The objective of the research project was to investigate whether fenofibrate treatment may alter the biochemical content of the oxidized LDL and consequently its ability to impair the endothelium-dependent relaxation in hyperlipidemic patients. We hypothesized that fenofibrate treatment of hyperlipidemic patients may attenuate the ability of their oxidized LDL to impair the endothelium-dependent relaxation of the blood vessels as a consequence of fenofibrate-induced changes to the content and composition of lysoPC in the LDL molecule. Hyperlipidemic patients (Type IIb and Type IV) were recruited from the Lipid Clinic, HSC, Winnipeg, Canada, for this study. A blood sample was taken immediately after the recruitment, a second sample was taken after 6 weeks of dietary treatment, and a third sample was taken after 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment. LDL was isolated from the plasma and oxidized by copper sulfate. Fenofibrate was shown to be highly effect in the reduction of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in these patients. Fenofibrate treatment also caused the attenuation of impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation by the oxidized LDL from these patients. A slight reduction of lysophosphatidylcholine level was also found in the oxidized LDL of the fenofibrate treated patients, relative to LDL isolated after dietary treatment. In addition there were no changes in the fatty acid levels of the lysophosphatidylcholine isolated from LDL. Taken together, our results suggest that while the reduced lysophosphatidylcholine levels may contribute to the attenuated impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aortic ring, other unidentified factors impacted by fenofibrate are likely to contribute to the attenuated effects.
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Thirteen adult men had clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome that included atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose levels, or central obesity or a combination of these. They had measurements of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, postheparin lipase activities, and fasting concentrations and turnover rates of nonesterified fatty acids, as well as oral glucose tolerance testing with insulin and nonesterified fatty acid measurements. Levels of apolipoprotein C-II, C-III, and B were also measured, along with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lipoprotein species.
While gemfibrozil and fenofibrate are prescribed for anti-dyslipidemia treatment, a rational basis for the use of these drugs for treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent metabolic syndrome has not been established. In this study, wild-type and Pparα-null mice were fed gemfibrozil- or fenofibrate-containing diets for 14 days. Urine output (24 h) was monitored, and urine, serum, and liver and kidney tissues were subjected to toxicity assessment. A 2-month challenge followed by a 2-week wash-out was performed for gemfibrozil to determine urine output and the potential toxicity. A therapeutically equivalent dose of gemfibrozil was more effective than fenofibrate in increasing urine output. This regulatory effect was not observed in Pparα-null mice. In contrast, hepatomegaly induced by fenofibrate was more pronounced than that of gemfibrozil. No significant toxicity was observed in liver or kidney in the 2-month treatment with gemfibrozil. These data demonstrated PPARα mediates the increased urine output by fibrates. Considering the relative action on hepatomegaly and the regulatory effect on urine output, gemfibrozil may be the preferable drug to increase urine output. These results revealed a new pharmacodynamic effect of clinically prescribed PPARα agonists and suggested the potential value of gemfibrozil in modification of blood pressure.
Retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured for 18 days in normal glucose (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) medium and studied for the effects of FA on fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV (Coll IV) expression. During last 3 days of the experiment, 100 μM FA was added to cells grown in HG medium or in HG medium plus IL-1β (HG + IL-1β) to mimic, at least in part, the inflammatory aspect of the diabetic milieu. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine FN and Coll IV mRNA levels, whereas protein levels were assessed by Western blot analyses. Cell monolayer morphology and barrier function were analyzed by confocal microscopy using specific antibodies against tight junction proteins, ZO-1, and claudin-1 and by measuring apical-basolateral movements of FITC-dextran, respectively.
Recent studies in man and human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic animals emphasize the significance of apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoprotein in antiatherogenesis. Several drugs and other compounds, e.g. phenobarbital, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, prednisone, estrogen and alcohol, induce apolipoprotein A-I synthesis. They commonly produce serum lipoprotein patterns typical of a low risk of coronary heart disease, and many of them have been found to prevent atherogenesis, reduce coronary heart disease mortality and increase survival. These compounds act against atherosclerosis by using one or several mechanisms that include overexpression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene with an increase in serum apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoprotein and promotion of reverse cholesterol transport, upregulation of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene with a decrease in serum apolipoprotein B and low density lipoprotein, maintenance of endothelial cell function and protection against thrombosis. They have been found to raise high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I together with a decrease in cholesterol ester transfer protein activity, and to induce hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and cholesterol and bile acid elimination from the body. By raising the activities of apolipoprotein A-I/high density lipoprotein-associated paraoxonase and other antioxidative enzymes, the inducers have the capacity to prevent atherogenesis in arterial walls through inhibition of the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Other antiatherogenic vascular actions of high density lipoprotein include interference with low density lipoprotein aggregation and uptake by endothelial cells, and competition with low density lipoprotein for endothelial-localized low density lipoprotein receptors. Apolipoprotein A-I/high density lipoprotein beneficially enhances fibrinolysis, decreases platelet aggregation, increases prostacyclin production and stabilization and prevents atherogenic immune and inflammatory responses. This gene activation or microsomal induction can prevent atherosclerosis and is a basis for tailoring effective new agents and optimal non-invasive therapy against atherosclerotic vascular disease to promote health and enhance longevity.
To describe the effect of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (added to either a fibrate, or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or association of both) in patients affected by massive hypertriglyceridemia (MHTG) resistant to fibrates and PUFA.
The cultured human cardiomyocytes (HCM) were stimulated with or without ET-1. The cell size and the protein expressions of PPARα and adiponectin were tested by confocal Immunofluorescence study and Western blot, respectively. To study the effects of PPARα activation on ET-1-induced cell hypertrophy and adiponectin protein synthesis, HCM were pretreated with fenofibrate or small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PPARα. Echocardiographic parameters were measured and immunohistochemistry study of myocardial adiponectin expression was conducted in the in vivo study.
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The annual rate of stroke was 6.7 per 1000 person years; 82% were ischaemic and caused by small artery disease (36%), large artery disease (17%) and embolism from the heart (13%); 10% were haemorrhagic. Among the strongest baseline predictors of ischaemic or unknown stroke were age (60-65 years, HR 1.98; >65 years, HR 2.35) and a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (HR 2.06). Other independent baseline predictors were male sex, smoking, history of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, nephropathy, systolic blood pressure and blood low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, HbA(1c) and fibrinogen. A history of peripheral vascular disease, low high density lipoprotein, age and history of hypertension were associated with large artery ischaemic stroke. A history of diabetic retinopathy, LDL cholesterol, male sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking, diabetes duration and a history of stroke or TIA were associated with small artery ischaemic stroke.
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Hypertriglyceridaemia was induced in rats by giving them 10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks. They were then treated with atorvastatin, fenofibrate or the two agents combined for 4 weeks, and plasma triglyceride and apoAV measured. We also tested the effects of these two agents on triglycerides and apoAV in HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure apoAV and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) expression.
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Twenty five hypertriglyceridaemic patients (16 Type IV and 9 Type IIb) were treated with fenofibrate 300 mg/d. In Type IV patients serum triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol decreased, while LDL and HDL cholesterol rose significantly. In Type IIb patients, triglycerides and total, VLDL, IDL and LDL cholesterol were significantly reduced by the treatment. The correction of hypertriglyceridaemia by fenofibrate seems, therefore, to induce different changes in lipoproteins in Type IIb and in Type IV hyperlipoproteinaemic patients. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
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The incidence of coronary artery disease is greatly increased in those with diabetes mellitus. The largest number of those who have coronary artery disease have non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Lipoprotein abnormalities have been identified among the several risk factors that could account for this increase in atherosclerosis. There have been many studies demonstrating that correction of dyslipoproteinaemias will reduce the risk of coronary disease in non-diabetic populations. Current advice to those with diabetes is based on extrapolations from such studies. However, the justification for this, and the treatment targets are unclear as there has been no direct test of the lipid hypothesis in diabetes. This paper describes the protocol of the first intervention trial designed to examine directly whether correcting dyslipoproteinaemia in men and women with NIDDM will reduce their coronary artery disease. The Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS), is a multinational angiographic study using the 200 mg micronized form of fenofibrate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol.
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IMTG and SREBP-1c mRNA are high in the ZDF. FF and Rosi both improved insulin sensitivity but had opposite effects on IMTG. Thus, there was a clear discordance between insulin sensitivity and IMTG with PPAR agonists, indicating that IMTG and insulin sensitivity do not share a simple relationship.
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The aim of the current study was to evaluate a dynamic dissolution-/permeation-system for prediction of gastrointestinal and absorption-behavior of two commercial fenofibrate formulations. To this end, both dissolution and barrier-flux were followed simultaneously for fenofibrate powder, a microparticle formulation (Lipidil® 200mg) and a nanoparticle formulation (LIPIDIL 145 ONE®) using a pair of side-by side diffusion cells separated by a cellulose hydrate membrane. Under such dynamic conditions, transient supersaturation arising from the nanoparticle formulation could be demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, the dissolution-/permeation-system introduced here allowed for in-depth mechanistic insights: Biomimetic media, despite enhancing the apparent solubility of fenofibrate via micellar solubilization, did not increase permeation rate, irrespective whether the micro-/ or nanoparticle-formulation was tested. Nondissolved nano-/microparticles served as a reservoir helping to maintain high levels of molecularly dissolved drug, which in turn caused high and constant permeation rates. The micelle-bound drug may also serve as a drug-reservoir, yet of subordinate importance as long as there are nano-/microparticles present. Despite the limitations of the current experimental set-up, combined dissolution-/permeation-testing appears a valuable new tool to promote mechanistic understanding during formulation development. Last but not least, the in vitro dissolution and permeation behavior revealed here was in good qualitative agreement with human duodenal and plasma values reported in literature for the same formulations.
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Our results demonstrate that benfluorex at doses that are strongly hypotriglyceridemic does not increase hepatic peroxisomal enzyme activities, whereas fenofibrate at doses that are only slightly hypolipidemic induces a dramatic increase in the activity of these enzymes. Thus, the biochemical approach used in this study reveals that the hypolipidemic drug benfluorex does not belong to the class of hypolipidemic compounds known to induce hepatomegaly, hepatic peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinoma in rodents. Morphological studies should confirm the absence of peroxisomal induction.
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Atherogenic dyslipidemia is emerging as a target of lipid-modifying therapy. However, an optimal pharmacologic approach has not yet been established. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the typical doses of fenofibrate and niacin.
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Forty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective coronary stenting were randomized to the fenofibrate group (300 mg/day for 25 weeks, n = 22) or the control group (n = 21). At baseline and follow up, CET activity and lipoprotein profiles were measured, and quantitative coronary angiography was performed.
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Giving a fructose-enriched diet (FED) to rats for 12 wk was used as a model for inducing hepatic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Adult male albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into a control group and a FED group which was subdivided into 4 groups, a control FED, fenofibrate (FENO) (100 mg/kg), resveratrol (RES) (70 mg/kg) and combined treatment (FENO + RES) (half the doses). All treatments were given orally from the 9(th) week till the end of experimental period. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver index, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), serum and liver triglycerides (TGs), oxidative stress (liver MDA, GSH and SOD), serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. Additionally, hepatic gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and adipose tissue genes expression of leptin and adiponectin were investigated. Liver sections were taken for histopathological examination and steatosis area were determined.
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All patients received gemfibrozil 600 mg twice/day for at least 3 months before being switched to fenofibrate 201 mg/day. Patients receiving concomitant statin therapy before crossover continued the statin at the same dosage after crossover. Before crossover, a fasting lipid profile was determined and patients were queried about the side effects of lipid-lowering therapy. A repeat fasting lipid profile was obtained 12 weeks after the crossover.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) is a therapy target in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, anti-inflammatory effects of PPARα in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenofibrate, a ligand of PPARα, in ICH rat model. We found that engagement of fenofibrate increased nissl body and astrocytes, and reduced the neuronal damage, which was observed in paraffin section of ICH rat brain. Fenofibrate also promoted the proliferation of astrocytes that were isolated from adult rat brain. Fenofibrate significantly upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) at protein and mRNA levels in human glioblastoma LN-18 cells and rat brain astrocytes respectively, but nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells（NFκB） was downregulated after fenofibrate treatment. Results showed that fenofibrate-induced upregulation of HO-1 expression were inhibited after LN-18 cells were transfected with 50nM small interfering RNA（siRNAs） for 48 hours to knockdown PPARα. Further studies in rat astrocytes confirmed the rescue effects of PPARα silence against fenofibrate induced upregulation of HO-1 expression. Our data indicated that fenofibrate benefits neuronal protection through increasing HO-1 expression level and decreasing NFκB expression in PPARα-dependent manner. In conclusion, PPARα and HO-1 may function as significant targets to protect the brain during ICH.
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To investigate the curative effect of fenofibrate on rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) and its immunological mechanism.