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At the interim analysis, 8 of 11 women delivered an asymptomatic neonate (required: ≥7). In step 2, 32 additional cases were included for a total of 43; the final number of asymptomatic neonates was 34, more than the 31 required to indicate efficacy according to the Simon 2-stage design. They remained asymptomatic at 12 months. High-dosage valacyclovir given for a median of 89 days to pregnant women carrying a moderately infected fetus was efficient at giving birth to asymptomatic neonates. Fetal blood viral loads decreased and platelet counts increased, both significantly (P = .01 and P < .001, respectively), between treatment initiation and birth after treatment completion, regardless of duration of fetal infection. Compared with a historical cohort obtained by a metaanalysis of the literature, the use of valacyclovir (8 g daily) significantly increased the proportion of asymptomatic neonates from 43% without treatment to 82% with treatment. Although the pill burden was high (16 pills a day) adherence to treatment was >90%. Finally, valacyclovir at this high dosage was extremely well tolerated.
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To summarize the randomized evidence regarding the association between acyclovir use and HIV-1 replication as measured by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2.
Valaciclovir (VAL) is the L-valyl ester of acyclovir and it is quickly hydrolysed to acyclovir. Acyclovir-related nephrotoxicity is associated with high drug infusion doses and VAL-related neurotoxicity to pre-existing renal failure. We observed two geriatric patients with normal serum creatinine who developed acute renal failure (ARF) and neurotoxicity after ingesting the drug at the conventional therapeutic dose.
Prednisolone treatment resulted in higher complete recovery rates, regardless of severity at baseline. Prednisolone treatment should be considered in all patients irrespective of degree of palsy.
Fractional resurfacing is a new concept in laser treatment designed to divide radiation into multiple evenly spaced microspots. The aim of our study was to analyze side effects and complications following fractional CO₂ laser therapy.
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Mouse models of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provide significant insights into viral and host genes that regulate disease pathogenesis, but conventional methods to determine the full extent of viral spread and replication typically require the sacrifice of infected animals. To develop a noninvasive method for detecting HSV-1 in living mice, we used a strain KOS HSV-1 recombinant that expresses firefly (Photinus pyralis) and Renilla (Renilla reniformis) luciferase reporter proteins and monitored infection with a cooled charge-coupled device camera. Viral infection in mouse footpads, peritoneal cavity, brain, and eyes could be detected by bioluminescence imaging of firefly luciferase. The activity of Renilla luciferase could be imaged after direct administration of substrate to infected eyes but not following the systemic delivery of substrate. The magnitude of bioluminescence from firefly luciferase measured in vivo correlated directly with input titers of recombinant virus used for infection. Treatment of infected mice with valacyclovir, a potent inhibitor of HSV-1 replication, produced dose-dependent decreases in firefly luciferase activity that correlated with changes in viral titers. These data demonstrate that bioluminescence imaging can be used for noninvasive, real-time monitoring of HSV-1 infection and therapy in living mice.
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We report an immunocompetent patient with recurrent auricular and facial vesicles associated with painful paresthesias and facial paralysis, consistent with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Clinical and laboratory-proven acyclovir resistance developed during therapy. Immunologic assays revealed normal reactivity to HSV-2.
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Although the suppression of viral replication is not complete, valacyclovir and acyclovir are highly effective in suppressing the frequency and quantity of genital HSV shedding.
Cytomegalovirus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant. Low doses of valacyclovir have been administered as cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in our institution for years. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of a low-dose regimen for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in heart transplant patients. Therefore, our aim was to determine the results of low doses of valacyclovir in heart transplant.
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With the US population aging steadily, herpes zoster represents a growing contributor to diminished quality of life. Dermatologic manifestations appear as immunity declines with age but rarely pose a significant threat, except in instances when ocular structures are involved. Pain is of more concern, because it usually accompanies and may even precede and persist after acute eruptions. In most young patients, pain is transient and bearable. Unfortunately, in the elderly--who are at highest risk for herpes zoster--pain is often more prolonged and more intense. In spite of a wide spectrum of interventions, palliative efforts remain rather ineffectual. At present, intervening as early as possible, ideally within 48 to 72 hours of disease onset, offers the greatest chance of minimizing neurologic sequelae. Inoculation with varicella vaccine in patients between ages 55 and 65 may prove to boost cell-mediated immunity sufficiently so that recrudescence of the varicella virus can be relegated to the annals of history.
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The incidence of varicella is low in pregnant women, and estimated around 1/1000 pregnancies. Vaccination is the cornerstone of prevention, but is contraindicated during pregnancy. Varicella is more severe in pregnant women. The risk of viral pneumonia is not increased, but VZV-associated pneumonia is usually more severe in pregnant women. Infection between 0-20 WG is associated with a 2 % risk of congenital varicella syndrome. Infection between D-5 and D+2 of delivery is associated with high risk of severe neonatal infection. Non-immune pregnant women with significant exposure to VZV require post-exposure prophylaxis with specific anti-VZV immunoglobulins that should be administered ideally within 4 days post-exposure and maximum within 10 days of exposure. Anti-VZV immunoglobulins are available in France in the context of an approved expanded access to an investigational new drug. Pregnant women with varicella should receive within 24 hours antiviral treatment based either on valaciclovir or, in case of severe infection, intravenous aciclovir. Both drugs were shown safe during pregnancy, even during the first trimester. Neonates born from mothers who developed varicella between D-5 and D+2 of delivery should also receive as soon as possible specific anti-VZV immunoglobulins.
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We included 26 trials with 2084 participants analysed. Most of the studies were conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US), and involved men and women experiencing their first episode of genital herpes, with the exception of three studies which included only women. We rated the majority of these studies as having an unclear risk of bias; largely due to lack of information supplied in the publications, and due to the age of the trials. This review found low quality evidence from two studies of oral acyclovir, when compared to placebo, reduced the duration of symptoms in individuals undergoing their first episode of genital herpes (mean difference (MD) -3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.91 to -0.54; I(2) = 52%). In two studies (112 participants), intravenous acyclovir decreased the median number of days that patients with first-episode herpes suffered symptoms. Oral valaciclovir (converted to acyclovir) also showed a similar length of symptom duration when compared to acyclovir in two studies.There is currently no evidence that topical acyclovir reduces symptoms (MD -0.61 days, 95% CI -2.16 to 0.95; 3 RCTs, 195 participants, I(2) statistic = 56%). There is also no current evidence that the topical treatments of cicloxolone cream, carbenoxolone sodium cream, adenosine arabinoside, idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide, when compared to placebo reduced the duration of symptoms in people undergoing their first episode of herpes.Two studies reported no evidence of a reduction in the number of median days to recurrence following treatment with oral acyclovir versus placebo. Adverse events were generally poorly reported by all of the included studies and we were unable to quantitatively analyse this outcome. For those taking acyclovir, there were no serious adverse events; the most common adverse events reported for oral acyclovir were coryza, dizziness, tiredness, diarrhoea and renal colic. For intravenous acyclovir these were phlebitis, nausea and abnormal liver function tests and for topical acyclovir there was pain with the topical application.Those undergoing interferon treatment had significantly more adverse events compared to those taking placebo.
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On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies.
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To search for prognostic predictors and reexamine the usefulness of electroneurography (ENoG) in predicting the prognosis of peripheral facial palsy using statistical methods.
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A wide range and combination of antiviral agents are currently used for initial and long-term treatment of ARN. Outcomes from the newer antivirals era were similar to those achieved during the acyclovir-only era. In both groups, the incidence of 20/200 or worse visual acuity was 24% per person-year (P = 0.91). The prevalence of retinal detachment was approximately 50% in each group (P = 0.59). No variables, including prophylactic laser retinopexy, were associated with risk of retinal detachment. Two patients (3.4%) developed ARN in the initially unaffected eye.
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Patients were treated with oral antiviral therapy. Medications included valacyclovir (1 g 3 times daily), oral famciclovir (500 mg 3 times daily), and topical and oral corticosteroids.
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Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), previously termed drug-related baboon syndrome, is a benign and self-limiting type IV hypersensitivity reaction characterized by symmetrical erythema involving the gluteal and intertriginous areas in the absence of systemic involvement. It may also occur in the absence of previous drug exposure.
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A decision-tree model was constructed that included the different management strategies for the donor seropositive/recipient seronegative (D+R-) population. Clinical outcomes for the D+R- population came from clinical trials. Treatment algorithms and costs for CMV syndrome and tissue invasive disease were developed from published literature and UK physician interviews. One- and 2-way sensitivity analyses were performed.
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General treatments for immunocompetent individuals with herpes simplex infections are based on the use of antiviral agents which constitute the only treatment with proven efficacy. Antivirals were developed in the 1980s with aciclovir (ACV) as the leading compound and have greatly changed management. However, once the virus has penetrated the organism, it cannot be eradicated, neither by the immune system nor by antiviral agents. This viral resistance is basically related to its capacity to maintain itself in a latent form in the sensorial ganglions. ACV is the first line treatment, used since the 1980s; other antiviral agents are also available.
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Atypical and disseminated HSV infections occur relatively often in HIV+ patients. This article discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of HSV infection in such cases.
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Enantiomeric impurity contents in each batch of products were all meet criteria of United States Pharmacopeia, which can be used in criteria of Chinese Pharmacopeia as references.
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Participants were mostly white (75%) men who have sex with men (80%). Median age was 51 (interquartile range [IQR], 47-56) years, median duration of HIV infection was 15 (IQR, 8-21) years, median CD4 count at enrollment was 520 (IQR, 392-719) cells/µL, and median nadir CD4 count was 142 (IQR, 42-240) cells/µL. Valacyclovir was not associated with significant changes in any primary or secondary immunological outcomes in bivariate or multivariable models. Medication adherence was 97% by self-report, 96% by pill count, and 84% by urine monitoring. Eight patients had adverse events deemed possibly related to the study drug (5 placebo, 1 low-dose, 2 high-dose), and 6 patients reported at least 1 HSV outbreak (3 placebo, 3 low-dose, 0 high-dose).
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The patient presented with irritable mood and grandiose delusions 72 hours after starting valacyclovir for genital herpes. Valacyclovir treatment was stopped, and risperidone was initiated.
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Seventy-eight patients were enrolled. The most common diagnoses were chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 42 patients) and T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (n = 18 patients). Before entering the study, the patients had received multiple therapies (median, three therapies) and the median time from diagnosis was 7 years. Alemtuzumab was given intravenously at doses of 3 mg, 10 mg, and 30 mg on 3 consecutive days, after which 30 mg was administered 3 times a week. Patients were treated for 4-12 weeks depending on disease response. All patients received prophylactic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and valacyclovir.
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Valacyclovir treatment is comparable to famciclovir treatment in speeding the resolution of zoster-associated pain and postherpetic neuralgia. Current wholesale prices indicate that valacyclovir is the more cost-effective treatment for herpes zoster ($83.90 vs $140.70 per course).