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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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We investigated the effects of vitamin E and topiramate (TPM) administrations on pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced blood and brain toxicity in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first and second groups were used for the control and PTZ groups, respectively. Fifty or 100 mg TPM were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 7 days, respectively. The TPM and vitamin E combination was given to animals in the fifth group. At the end of 7 days, all groups except the first received a single dose of PTZ. Blood and brain samples were taken at 3 hrs after PTZ administration. Lipid peroxidation levels of plasma, erythrocyte, brain cortex and brain microsomal fraction; nitric oxide levels of serum; and the number of spikes and epileptiform discharges of the EEG were increased by PTZ administration. Plasma and brain vitamin E concentration, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and latency to first spike of the EEG were decreased by PTZ. Plasma lipid peroxidation levels in the third group and plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels in the fifth group were decreased compared to the second group, whereas brain vitamin C, vitamin E, erythrocyte GSH-Px and reduced glutathione (GSH) values increased in the fifth group. Brain microsomal GSH levels and EEG records in the third, fourth and fifth groups were restored by the TPM and vitamin E treatment. In conclusion, TPM and vitamin E seems to have protective effects on PTZ-induced blood and brain toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

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In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified patients from our clinical database of verbal fluency fMRI studies who were treated with either TPM (n = 32) or ZNS (n = 51). We matched 62 patients for clinical measures who took LEV but not TPM or ZNS. We entered antiepileptic comedications as nuisance variables and compared out-of-scanner psychometric measures for verbal fluency and working memory between groups.

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We found a correlation between BDI-II and migraine frequency for 4 weeks and 3 months prior to the initial visit (Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.335 and 0.349, respectively; p value < 0.0001 for both). There was a similar albeit weaker correlation between BDI-II vs. migraine intensity over the same periods prior to initial consultation (ρ = 0.147 and 0.170, respectively; p value < 0.0001 for both). However, there was not a significant difference in BDI-II scores for subjects with aura vs. without aura (p value = 0.12). Among those with follow-up, improvement in BDI-II correlated with a reduction in migraine frequency and intensity (p value = 0.016 and 0.089, respectively). Differences in the degree of improvement of BDI-II score in patients treated with amitriptyline vs. topiramate could not be detected (p = 0.36).

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Our meta-analysis shows that using topiramate can prevent or reduce weight gain associated with AAPs.

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Topiramate increases GABAergic activity and antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors. Through these mechanisms of action, topiramate may reduce alcohol and cocaine reward and may reduce alcohol and cocaine craving. Topiramate has been shown to reduce drinking in persons with alcohol dependence, and reduce relapse in stimulant-dependent patients. The current trial was intended to test the ability of topiramate to promote cocaine and alcohol abstinence among patients addicted to both drugs.

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Headaches are common in children and adolescents and migraine affects almost 8% of this population. As revisions are made to the ICHD-II criteria to include additional characteristics of pediatric migraine, the diagnosis of migraine is expected to increase. Therefore, it is important to understand and apply successful treatment in acute migraine. Patients and families should be educated about the options for migraine treatment that includes both pharmacologic and conservative behavioral techniques in managing headaches.

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The patients receiving topiramate < 2 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 1.2 ± 0.7 mg/kg/day) showed a reduction in the mean (±SD) of migraine frequency from 6.2 (±2.4) to 3.0 (±1.8) episodes per month, headache intensity from 7.2 (±1.95) to 3.7 (±1.8) based on the Visual Analog Scale, and headache duration from 5.4 (±2.1) to 2.2 (±1.3) h. In the patients treated with topiramate > 2 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg/day), the mean (±SD) of monthly headache frequency reduced from 6.9 (±2.1) to 3.24 (±1.2) per month, intensity from 7.11 (±1.4) to 3.14 (±2.41), and headache duration from 5.2 (±2.4) to 1.8 (±1.2) h, at the end of follow-up (P > 0.05). The most common side effects of topiramate were paresthesias (five patients), anorexia (four patients), drowsiness (four patients).

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Topiramate is an important option for the prophylaxis of migraine and is of proven efficacy and tolerability. It has also been studied in chronic migraine with encouraging results, even in patients with medication overuse. However, in migraine prevention its efficacy is comparable to the other first-line drugs and there are no published trials with a superiority design which can establish topiramate's role in the available therapeutic armamentarium.

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TPM is effective in newly diagnosed patients with FLE; TPM can be considered for the treatment of FLE.

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We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to abort cluster headache? What are the effects of interventions to prevent cluster headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

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A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications.

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Growing evidence suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be useful in managing some eating disorders. In the present paper, we provide a brief overview of eating disorders, the rationale for using AEDs in the treatment of these disorders and review the data supporting the effectiveness of specific AEDs in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of AEDs in these conditions are discussed. Of the available AEDs, topiramate appears to have the broadest spectrum of action as an anti-binge eating, anti-purging and weight loss agent, as demonstrated in two placebo-controlled studies in bulimia nervosa and three placebo-controlled studies in binge-eating disorder (BED) with obesity. Topiramate may also have beneficial effects in night-eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder, but controlled trials in these conditions are needed. The results of one small controlled study suggest that zonisamide may have efficacy in BED with obesity. However, both topiramate and zonisamide are associated with adverse effect profiles that may limit their use in patients with eating disorders. Phenytoin may be effective in some patients with compulsive binge eating, particularly if co-morbid EEG abnormalities are present, but available data are too varied to allow definitive conclusions to be made. Carbamazepine and valproate may be effective in treating patients with bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa when they are used to treat an associated psychiatric (e.g. mood) or neurological (e.g. seizure) disorder; otherwise, both agents, particularly valproate, are associated with weight gain. In conclusion, AEDs have an emerging role in the management of some eating disorders.

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To investigate the changes of clinical and EEG features in children with febrile seizures which are prone to epilepsy four years after antiepileptic drugs valproate and/or topiramate treatment.

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Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting more than one third of adults in the US. Two medication products, lorcaserin and phenter mine/topiramate, have recently received FDA approval as adjuncts to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity among individuals with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) or greater than or equal to 27 kg/m(2) with an obesity-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 5-HT2C agonist that regulates food intake, while the combination of phentermine/topiramate causes appetite suppression and enhanced satiety. Three Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials reported approximately 75% and 45% of patients achieved greater than or equal to 5% weight loss with phentermine/topiramate and lorcaserin, respectively.

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Preconception counseling should include discussion of neurodevelopmental outcomes for specific treatments and their doses and women should be made aware of the limited nature of the evidence base for newer antiepileptic drugs.

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Following a 7-10 day inpatient alcohol detoxification protocol, 90 patients were assigned to receive either topiramate (up to 75 mg per day) in addition to psychotherapeutic treatment (n = 30) or psychotherapy alone (n = 60). Symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as craving, were monitored for 4-6 weeks immediately following detoxification on an inpatient basis. Thereafter, both groups were followed as outpatients at a weekly basis for another 4 months in order to monitor their course and abstinence from alcohol.

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Data were reviewed from placebo-controlled adjunctive trials in refractory patients of gabapentin (GPN), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TOP), tiagabine (TGB), oxcarbazepine (OXC), levetiracetam (LEV), zonisamide (ZNS), and pregabalin (PGB). Seizure-freedom analyses in these publications, if included at all, consistently included both patients who completed the trial, and those who dropped out prior to completion (last observation carried forward, LOCF). This has the potential to increase reported seizure-free outcomes. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted for the provision of unpublished seizure-free data in the patients who completed the entire study.

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Vestibular migraine is considered to be the second most common cause of vertigo and the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo. The duration of attacks varies from seconds to days, usually lasting minutes to hours, and they mostly occur independently of headaches. Long-lasting individual attacks are treated with generic antivertiginous and antiemetic drugs. Specific antimigraine drugs are unlikely to be very effective for rescue. The mainstay of the management of vestibular migraine is prophylactic medication. To date, there are no controlled trials available; the body of knowledge builds on case series and retrospective or observational studies. Most drugs are also used for the prevention of migraine headaches. The choice of medication should be guided by its side effect profile and the comorbidities of patients. Betablockers such as propanolol or metoprolol are preferred in patients with hypertension but in the absence of asthma. Anticonvulsants include topiramate when patients are obese, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is preferred if vertigo is more frequent than headaches. Calcium antagonists include verapamil and flunarizine. If patients have anxiety, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline or nortryptiline or SSRIs and benzodiazepines such as clonazepam are recommended. Acetazolamide is effective in rare genetic disorders related to migraine-like episodic ataxia; however, its place in vestibular migraine is still to be established. Nonpharmacological measures such as diet, sleep, hygiene and avoidance of triggers are recommended as they are for migraine. Vestibular rehabilitation might be useful when there are complications such as loss of confidence in balance or visual dependence.

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The reporting of renal function quantification methods, and associated dosage recommendations, in PI requires standardisation to ensure optimal drug dosing. Regularly updating of PI is also necessary.

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De novo KCNQ2 mutations are involved in EOEE, most of which cases were diagnosed as Ohtahara syndrome. These cases showed distinct features with early neonatal onset, tonic seizures, a suppression-burst EEG pattern, infrequent evolution to West syndrome, and good response to sodium channel blockers, but poor developmental prognosis. Genetic testing for KCNQ2 should be considered for patients with EOEE.

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The presence of word-finding difficulties seems to be a titration schedule independent phenomenon that occurs in a subgroup of patients with a specific biologic vulnerability.

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To examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine, valproic acid (V), phenytoin (P), or topiramate (T) use compared to nonuse in the outpatient setting among older adults.

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All doses of 50, 100, and 200mg were shown effective in preventing olanzapine-related obesity in schizophrenic and/or bipolar patients.

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The reduction in body weight gain induced by TPM in both lean and obese rats reflected a decrease in total body energy gain, which was more evident in obese than in lean rats. Whereas TPM administration did not influence the intake of digestible energy in lean rats, it induced a reduction in food intake in obese animals. In lean, but not in obese rats, apparent energy expenditure (as calculated by the difference between energy intake and energy gain) was higher in rats treated with TPM than in animals administered the vehicle. The low dose of TPM decreased fat gain (with emphasis on subcutaneous fat) without affecting protein gain, whereas the high dose of the drug induced a reduction in both fat and protein gains. The effects of TPM on muscle and fat depot weights were representative of the global effects of TPM on whole body fat and protein gains. The calculated energetic efficiency (energy gain/energy intake) was decreased in both lean and obese rats after TPM treatment. TPM dose independently reduced hyperinsulinemia of obese rats, but it did not alter insulinemia of lean animals.

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At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 125 studies. After deduplication, 77 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 56 studies and the further review of 21 full publications. Of the 21 full articles evaluated, three systematic reviews and one RCT were included at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 15 PICO combinations.

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topamax 30 mg 2016-03-01

Before topiramate treatment, SSRI-treated subjects in this sample had gained a mean of 13.0 +/- 8.4 kg (28.6 +/- 18.5 lb). After the addition of a mean dose of 135.0 +/- 44.1 mg/day of topiramate for approximately 10 weeks, subjects lost a mean of buy topamax 4.2 +/- 6.0 kg (9.3 +/- 13.3 lb).

topamax 400 mg 2016-11-05

The quality of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) data was generally poor. For each of the epilepsy subtypes considered in RCTs identified for this review (partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalisation, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, absence epilepsy and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes), there is some evidence from placebo-controlled trials that the newer agents tested are of some value in the treatment of these conditions. Where active controls have been used, the limited buy topamax evidence available does not indicate a difference in effectiveness between newer and older drugs. The data are not sufficient to inform a prescribing strategy for any of the newer agents in any of these conditions. In particular, there is no clinical evidence to suggest that the newer agents should be considered as a first-choice treatment in any form of epilepsy in children. Annual drug costs of the newer agents ranges from around 400 pound to 1200 pound, depending on age and concomitant medications. An AED that is ineffective or has intolerable side-effects will only be used for a short period of time, and many patients achieving seizure freedom will successfully withdraw from drug treatment without relapsing. The results of the decision-analytic model do not suggest that the use of the newer agents in any of the scenarios considered is clearly cost-effective but, similarly, do not indicate that they are clearly not cost-effective.

topamax generic 2017-04-14

This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, 52-wk extension study; volunteers at selected sites continued with original randomly assigned treatment [placebo, 7.5 mg phentermine/ buy topamax 46 mg controlled-release topiramate (7.5/46), or 15 mg phentermine/92 mg controlled-release topiramate (15/92)] to complete a total of 108 wk. All subjects participated in a lifestyle-modification program.

topamax medication uses 2016-01-20

This was a 26-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group noninferiority study. Adults with 3 to 12 migraines per month were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive buy topamax an initial dose of 25 mg/d of either topiramate or amitriptyline, subsequently titrated to a maximum of 100 mg/d (or the maximum tolerated dose). The primary efficacy outcome was the change from prospective baseline in the mean monthly number of migraine episodes. Secondary efficacy variables included changes from the prospective baseline phase to the end of the double-blind phase in the mean monthly (28-day) rate of days with migraine, mean monthly rate of days with headache (migraine and nonmigraine), mean monthly rate of acute abortive medication use, mean monthly migraine duration, and mean monthly migraine severity. Additional secondary efficacy variables included changes in the mean monthly severity of migraine-associated symptoms (photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea), change in the mean monthly frequency f migraine-associated vomiting, and response rates (based on monthly migraine days and total headache days). The Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Weight Satisfaction Scale Questionnaire, which measures subjective satisfaction with current weight, were administered. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were monitored through the end of double-blind treatment.

topamax 800 mg 2015-05-08

Two hundred five subjects participated in this open-label extension study (118 buy topamax formerly treated with topiramate and 87 who formerly received placebo). The groups did not differ in baseline demographics or disease characteristics. One hundred twenty-four (60.5%) subjects (68.6% of former topiramate recipients and 49.4% of former placebo recipients) completed the extension study; the most common reason for discontinuation was an AE (27.3% of subjects). AEs among subjects who received > or =1 dose of topiramate (n = 298) included upper respiratory tract infection (16.1%), anorexia (15.1%), diarrhea (12.8%), nausea (12.8%), paresthesia (10.7%), and headache (10.1%). Baseline pain scores were lower in those formerly treated with topiramate (n = 117) than in the former placebo group (n = 86) (PVA: 43.3 vs 52.5, P = 0.014; worst pain: 1.9 vs 2.5, P < 0.001; current pain: 1.6 vs 1.9, P = 0.026; sleep disruption: 3.6 vs 4.6, P = 0.021). At the final visit, PVA, current pain, and sleep disruption scores were not significantly different between the former topiramate and former placebo groups, but worst pain differed significantly (1.4 vs 1.8; P = 0.025). Mean weight loss from the start of topiramate therapy was 5.2 and 5.3 kg in the former topiramate and former placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001 vs baseline). Mean HbA(1c) values before and after topiramate treatment were 7.7% and 7.4%, respectively, in the former topiramate group (P = 0.004 vs baseline), and 7.6% and 7.1%, respectively, in the former placebo group (P < 0.001 vs baseline).

topamax headache medicine 2017-02-25

Due to its AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)/kainate antagonism, topiramate would be buy topamax particularly interesting in addiction treatment. Flexible-dose topiramate was prescribed to 13 smokers (10 smokers who wanted to stop smoking, and three who received topiramate for other reasons). Six out of 13 smokers were abstinent at 2 months and two more subjects had reduced their cigarette consumption by >50%. With one exception, temporary reduction of the number of smoked cigarettes preceded definitive abstinence at month 2. Three more subjects who achieved a momentary reduction had, however, to interrupt the treatment due to intolerable side-effects. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

topamax 100mg medication 2017-12-14

Of the 46 pregabalin-treated buy topamax patients, the mean monthly headache frequency significantly decreased from 21.8 ± 4.8 (T0) to 5.1 ± 3.8 (T2), and the monthly number of days with medication intake decreased from 15.1 ± 4.8 (T0) to 2.9 ± 1.9 (T2). Similarly, of the 42 topiramate-treated patients, the mean monthly headache frequency decreased from 21.8 ± 4.9 (T0) to 5.3 ± 3.5 (T2), and the mean monthly number of days with medication intake decreased from 15.1 ± 3.7 (T0) to 2.6 ± 1.5 (T2). A significant improvement of disability score was reported in both groups.

topamax sprinkle capsules 2016-12-07

Comorbid chronic sleepwalking with night eating syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder were treated with topiramate for eight months in an obese 40-year-old woman. buy topamax Central nervous system side effects of word-finding and memory difficulties were managed with dosage adjustments to a final dose of 100 mg HS. Treatment led to resolution of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, night eating episodes, and sleepwalking episodes, with a weight loss of 70 pounds.

topamax 100 mg 2017-10-06

Migraine is a significant problem for many children. Topiramate has been suggested to be effective for the prophylaxis of migraine in adults, but has not yet been examined in children. The drug has been demonstrated to be safe and effective for childhood seizure disorders. The buy topamax objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of topiramate for the prevention of pediatric migraine.

topamax 25 mg 2016-08-25

OBJECTIVE To evaluate over 108 weeks the effect of phentermine and topiramate extended release (PHEN/TPM ER) treatment on progression to type 2 diabetes and/or cardiometabolic disease in subjects with prediabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subanalysis of a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥27 to ≤45 kg/m(2)) with two or more comorbidities. Subjects were randomized to placebo, PHEN 7.5 mg/TPM ER 46 mg (7.5/46), or PHEN 15 mg/TPM ER 92 mg (15/92) plus lifestyle modifications for 108 weeks. Percent weight loss in the intent-to-treat population using multiple imputation (ITT-MI), annualized incidence rate of progression to type 2 diabetes, and changes in glycemia, lipid parameters, blood pressure, and waist circumference were evaluated. RESULTS At baseline, 475 subjects met the criteria for prediabetes and/or MetS. After 108 weeks, subjects with prediabetes and/or MetS in the placebo, 7.5/46, and 15/92 groups experienced mean percent weight loss of 2.5, 10.9, and 12.1%, respectively (ITT-MI; P < 0.0001 vs. placebo), associated with reductions of 70.5 and 78.7% in the annualized incidence rate of type 2 diabetes for those receiving 7.5/46 and 15/92, respectively (ITT, P < 0.05), versus placebo. The ability of PHEN/TPM ER to prevent diabetes was related to degree of weight lost and was accompanied by significant improvements in cardiometabolic parameters. PHEN/TPM ER was well tolerated by this subgroup over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS PHEN/TPM ER plus lifestyle modification produced buy topamax significant weight loss and markedly reduced progression to type 2 diabetes in overweight/obese patients with prediabetes and/or MetS, accompanied by improvements in multiple cardiometabolic disease risk factors.

topamax y alcohol 2016-01-09

To provide prospective, longitudinal evidence of the effects of topiramate, an antiepileptic medication prescribed buy topamax for migraine headaches, on stone-risk factors, specifically as pertaining to dosing and rapidity of onset.

topamax alcohol addiction 2016-01-14

Evidence does not currently support the use of topiramate to improve treatment retention for cocaine use disorder, although it may extend cocaine buy topamax abstinence with a similar risk of adverse events compared with placebo.

topamax generic topiramate 2017-01-12

Median PDDs in samples within the therapeutic range (in mg) in mono-/polytherapy were as follows (DDDs in parenthesis): carbamazepine 600/800 (1,000), clonazepam 2.0/2.0 (8), phenytoin 300/300 (300), ethosuximide -/1000 (1,250), lamotrigine 250/200 (300), phenobarbital -/200 (100), primidone 500/625 (1,250), topiramate -/300 (300), valproic acid 750/1,000 (1,500). Median PDDs in polytherapy with antiepileptics not analyzed for TDM were: gabapentin 900 (1,800), levetiracetam 1,500 (1,500), vigabatrin 1,500 (2,000 buy topamax ).

topamax max dose 2017-07-30

This study examined the effects of topiramate (TPM) on glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in mononuclear leukocytes of nine men and four women with chronic and recurring post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a Levitra Tablets group of comparison subjects (nine men, four women). A measure of 60 ml of blood was withdrawn by venipuncture at 0800 and mononuclear leukocytes were isolated. The cells were incubated with a series of concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) without or with 50 micromol/l of TPM to evaluate the effects of DEX to inhibit lysozyme activity and the effect of TPM on it. ANCOVA compared the IC(50) for lysozyme inhibition under conditions of DEX only and TPM+DEX. TPM affected lysozyme IC(50) in the direction of increasing the sensitivity of the receptor in the sample as a whole. This effect was more pronounced in the mononuclear leukocytes from participants in the PTSD group, particularly in cells from subjects whose pretreatment lysozyme IC(50) was relatively higher (eg, reflecting decreased glucococorticoid receptor responsiveness), compared to the rest of the sample. In conclusion, further investigation of the actions of TPM on GR and other neuroendocrine systems may prove useful in understanding some of the other established clinical effects of this agent.

topamax overdose symptoms 2017-12-28

Overall, IED effects Zoloft Generic Dosage on cognition were of a magnitude similar to lesional influences or drug effects (topiramate use). This study demonstrates an association between IEDs and cognitive dysfunction, independent of the underlying focal brain pathology.

topamax xr dosage 2015-03-18

A spinal tap revealed an increased protein content of 1581 mg/L on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, being compatible with a rupture of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). UBM exposed bilateral ciliochoroidal effusions with secondary angle-closure. Topiramate was promptly discontinued, whereas Buy Vantin Online visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and anterior and posterior segments anatomy normalized within 1 week. One month later, bilateral iris atrophy was present.

topamax alcohol reviews 2015-11-01

None of the tested AEDs influenced 3beta HSDII or P450c17 activities at concentrations normally used in Trandate Iv Dose AED therapy. However, VPA started to inhibit 3beta HSDII activity at concentrations 3 times above the typical reference serum unbound concentration. Because inhibition of 3beta HSDII activity will shift steroidogenesis toward C19 steroid production when P450c17 activities are unchanged, very high doses of VPA may promote C19 steroid biosynthesis, thus resembling PCOS. CBZ, TPM, and LTG influenced 3beta HSDII and P450c17 only at toxic concentrations.

topamax reviews migraine 2015-11-26

Peripheral neuropathies are extremely heterogeneous nosological entities. One of the most common symptoms is pain, the underlying mechanisms of which are numerous and complex. Inflammation, reparative processes, and anatomical and gene expression alterations lead to chronic pain, the persistence of which is sustained by peripheral and central sensitisation mechanisms. Treatment of Bactrim 960 Dosage peripheral neuropathies is targeted to its symptomatic and aetiological features. For pain relief, several types of drugs may be used, notably antidepressants (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and both serotonin and noradrenaline [norepinephrine] reuptake inhibitors), antiepileptic drugs (e.g. carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, valproic acid, gabapentin, topiramate and pregabalin), NSAIDs and opioid analgesics. Aetiological therapy is aimed at modifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the neuropathy, some of which are common in different neuropathic conditions. Certain drugs are known to exert more than one action on different pathophysiological mechanisms. This is the case with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), which can be considered both a symptomatic therapy that can be used in any kind of painful neuropathy, and an aetiological therapy, at least in diabetic neuropathy and neuropathies induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. ALC acts via several mechanisms, inducing regeneration of injured nerve fibres, reducing oxidative stress, supporting DNA synthesis in mitochondria, and enhancing nerve growth factor concentrations in neurons.

topamax alcohol dependence 2017-03-21

This is a long-term, open label, observational study aimed to broaden our clinical experiences in managing infants and toddlers with epilepsy. The long-term retention rate and side effects of topiramate (TPM) in them were evaluated and compared with carbamazepine (CBZ). A total of 146 children were involved in the study (TPM=41, CBZ=105). The retention rates at 24 , 36, and 48 months were 46.3%, 34.1%, 26.8% for TPM and 36.2%, 23.8%, 13.3% for CBZ, respectively. At 6 months after starting antiepileptic drugs (AED), the seizure freedom or clinical efficacy (seizure reduction rate more than 50 percent) were 73.2% for TPM and 62.9% for CBZ. The major side effects led to discontinuation included psychomotor slowing, poor oral intake from TPM and sleepiness and skin rash from CBZ. TPM was discontinued due to side effects in one case (2.4%) and lack of efficacy in five cases (12.2%), whereas CBZ was discontinued due to lack of Zyrtec Infant Dosage efficacy (22.9%) and side effects (6.7%). As compared with CBZ, TPM showed the same long-term retention rate in children under the age of 2 yr, and no serious side effects. It is therefore concluded that TPM can be considered as a major AED for treating children with epilepsy under the age of 2 yr.

topamax topiramate medication 2017-02-25

Executive dysfunction assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test has been observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); however, the mechanism of executive impairment is unclear. We therefore investigated the potential contribution of the hippocampus toward executive dysfunction in 85 mesial TLE patients, and in a control group of 34 patients with neocortical TLE. Standardized regression-based methodology was used for correcting test-retest bias. We found that 56% of mesial TLE patients had impaired sorting performance, with 30% showing severe impairment. A lower full-scale intelligence quotient, older age, longer duration, and preoperative use of topiramate were significantly correlated with poorer preoperative sorting abilities. However, neither these variables nor postoperative discontinuation/reduction of topiramate were related to postoperative changes in sorting abilities. Only preoperative sorting abilities were negatively correlated with postoperative changes in executive performance. That is, patients with better preoperative executive ability showed greater postoperative deterioration in executive function Aldactone Drug Uses , whereas those with poorer preoperative sorting ability had greater improvement in executive function after mesial temporal resection. There were no differences in card sorting ability between the mesial and neocortical TLE groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that impairment of card sorting performance in the mesial TLE group cannot be explained only by hippocampal dysfunction, but that other processes (possibly epileptic discharges propagated to the extratemporal area) must play a predominant role.

topamax user reviews 2017-05-26

A total of 735 patients with migraine who had started prophylactic treatment were considered valid for the analysis. The patients reported an average of 9.7 days with migraine in the previous month, 32% of the episodes lasting more than 24 hours. Half of the patients referred working or home disability due to migraine with a total average score of 15. Flagyl 50 Mg 1 on the disability scale (grade III). A 48% of the patients had previously received prophylactic treatment, the medications most commonly prescribed being flunarizine, propranolol and amitriptyline. At the study visit, the most commonly prescribed medications were topiramate, flunarizine, propranolol, and amitriptyline.

topamax pills 2017-04-19

We previously demonstrated that converting patients from the enzyme-inducers phenytoin or carbamazepine to the non-inducers levetiracetam or lamotrigine reduces serum Cymbalta Bad Drug lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP). We sought to determine if the same changes would occur when patients were switched to topiramate, which has shown some evidence of enzyme induction at high doses. We also examined the effects of drug switch on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle concentration.

topamax 5 mg 2015-06-22

A 61-year-old woman with significant cardiovascular disease was started on topiramate 25 mg daily for lower extremity neuropathy. After 7 days of treatment, she began to experience severe, intractable epistaxis that lasted 8 days, warranting an ED visit. The epistaxis resolved 1 week after topiramate discontinuation. Topiramate was restarted 3 months later, and the patient again developed intractable epistaxis. After 2 days of epistaxis, she returned to the ED with significant anginal pain and was admitted to the hospital, where she received 2 units of packed red blood cells. One week after stopping topiramate, the epistaxis stopped. At the time of writing, she had exhibited no epistaxis for 6 months. According Ponstel Capsule to the Naranjo probability scale, topiramate was the probable cause of epistaxis.

topamax drug abuse 2017-03-07

A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using efficacy data from three recent, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs studied for migraine prevention and cost data. Two measures of cost-effectiveness were used: cost per headache prevented and the cost-equivalent number.

topamax alcohol cravings 2016-02-03

When topiramate and valproate sodium are used for six weeks as adjunctive treatment to a combination of Li+Ris, they act alike on lipid milieu of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Both Li+Ris/Valproate and Li+Ris/Topiramate therapies can lead to an increase in BMI z-score. This increase is statistically significant with Li+Ris/Valproate therapy. This suggests that topiramate could attenuate the ongoing weight gain from lithium and risperidone. In this study, the majority of participants who gained weight were those with BMI less than 85th percentile. This suggests that normal weight patients may have greater weight gain potential than overweight/obese patients.High proportion of metabolic abnormalities among the patients at baseline, which remained elevated throughout the trial, warrants cardiometabolic monitoring in this population.

topamax missed dose 2015-07-22

Among live-born infants in Denmark, first-trimester exposure to lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, gabapentin, or levetiracetam compared with no exposure was not associated with an increased risk of major birth defects.

topamax 25mg reviews 2016-01-29

To assess the impact of topiramate on the daily activities of patients with migraine.