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We investigated the effects of vitamin E and topiramate (TPM) administrations on pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced blood and brain toxicity in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first and second groups were used for the control and PTZ groups, respectively. Fifty or 100 mg TPM were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 7 days, respectively. The TPM and vitamin E combination was given to animals in the fifth group. At the end of 7 days, all groups except the first received a single dose of PTZ. Blood and brain samples were taken at 3 hrs after PTZ administration. Lipid peroxidation levels of plasma, erythrocyte, brain cortex and brain microsomal fraction; nitric oxide levels of serum; and the number of spikes and epileptiform discharges of the EEG were increased by PTZ administration. Plasma and brain vitamin E concentration, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and latency to first spike of the EEG were decreased by PTZ. Plasma lipid peroxidation levels in the third group and plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation levels in the fifth group were decreased compared to the second group, whereas brain vitamin C, vitamin E, erythrocyte GSH-Px and reduced glutathione (GSH) values increased in the fifth group. Brain microsomal GSH levels and EEG records in the third, fourth and fifth groups were restored by the TPM and vitamin E treatment. In conclusion, TPM and vitamin E seems to have protective effects on PTZ-induced blood and brain toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and supporting the antioxidant redox system.
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In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified patients from our clinical database of verbal fluency fMRI studies who were treated with either TPM (n = 32) or ZNS (n = 51). We matched 62 patients for clinical measures who took LEV but not TPM or ZNS. We entered antiepileptic comedications as nuisance variables and compared out-of-scanner psychometric measures for verbal fluency and working memory between groups.
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We found a correlation between BDI-II and migraine frequency for 4 weeks and 3 months prior to the initial visit (Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.335 and 0.349, respectively; p value < 0.0001 for both). There was a similar albeit weaker correlation between BDI-II vs. migraine intensity over the same periods prior to initial consultation (ρ = 0.147 and 0.170, respectively; p value < 0.0001 for both). However, there was not a significant difference in BDI-II scores for subjects with aura vs. without aura (p value = 0.12). Among those with follow-up, improvement in BDI-II correlated with a reduction in migraine frequency and intensity (p value = 0.016 and 0.089, respectively). Differences in the degree of improvement of BDI-II score in patients treated with amitriptyline vs. topiramate could not be detected (p = 0.36).
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Our meta-analysis shows that using topiramate can prevent or reduce weight gain associated with AAPs.
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Topiramate increases GABAergic activity and antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors. Through these mechanisms of action, topiramate may reduce alcohol and cocaine reward and may reduce alcohol and cocaine craving. Topiramate has been shown to reduce drinking in persons with alcohol dependence, and reduce relapse in stimulant-dependent patients. The current trial was intended to test the ability of topiramate to promote cocaine and alcohol abstinence among patients addicted to both drugs.
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Headaches are common in children and adolescents and migraine affects almost 8% of this population. As revisions are made to the ICHD-II criteria to include additional characteristics of pediatric migraine, the diagnosis of migraine is expected to increase. Therefore, it is important to understand and apply successful treatment in acute migraine. Patients and families should be educated about the options for migraine treatment that includes both pharmacologic and conservative behavioral techniques in managing headaches.
The patients receiving topiramate < 2 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 1.2 ± 0.7 mg/kg/day) showed a reduction in the mean (±SD) of migraine frequency from 6.2 (±2.4) to 3.0 (±1.8) episodes per month, headache intensity from 7.2 (±1.95) to 3.7 (±1.8) based on the Visual Analog Scale, and headache duration from 5.4 (±2.1) to 2.2 (±1.3) h. In the patients treated with topiramate > 2 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg/day), the mean (±SD) of monthly headache frequency reduced from 6.9 (±2.1) to 3.24 (±1.2) per month, intensity from 7.11 (±1.4) to 3.14 (±2.41), and headache duration from 5.2 (±2.4) to 1.8 (±1.2) h, at the end of follow-up (P > 0.05). The most common side effects of topiramate were paresthesias (five patients), anorexia (four patients), drowsiness (four patients).
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Topiramate is an important option for the prophylaxis of migraine and is of proven efficacy and tolerability. It has also been studied in chronic migraine with encouraging results, even in patients with medication overuse. However, in migraine prevention its efficacy is comparable to the other first-line drugs and there are no published trials with a superiority design which can establish topiramate's role in the available therapeutic armamentarium.
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TPM is effective in newly diagnosed patients with FLE; TPM can be considered for the treatment of FLE.
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We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to abort cluster headache? What are the effects of interventions to prevent cluster headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
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A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications.
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Growing evidence suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be useful in managing some eating disorders. In the present paper, we provide a brief overview of eating disorders, the rationale for using AEDs in the treatment of these disorders and review the data supporting the effectiveness of specific AEDs in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of AEDs in these conditions are discussed. Of the available AEDs, topiramate appears to have the broadest spectrum of action as an anti-binge eating, anti-purging and weight loss agent, as demonstrated in two placebo-controlled studies in bulimia nervosa and three placebo-controlled studies in binge-eating disorder (BED) with obesity. Topiramate may also have beneficial effects in night-eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder, but controlled trials in these conditions are needed. The results of one small controlled study suggest that zonisamide may have efficacy in BED with obesity. However, both topiramate and zonisamide are associated with adverse effect profiles that may limit their use in patients with eating disorders. Phenytoin may be effective in some patients with compulsive binge eating, particularly if co-morbid EEG abnormalities are present, but available data are too varied to allow definitive conclusions to be made. Carbamazepine and valproate may be effective in treating patients with bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa when they are used to treat an associated psychiatric (e.g. mood) or neurological (e.g. seizure) disorder; otherwise, both agents, particularly valproate, are associated with weight gain. In conclusion, AEDs have an emerging role in the management of some eating disorders.
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To investigate the changes of clinical and EEG features in children with febrile seizures which are prone to epilepsy four years after antiepileptic drugs valproate and/or topiramate treatment.
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Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting more than one third of adults in the US. Two medication products, lorcaserin and phenter mine/topiramate, have recently received FDA approval as adjuncts to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity among individuals with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) or greater than or equal to 27 kg/m(2) with an obesity-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 5-HT2C agonist that regulates food intake, while the combination of phentermine/topiramate causes appetite suppression and enhanced satiety. Three Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials reported approximately 75% and 45% of patients achieved greater than or equal to 5% weight loss with phentermine/topiramate and lorcaserin, respectively.
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Preconception counseling should include discussion of neurodevelopmental outcomes for specific treatments and their doses and women should be made aware of the limited nature of the evidence base for newer antiepileptic drugs.
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Following a 7-10 day inpatient alcohol detoxification protocol, 90 patients were assigned to receive either topiramate (up to 75 mg per day) in addition to psychotherapeutic treatment (n = 30) or psychotherapy alone (n = 60). Symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as craving, were monitored for 4-6 weeks immediately following detoxification on an inpatient basis. Thereafter, both groups were followed as outpatients at a weekly basis for another 4 months in order to monitor their course and abstinence from alcohol.
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Data were reviewed from placebo-controlled adjunctive trials in refractory patients of gabapentin (GPN), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TOP), tiagabine (TGB), oxcarbazepine (OXC), levetiracetam (LEV), zonisamide (ZNS), and pregabalin (PGB). Seizure-freedom analyses in these publications, if included at all, consistently included both patients who completed the trial, and those who dropped out prior to completion (last observation carried forward, LOCF). This has the potential to increase reported seizure-free outcomes. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted for the provision of unpublished seizure-free data in the patients who completed the entire study.
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Vestibular migraine is considered to be the second most common cause of vertigo and the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo. The duration of attacks varies from seconds to days, usually lasting minutes to hours, and they mostly occur independently of headaches. Long-lasting individual attacks are treated with generic antivertiginous and antiemetic drugs. Specific antimigraine drugs are unlikely to be very effective for rescue. The mainstay of the management of vestibular migraine is prophylactic medication. To date, there are no controlled trials available; the body of knowledge builds on case series and retrospective or observational studies. Most drugs are also used for the prevention of migraine headaches. The choice of medication should be guided by its side effect profile and the comorbidities of patients. Betablockers such as propanolol or metoprolol are preferred in patients with hypertension but in the absence of asthma. Anticonvulsants include topiramate when patients are obese, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is preferred if vertigo is more frequent than headaches. Calcium antagonists include verapamil and flunarizine. If patients have anxiety, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline or nortryptiline or SSRIs and benzodiazepines such as clonazepam are recommended. Acetazolamide is effective in rare genetic disorders related to migraine-like episodic ataxia; however, its place in vestibular migraine is still to be established. Nonpharmacological measures such as diet, sleep, hygiene and avoidance of triggers are recommended as they are for migraine. Vestibular rehabilitation might be useful when there are complications such as loss of confidence in balance or visual dependence.
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The reporting of renal function quantification methods, and associated dosage recommendations, in PI requires standardisation to ensure optimal drug dosing. Regularly updating of PI is also necessary.
De novo KCNQ2 mutations are involved in EOEE, most of which cases were diagnosed as Ohtahara syndrome. These cases showed distinct features with early neonatal onset, tonic seizures, a suppression-burst EEG pattern, infrequent evolution to West syndrome, and good response to sodium channel blockers, but poor developmental prognosis. Genetic testing for KCNQ2 should be considered for patients with EOEE.
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The presence of word-finding difficulties seems to be a titration schedule independent phenomenon that occurs in a subgroup of patients with a specific biologic vulnerability.
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To examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine, valproic acid (V), phenytoin (P), or topiramate (T) use compared to nonuse in the outpatient setting among older adults.
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All doses of 50, 100, and 200mg were shown effective in preventing olanzapine-related obesity in schizophrenic and/or bipolar patients.
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The reduction in body weight gain induced by TPM in both lean and obese rats reflected a decrease in total body energy gain, which was more evident in obese than in lean rats. Whereas TPM administration did not influence the intake of digestible energy in lean rats, it induced a reduction in food intake in obese animals. In lean, but not in obese rats, apparent energy expenditure (as calculated by the difference between energy intake and energy gain) was higher in rats treated with TPM than in animals administered the vehicle. The low dose of TPM decreased fat gain (with emphasis on subcutaneous fat) without affecting protein gain, whereas the high dose of the drug induced a reduction in both fat and protein gains. The effects of TPM on muscle and fat depot weights were representative of the global effects of TPM on whole body fat and protein gains. The calculated energetic efficiency (energy gain/energy intake) was decreased in both lean and obese rats after TPM treatment. TPM dose independently reduced hyperinsulinemia of obese rats, but it did not alter insulinemia of lean animals.
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At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 125 studies. After deduplication, 77 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 56 studies and the further review of 21 full publications. Of the 21 full articles evaluated, three systematic reviews and one RCT were included at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 15 PICO combinations.