetic experts' community. Here we propose a 'back-to-basics', example-driven approach, in which a model report for the two most common situations faced by forensic laboratories is presented. We do hope that this strategy will provide a solid basis for a stepwise generalisation.
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The analysis takes into account all suicide deaths that occurred in the Tarragona Area of the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (TA-CILMFS) between 2004 and 2012. The sources of information were the death data files of the Catalan Mortality Register, as well as the Autopsies Files of the TA-CILMFS. Suicide rates and socio-demographic profiles were statistically compared between the suicide initially reported and the final one.
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Sudden death during sports activities has a profound impact on relatives, society, and athletes. Medical screening programs usually fail to prevent sudden death. We report the characteristics of a series of sudden deaths that occurred during sports in Spain.
The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits.
The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8 g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 microg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 microg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 microg/ml).
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Chinensinaphthol methyl ether (CME) is a potential pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from the dried plants of Justicia procumbens L. (Acanthaceae). A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of CME in rat plasma using buspirone as the internal standard (IS). The analyte was extracted with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on a reverse-phase Agilent Zorbax-C18 110 Å column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 3.5 μm). Elution was achieved with a gradient mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile both containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The analytes were monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the positive ion mode were 394.5→346.0 and 386.1→122.0 for CME and IS, respectively. The assay was shown to be linear over the range of 0.50-500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.50 ng/mL. The method was shown to be reproducible and reliable with the inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within ±15%. The assay has been successfully used for pharmacokinetic evaluation of CME after intravenous and oral administration of 1.80 mg/kg CME in rats. The oral absolute bioavailability (F) of CME was estimated to be 3.2±0.2% with an elimination half-life (t½) value of 2.4±0.8h, suggesting its poor absorption and/or strong metabolism in vivo.