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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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The impact of two different pharmaceutical preparations on the pharmacokinetics of roxithromycin was investigated in healthy human volunteers.

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Compared with normal control, TGF-β1 secretion was significantly increased in asthmatic ASMCs; meanwhile, TGF-β1 promoted ASMCs proliferation (P < 0.05). However, ASMCs proliferation was remarkably inhibited by RXM, β-CD, PD98059 and wortmannin (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT were increased and peaked at 20 min after TGF-β1 stimulation, and then suppressed by RXM. Further, caveolin-1 level was down-regulated by TGF-β1 and up-regulated by inhibitors and RXM.

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Roxithromycin (RXM) is a new macrolide antibiotics, with anti-allergic properties, the mechanisms of which action has not been well understood. The effect of RXM-treatment on the induction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) responsiveness by Dermatophagoides farinase (Df)-stimulated lymphocytes was studied in patients with bronchial asthma. RXM alone has almost no effect on lymphocyte activation. Patient's lymphocytes treated with 10 to 400 micrograms/ml doses of RXMs failed to generate Df-induced IL-2 responsiveness in a dose-dependent manner. The target cells for suppressive effect of RXM were antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells rather than responder T cells. PPD-induced IL-2 responsiveness was also suppressed by the treatment, but the Con A-induced response was not. The results suggest that RXM is a slight immunosuppressant to block the induction of IL-2 responsiveness by Df-stimulated patient's lymphocytes, resulting in the interruption of a cytokine cascade of allergic responses.

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All 16-membered macrolides showed very low MICs (MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s, < or =0.06-0.5 mg/L) for the erythromycin-susceptible isolates and for those with the M phenotype, but the telithromycin MICs for the M-type isolates were at least four times higher (MIC(90)s, 0.5 mg/L). In S. pyogenes, the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS(B) isolates were > or = 256 mg/L, whereas that for telithromycin was 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides and telithromycin ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.5 mg/L for the iMLS(B) isolates with erm(A) and from 0.12 to > or = 256 mg/L for those with erm(B). In S. pneumoniae, the MIC(50)s of the 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS(B) isolates ranged from 0.5 to 128 mg/L, whereas for the iMLS(B) isolates their values ranged from < or = 0.06 to 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s of telithromycin for both the cMLS(B) and the iMLS(B) isolates ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.12 mg/L.

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To investigate the demethylated metabolites of roxithromycin (RXM) in humans and rats, and to study the antibiotic activity of these metabolites in vitro.

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Two independent reviewers identified studies and selected randomized trials and prospective cohort studies comparing the growth rate of AAA in patients with pharmacotherapy vs. no pharmacotherapy. We extracted information on study interventions, baseline characteristics, methodological quality, and AAA growth rate differences (in mm/year). Fourteen prospective studies met eligibility criteria. Five cohort studies raised the possibility of benefit of beta-blockers [pooled growth rate difference: -0.62 mm/year, (95%CI, -1.00 to -0.24)], but this was not confirmed in three beta-blocker RCTs [pooled RCT growth rate difference: -0.05 mm/year (-0.16 to 0.05)]. Statins have been evaluated in two cohort studies that yield a pooled growth rate difference of -2.97 (-5.83 to -0.11). Doxycycline and roxithromycin have been evaluated in two RCTs that suggest possible benefit [pooled RCT growth rate difference: -1.32 mm/year (-2.89 to 0.25)]. Studies assessing NSAIDs, diuretics, calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors, meanwhile, did not find statistically significant differences.

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While M. catarrhalis strains from children of the Kalgoorlie region were susceptible to many of the antibiotics used to treat respiratory tract infections, a large proportion of strains were resistant to ampicillin and/or co-trimoxazole. Current therapeutic guidelines, which recommend amoxicillin for treatment of otitis media, may need to be revised.

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A reliable and sensitive procedure is presented for the analysis of erythromycin (ERY) and oleandomycin (OLE) in food of animal origin, such as meat, liver, kidney, raw milk and egg. The method is based on a solid-phase extraction clean-up with a cation exchange cartridge, a 9-fluoromethylchloroformate (FMOC) precolumn derivatization and a separation by HPLC with fluorometric detection. The selectivity is satisfactory enough to control ERY and OLE residues as not many interfering peaks are observed for various food matrices. The macrolides recoveries of the total procedure were low, although >50%. However, addition of an internal standard (roxithromycin) corrected for recovery to give satisfactory quantitative results for repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits and mainly accuracy.

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To examine the effect of a 14-membered ring macrolide on airway mucus hypersecretion in rats treated with LPS.

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Dermatologists must be aware of the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents as well as various drug interactions that may influence the choice of drug as well as specific drug schedules. The development of modern antibacterials has improved the treatment of cutaneous bacterial infections. Macrolide antibacterials continue to be an important therapeutic class of drugs with established efficacy in a variety of skin infections. All macrolides inhibit protein synthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA in the 50S-subunit. Erythromycin, the prototype of macrolide antibacterials, was isolated from the metabolic products of a strain of Streptomyces erytherus in 1952. Originally, erythromycin was introduced as an alternative to penicillin because of its activity against the Gram-positive organisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of erythromycin for various infectious diseases. Unfortunately, erythromycin is associated with a number of drawbacks including a narrow spectrum of activity, unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor gastrointestinal tolerability, and a significant number of drug-drug interactions. Newer macrolides have been developed to address these limitations. The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and clarithromycin allow for shorter dosing schedules because of prolonged tissue levels. The efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in adults and children is well established. The unique pharmakinetics of azithromycin makes it a suitable agent for the treatment of acne. Clarithromycin represents a clear advance in the macrolide management of patients with leprosy and skin infections with atypical mycobacteria. Dirithromycin and roxithromycin display no clinical or bacteriological adcantage over erythromycin despite a superior pharmacokinetic profile. An area of concern is the increasing macrolide resistance that is being reported with some of the common pathogens which may limit the clinical usefulness of this class of antimicrobial agents in future.

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A literature search using Medline was conducted from 1966 onwards, searching for articles with relevant key words such as macrolide, diffuse panbronchiolitis, community-acquired pneumonia, biofilm, immunomodulation, cystic fibrosis, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin, bronchiectasis and asthma. When appropriate, additional references were found from the bibliographies of identified papers of interest. Any relevant scientific conference proceedings or medical texts were checked when necessary.

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Ranitidine two times 300 mg and roxithromycin two times 300 mg daily for 12 days, together with metronidazole three times 500 mg daily for the first ten days. To achieve final healing of the ulcer, treatment was then continued for a further 16 days with 300 mg ranitidine nocte.

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Proliferative response, cytokine production, and expression of mRNA of T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs in the presence or absence of monocytes, cytokine production of monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and transendothelial migration of T cells in various concentrations of 5-I were analyzed. The effect of 5-I treatment was also evaluated in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis.

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Zhidan Huayu oral liquid could assist Rexithromycin to alleviate the condition of mice with MP, its mechanism may be related with the effect of reducing thrombosis and improving microcirculation.

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Macrolide antibiotics are believed to inhibit mucus secretion but the mechanism of action is unclear. This study was designed to investigate an effect of roxithromycin on MUC2 gene expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (HM3-MUC2 cells). A reporter gene assay was used for analysis. Roxithromycin suppressed MUC2 gene transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner in HM3-MUC2 cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) significantly increased MUC2 luciferase activities in the following order: PMA > LTA > LTD4 > LPS. Roxithromycin also decreased MUC2 gene transcriptional activity induced by PMA in a dose-dependent manner. NF-kappaB activation, but not AP-1 activation, was significantly suppressed by roxithromycin in HM3-MUC2 cells. A suppression of NF-kappaB activation was also observed in NCI-H292 cells. These results suggest that roxithromycin suppresses MUC2 gene expression in epithelial cells and that this suppression is probably via inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.

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The in vitro activity of tetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was tested against 63 clinical isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by the broth microdilution method in A7 medium. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of the tested agents after 24 h of incubation were as follows: tetracycline, 0.5 and 2.0 μg/ml; doxycycline, 0.125 and 0.25 μg/ml; erythromycin, 2.0 and 8.0 μg/ml; roxithromycin, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml; clarithromycin, 0.25 and 1.0 μg/ml; azithromycin, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml; and moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC values after 24 h and 48 h incubation differed by no more than one dilution for all the agents with the exception of doxycycline (two dilution difference for MIC(90)). Overall, moxifloxacin was the most active agent in vitro against U. urealyticum, with the narrowest difference between MIC and MBC values, followed closely by levofloxacin. Clarithromycin was the most active macrolide.

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A novel universal aerosol-based detector Nano Quantity Analyte Detector--NQAD, connected with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system is described. The detector was employed for detection of selected antibiotic compounds--macrolides (oleandomycin, erythromycin, troleandomycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin) that are hard to detect using classical UV detectors due to the lack of chromophores. The determined lowest detection limits under isocratic conditions for these compounds ranged from 3.0 to 5.4 microg/mL. The suitability of the detector connected with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography in the gradient mode was tested on a more complex mixture containing 12 antibiotics. The detector exhibited full compatibility under both the elution modes when UHPLC separations were achieved in relatively short run times.

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To observe the effects of combined treatment with sansanmycin and macrolides on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and formation of biofilm.

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Occasional superinfection or co-infection with Staphylococcus aureus led us to search for S. aureus carriage prospectively in patients with non-necrotizing bacterial dermophypodermitis, in particular erysipelas.

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Whether or not resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin type B antibiotics (MLS) can be induced by many macrolide antibiotics (Mac), was inquired in Bacillus licheniformis EMR. Resistance to MLS in the strain was induced by erythromycin, oleandomycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, narbomycin, picromycin, kujimycin A or B, mycinamicin I, or rosamicin. On the contrary, josamycin, spiramycin, tylosin, rokitamycin, midecamycin, and miokamycin as well as lincosamide and streptogramin type B antibiotics could not induce MLS-resistance. The results suggest that two common chemical residues of the inducer Mac, that is, 1) a single monosaccharide at C5 in the 14- and 16-membered lactone rings, and 2) one polar group such as dimethylamino or methoxyl at C3' in the sugar, are likely to be responsible for showing the activity of MLS-resistance inducer in Bacillus licheniformis EMR.

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Roxithromycin, CAM, AZM, and INN significantly reduced the infarct volume in the high-dose group after 24 and 72 hours of reperfusion. All of the agents significantly decreased the edema in the high-dose groups at 24 and 72 hours, while only CAM and AZM significantly reduced the edema volume in the low-dose groups at 24 hours. All of the macrolide antibiotics at the high dose significantly improved neurological deficit scores at 24 and 72 hours. There were no differences in the CBF between the vehicle and respective antibiotic groups. In the experiment examining the interval, the 24-hour interval group exhibited the strongest neuroprotective effect.

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Susceptibility pattern and resistance phenotype were determined by disk diffusion method and double disk test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were obtained by the agar dilution method and evaluated according to the recommendations of the 'Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie' (CA-SFM). The major determinants of erythromycin resistance in S. pyogenes (ermB, ermTR and mefA genes) were investigated by specific amplification protocols.

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In two ear, nose and throat (ENT) divisions, 74 patients affected by acute sinusitis of bacterial origin were selected and, after randomization in two balanced groups following an open parallel group design, assigned to treatment with brodimorprim and roxithromycin. At the beginning, after 3 days, 7 days and at the end of treatment the following symptoms were evaluated, using a four-step score: intensity of facial pain, headache, nasal stiffness, hyposmia, nasal secretion. The mean treatment period was 8.7 days. Tolerability was evaluated through registration and analysis of side effects and laboratory blood tests. The comparison between groups showed a better activity of brodimoprim on facial pain, headache, nasal stiffness and nasal secretion. The presence of resistant bacterial strains was greater in the group treated with roxithromycin (30.8%) when compared with the brodimoprim group (12.5%). Side effects were reported in 5 patients treated with brodimoprim and in 3 patients in the control group. Lab tests did not show serious variations.

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Genital chlamydia is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in developed countries. In women, infection occurs most commonly between the ages of 16 and 19 years.

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Mastitis is one of the largest production concerns in the dairy industry worldwide. Mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a major concern to the dairy industry because of its resistance to antibiotic treatment. In this report, the results of antibiotic susceptibility test, carried out on 236 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples which were collected from cases of mastitis in cow herds of China, are presented. The regions and number of isolates include Inner Mongolia (112), Hebei (58) and Heilongjiang (66). Susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, piperacillin, cephalexin, cephazolin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, SMZ-TMP, gentamycin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, furaxone, torlamician, roxithromycin, clindamycin and vancomycin was determined by the disc diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed 87.30% (206 of 236) isolates were resistant to penicillin G. This result compares with the reports from other countries; the overall level of resistance was generally high for all antimicrobial agents tested.

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A surveillance study which is a part of the international surveillance on pneumococci resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents was conducted in Beijing, China. More than 900 pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections aged from six months to three years selected from two pediatric units were enrolled in the study. Perthroat swabs were immediately streaked onto blood agar plates. Isolates were identified as pneumococci by their typical appearance, gram stain, confirmation tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) determination according to Protocol and National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).

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In the present paper, the effect of roxithromycin on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was evaluated. Roxithromycin had no effect on sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced food pad swelling when orally administered in induction phase, whereas it suppressed the SRBC-induced DTH reaction and 2,4,6-Trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) significantly when administered to mice in effector phase. For the sustained-CHS model induced by multi-challenge with TNCB, roxithromycin also inhibited the ear swelling when exposed to mice in three effector phases while showed no inhibitory effect on CHS by continuous treatment. Administration of this antibiotic in effector phase also down-regulated the MMP-9 activity and the higher in vitro survival of splenocytes from SRBC-challenged mice. Furthermore, this drug inhibited the gene expression of T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-gamma of lymph node cells from mice immuned by TNCB or of Con A-stimulated spleen cells. In addition, roxithromycin administered in vivo decreased the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenocyte proliferation without affecting the cell survival in vitro. These results suggest that roxithromycin might alleviate DTH reaction at least by suppressing the function and survival of effector T cells.

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Ureaplasma urealyticum is considered as one of the main pathogens found in women with urogenital infection. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the biovars, serovars, and their antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics in female patients with urogenital infection.

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The effects of various macrolide antibiotics [triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin base] and the new ketolide HMR3004 on CYP3A expression were evaluated in human and rat hepatocytes. Cells were treated for 3 days with nontoxic concentrations of the drugs, and CYP3A induction was assessed through midazolam hydroxylase activity and Western and Northern blot analyses. In rat hepatocytes, no induction of CYP3A1 expression was observed following exposure to macrolides, even to erythromycin base and TAO (well known in vivo CYP3A1 inducers), whereas dexamethasone and phenobarbital were confirmed to induce this enzyme. In contrast, treatment of fresh and thawed human hepatocytes with TAO, produced an increase of midazolam hydroxylation (4-fold over control). This result was in agreement with the high amount of CYP3A4 protein and mRNA revealed by Western and Northern blot analyses. Other tested macrolides had no induction effect on CYP3A expression. These results confirmed the interspecies variability of CYP3A regulation in hepatocytes and raised the question of its mechanism of induction by macrolides in human liver.

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To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Roxithromycin (RXM), we studied 56 chronic sinusitis patients with nasal polyps using computed tomography (CT) and electron microscopy in addition to conventional clinical assessment. The paranasal sinus of subjects was observed clinically before and after daily administration of RXM at 300 mg for 3 months all underwent allergy testing for possible complications of allergic rhinitis based on subjective symptoms and objective findings. Improvement after RXM treatment was seen in 50.3% based on subjective symptoms and 59.1% based on objective findings. Overall improvement was seen in 53.6%. In 41 cases (73.2%) of all patients with chronic sinusitis and complications of allergic rhinitis, no significant difference was seen between patients with and without complications (53.7% in those with complications and 53.3% in those without). In CT analysis the paranasal sinus in 51.8% of all posttreated patients showed obvious improvement. In electron microscopy in chronic sinusitis patients with complications of allergic rhinitis, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed high mucous epithelial cell apoptosis in addition to common histological lesions, while posttreatment patients showed only eosinophil apoptosis in the interstitium and no apoptotic epithelial cells. We divided ethmoidal sinus lesions in patients without complications into 3 types and evaluated them as follows: In type 1, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed plasma cell infiltration and posttreatment cell apoptosis. In type 2, pretreated tissues showed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and posttreated showed only some lymphocytes and no plasma cells. In type 3, proliferation of fibroblasts, most of which showed apoptosis, was seen in addition to apoptotic epithelial cells before treatment, while after treatment, these lesions remained with some apoptotic bodies phagocytosed by macrophages. In type 3 patients relapsed after surgery. Our findings indicate that RXM treatment had a significant therapeutic effect on chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps with and without complications of allergic rhinitis. We clarify the morphological mechanism of therapeutic effect of RXM on each type of ethmoidal sinus lesion divided by light and electron microscopy.

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syrup rulide az 2016-04-15

Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in buy rulide selected groups is now performed in England, the USA and Sweden. Patients with aneurysms over 55 mm in diameter are generally considered for elective surgical repair. Patients with aneurysm diameters below or equal to 55 mm (termed 'small AAAs') are managed with aneurysm surveillance as there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend surgery in these cases. As more patients are screened, there will be an increasing number of small AAAs identified. There is interest in pharmaceutical interventions (for example angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antibiotics, beta-blockers, statins) which could be given to such patients to delay or reverse aneurysm expansion and reduce the need for elective surgical repair.

rulide medication dosage 2017-06-15

Spirochaetal infections have been successfully treated with penicillin; more recently, erythromycin has been used in cases with known penicillin allergy. The discovery of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi and the elaboration of a new generation of macrolides with properties that differ from older macrolides have led to new ways of treating spirochaetal disease with these compounds. This paper presents data on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a combination of roxithromycin and co-trimoxazole against B. burgdorferi. In vitro (checkerboard technique; B. burgdorferi strain B31; modified BSK II medium) it was found that while roxithromycin showed excellent efficacy against B. burgdorferi (MIC 0.031 mg/l), co-trimoxazole had no effect. However, the combination of both chemotherapeutics led to a minor synergistic effect, decreasing the MIC for roxithromycin by one dilution step at concentrations of co-trimoxazole from 256 to 8 mg/l. In addition, a clearly reduced growth of microorganisms was seen at concentrations of roxithromycin as low as 0.015 mg/l in combination with 256 to 4 mg/l co-trimoxazole, when compared to the positive controls. Most interestingly, however, the motility of B. burgdorferi was markedly reduced even when the two drugs were combined at very low concentrations. In an in vivo, non-randomised, open, prospective pilot study it was found that of 17 patients with confirmed late Lyme borreliosis (stage II/III), treated with combined roxithromycin (300 mg b.i.d.) and co-trimoxazole for 5 weeks, 13 (76%) buy rulide recovered completely by the end of treatment, and four continued to have symptoms on follow-up at 6 and 12 months. This success rate is similar to that seen with i.v. penicillin and ceftriaxone. It appears that the reduced motility of B. burgdorferi makes the pathogen more accessible to the immune system.

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The present buy rulide data suggest that the down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression may be an important mechanism of action by which roxithromycin inhibits GO.

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Since serious sequelae may follow streptococcal infections, eradication is viewed as necessary for successful therapy. Studies were therefore conducted to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin with other macrolide antibiotics and amoxycillin to eliminate these organisms in experimental localized infections. In a Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection induced by transtracheal challenge, the pathogen was not recovered after therapy with azithromycin (ED50 7.9 mg/kg), while clarithromycin was not effective (ED50 > 100 mg/kg). However, in a S. pneumoniae middle ear infection, azithromycin and clarithromycin were effective (ED50 2.9 and 6.3 mg/kg, respectively) in eradicating the pathogen from this closed space infection. Against a localized Streptococcus pyogenes buy rulide infection (implanted inoculated disc), azithromycin effectively eradicated the pathogen, while clarithromycin, roxithromycin and erythromycin did not. Eradication of a viridans streptococcus or Streptococcus gordonii (formerly Streptococcus sanguis) from heart tissue in experimental bacterial endocarditis was also evaluated. Azithromycin given prophylactically or therapeutically was efficacious in eliminating the viridans streptococcus and S. gordonii in the bacterial endocarditis model of infection; erythromycin was only marginally effective in the same studies. All studies provided evidence of the bactericidal action of azithromycin in vivo and demonstrated the ability of the compound to eradicate streptococcal pathogens in localized infections.

rulide az syrup 2016-06-19

A fast and simple method for the analysis of 17 commonly used antibiotics in Finland in water samples was developed. The method combines online solid phase extraction using a reusable online trapping column combined with analytical separation on a C18 analytical column and detection by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was fully validated for detection and quantification limits as well as linearity, repeatability, and matrix effects. The method gave an excellent linear response (r (2) > 0.99) and detection limits for all compounds (1-10 ng(-1)), except for tetracycline (20 ng l(-1)) and roxithromycin (50 ng l(-1)). The repeatability was evaluated at two concentrations, and the values at 5 ng l(-1) ranged from 5 to 39% and at 100 ng l(-1) ranged from 3 to 19%. To test the method on real samples at low environmental concentrations, water samples collected from a river receiving discharges from two wastewater treatment plants were analyzed buy rulide as well as samples from a pristine river. Seven antibiotics as well as carbamazepine were detected in the samples. The concentration of the compounds ranged from 5 to 81 ng l(-1).

rulide dosage 2016-10-05

To investigate the influence of concomitant administration buy rulide of roxithromycin on the plasma pharmacokinetics of lovastatin.

rulide drug class 2017-01-15

Mutations which severely affect the function of the buy rulide outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium (lpxA and firA mutations of lipid A synthesis and rfaE mutation of the lipopolysaccharide inner-core synthesis) were found to decrease the MICs of erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by factors of 32 to 512, 32 to 1,024, 64 to 512, and 16 to 64, respectively. The sensitization factors for three other hydrophobic antibiotics (rifampin, fusidic acid, and mupirocin) ranged from 16 to 300. The outer membrane permeability-increasing agents polymyxin B nonapeptide (3 micrograms/ml) and deacylpolymyxin B (1 microgram/ml) sensitized wild-type E. coli to azithromycin by factors of 10 and 30, respectively. Quantitatively very similar sensitization to the other macrolides took place. Polymyxin-resistant pmrA mutants of S. typhimurium displayed no cross-resistance to azithromycin. Proteus mirabilis mutants which were sensitized to polymyxin by a factor of > or = 300 to > or = 1,000 had a maximal two- to fourfold increase in sensitivity to azithromycin. These results indicate that azithromycin and the other new macrolides use the hydrophobic pathway across the outer membrane and that the intact outer membrane is an effective barrier against them. Furthermore, the results indicate that azithromycin, in contrast to polymyxin, does not effectively diffuse through the outer membrane by interacting electrostatically with the lipopolysaccharide.

rulide medication 2017-01-12

The efficacy and buy rulide safety of roxithromycin (300 mg once daily) and doxycycline (200 mg once daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in general practice were compared in a multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy trial. The data presented here are the results of an interim analysis of 76 patients. A satisfactory clinical response was obtained in 81% of patients treated with roxithromycin and 80% of those treated with doxycycline. Among patients receiving roxithromycin, 12.2% volunteered adverse events, compared with 33% of those receiving doxycycline; the test treatments were considered possibly or probably responsible for the adverse events in 9.8% and 21.2% of cases, respectively. Though patient numbers are too small for statistically significant differences to be detected, we conclude that the results to date suggest that roxithromycin and doxycycline are equivalent in terms of efficacy, but that roxithromycin is better tolerated.

rulide 500 mg 2015-01-06

The MICs of erythromycin and three new macrolide antibiotics were determined for 36 quinolone-susceptible and 106 quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni. The MIC90 values of azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and erythromycin were 0.5, 4, 16 and 4 mg/l respectively. No difference was found between macrolide activity against the quinolone-susceptible and the quinolone buy rulide -resistant strains. Clarithromycin and especially azithromycin might eventually replace erythromycin for the treatment of Campylobacter jejuni infections in view of their pharmacological properties.

rulide tablets 2016-06-29

292 patients were randomised to one of three treatments for 12 weeks: roxithromycin 300 mg daily and doxycycline 100 mg daily (n = 101); roxithromycin 300 mg daily (n = 97); or matching placebos (n = 94). There were no differences in the annualised moderate and severe exacerbation rates after treatment with roxithromycin/doxycycline (2.83 (95 % CI 2.37-3.40)) or roxithromycin only (2.69 (2.26-3.21)) compared to placebo (2.5 (2.08-3.03)) (p = 0.352 and p = 0.5832 respectively). Furthermore, there were no differences in the annualised exacerbation rates during 12-week treatment with roxithromycin/doxycycline (1.64 (95 % CI 1.17-2.30)), roxithromycin buy rulide only (1.75 (1.24-2.41)) or placebo (2.23 (1.68-3.03)) (p = 0.1709 and p = 0.2545 respectively). There were also no significant differences between groups for spirometry or quality of life scores over either the 12-week treatment or 48-week post-treatment periods. Both active treatments were associated with nausea but otherwise adverse events were comparable among treatment groups.

rulide tablets 300mg 2015-02-08

The comparative in vitro activity of A-56268 was buy rulide studied using 1,006 clinical isolates including streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae and anaerobes. A-56268 showed activity comparable to that of erythromycin and was more active than josamycin and roxithromycin against erythromycin-sensitive aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-positive cocci. A-56268 was the most active macrolide against Clostridium spp. and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Josamycin was more active than either A-56268 or erythromycin against the anaerobic gram-positive cocci and the Bacteroides fragilis group. Staphylococci moderately resistant or resistant to erythromycin (MIC 3.12-50 mg/l) remained susceptible to josamycin but not the other macrolides.

rulide tab 2017-04-27

Chemotaxis and phagocytosis of the monocytes reduced upon exposure to 10microM SM (8.1% and 17.5%, respectively) were restored by treatment with 10microM of any of the four macrolides. Overexpression of inflammatory cytokines following SM exposure was decreased by 50-70% with macrolide treatment. Similarly, exaggerated iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by SM exposure was largely inhibited by buy rulide treatment with macrolides.

rulide suspension 2017-07-31

This is a case report of a 71-year-old male with known diabetes, hypertension and diabetic nephropaty who over the course of one year developed an unrecognized myopathy due to concomitant treatment with high-dose simvastatin and amlodipin. Due to rhabdomyolysis he was after seven days of treatment with roxithromycin admitted to hospital with loss of the ability to walk. We wish to raise awareness of the potentially severe side effects of simvastatin and to emphasize that these can be limited by increased attention to patients buy rulide with risk factors and to interactions with other drugs.

rulide buy 2015-09-30

To evaluate the effect of roxithromycin on aerobic flora in 14 children treated orally (5 mg/kg/day during 5 to 7 days) quantitative stool cultures were performed using selective media. Enterobacteriaceae (EB), streptococci D (STR D), Staphylococcus aureus, Candida were counted at days 0, 2 and 5 days, and 2 days after treatment. The MIC of each strain was determined for roxithromycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. Ten infants in a nursery had already received antibiotics. A moderate albeit significant (p less than 0.01) decrease was observed for EB, falling from 7.2 log 10 (range 5-9) to 4.9 (range 2-8) per gram of stools, rising to 5.8 after treatment. There was no significant effect for STR D. The MIC of roxithromycin for EB increased from 244 mg/l (range 0.03-512) to 340 (range 0.03-512). For STR. D, it increased from 138 (range 1-1024) to 427 (range 1-1024). The bacteria with low MIC (less than or equal to 64 mg/l for EB and less than or equal to 4 mg/l for STR. D) are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecium. The Sinemet Gel MIC increased for the three macrolides tested.

rulide tablet uses 2015-06-18

Numerous reports have suggested an association between chronic CP and CAD. CP has been seroepidemiologically linked to CAD. The organism has also been isolated from atherosclerotic lesions. Two reports in humans and one report in animals have shown that macrolide therapy (azithromycin or roxithromycin) may decrease the risk of adverse cardiovascular Singulair 10mg Tab events.

rulide review 2017-12-03

In a double blind, randomised investigation in Ponstel Buy 193 hospitalized patients, with low respiratory infections, roxithromycin (150 mg bd) and erythromycin ethylsuccinate (1 g bd) were compared. Assessment of safety was made in 183 patients and clinical response in 155 patients. The mean duration of treatment was 11 days in both groups. Clinical effectiveness was 82% (67/82) for roxithromycin and 77% (56/73) for erythromycin ethylsuccinate. Roxithromycin appears to have a good effectiveness and to be effective as erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The safety profile is satisfactory in both groups.

rulide generic name 2016-01-26

The in vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, Rickettsia akari, R. conorii, R. prowazekii, and R. rickettsii to different concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin in Vero cell cultures were evaluated. Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. were allowed Lexapro Dosage Information to initiate infection of the antibiotic-free Vero cell monolayers, which were maintained in 16-chamber microscope slides in the absence of antibiotics at 32 degrees C in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The monolayers were then incubated for 3 h to allow for initial host cell intracellular penetration by infecting species. After inoculation, inocula were replaced and tested with media containing 12 different concentrations of each antibiotic in replicate (10 wells of each antibiotic dilution) for each species, and the monolayers were reincubated. Tetracycline served as the control. Growth status of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. was determined by evaluation of immunofluorescent staining bacilli. Five days later, when antibiotic-free, control-infected cell monolayers demonstrated significant fluorescence, media were removed for all cell monolayers, the monolayers were fixed, and all specimens were stained with standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody reagents. Fluorescent foci were enumerated by counting such foci on random fields visualized with an epifluorescence microscope. The extent of antibiotic-induced focus inhibition was recorded for each dilution of antibiotic and compared with that of an antibiotic-negative control. Effective antibiotic dilution endpoints for inhibition of Bartonella and Rickettsia proliferation, as judged by absence of increase of significant fluorescence (as compared with no-growth controls), were enumerated by determining the number of cell culture chambers at various antibiotic dilutions that were negative or positive for significant Bartonella- or Rickettsia-specific fluorescence. All of the macrolide agents tested were readily active against all three Bartonella organisms, and azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin may have potential in the treatment of Rickettsia infections. Animal model-based clinical trials are warranted to define the specific treatment role of the newer macrolide antibiotics.

rulide antibiotic dosage 2017-02-17

1H nuclear Overhauser enhancement studies and 1H NMR 3J analysis establish the similarity between the major solution-state conformation of roxithromycin (1) and the erythromycin (2). A major difference between the structure of antibiotics 1 and 2 is the replacement of the 9-keto group in 2 by a 9-[O-(2,5-dioxahexyl)oxime] group. The NOE studies show that this oxime chain is oriented above the macrocyclic lactone ring and that the oxygen atoms of this chain are engaged in tight hydrogen bonding with a water molecule and with the 6- and 11-hydroxyl groups of the macrocycle. It results in a globular form of the whole roxithromycin molecule. These data explain also a Lopid And Alcohol relative hydrophobicity of this antibiotic. Erythromycin A (2), which presents a less rigid macrocycle with two free hydroxyl groups (6-OH and 11-OH), forms a dimer detected by FAB mass spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR relaxation measurements (T1) for both antibiotics show that interresidue hydrogen bonds in roxithromycin reduce the rotational freedom of the macrocyclic lactone ring and consequently the motions of desosamine and cladinose sugars. In another way, an ionization of the amino function occurs in the various media according to the nature of the antibiotic. This would allow the reactivity modification of the desosamine unit. In the biological study, the modifications of the 455-nm metabolite-cytochrome P-450 complex formation are observed.

rulide roxithromycin dosage 2017-06-28

As with other widely used antibacterials, the abundant use of macrolides for management of ambulant infections has promoted emergence of resistance against them. Ketolides are structurally related to macrolides and were developed to overcome macrolide resistance, while sharing pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, until now, there have been no comprehensive reviews of the comparative pharmacokinetics of macrolides and ketolides. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic parameters in plasma and relevant tissues of telithromycin, the only approved ketolide, and cethromycin, which is currently in phase III of clinical development. For comparison, the 14-membered macrolides clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered azalide azithromycin were chosen as representatives of their class. While telithromycin achieves higher plasma concentrations than cethromycin, both antimicrobials display comparable elimination half-lives and clearance. Repeated dosing rarely influences the pharmacokinetic parameters of ketolides. Despite substantially higher maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values of telithromycin, the higher antimicrobial activity of cethromycin leads to similar ratios between the AUC from 0 to 24 hours (AUC(24)) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for relevant pathogens, suggesting comparable antimicrobial activity of both antimicrobials in plasma. Although telithromycin and cethromycin show plasma-protein binding of 90%, they have excellent tissue penetration, as indicated by volumes of distribution of about 500 L and high intracellular concentrations. Besides enhancing killing of intracellular pathogens, the high concentrations of macrolides, azalides and ketolides in leukocytes have been associated with increased delivery of the antimicrobial agent to the site of infection. Although telithromycin has been shown to accumulate in alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid by 380- and 15-fold, respectively (relative to plasma concentrations), its concentration in the interstitium of soft tissues is comparable to the free fraction in plasma. Thus the pharmacokinetics of ketolides may help to explain their good activity against a wide range of respiratory tract infections, although pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic calculations based on plasma pharmacokinetics would indicate only minor activity against pathogens except streptococci. In contrast, AUC(24)/MIC ratios achieved in soft tissue may be considered insufficient to kill extracellular pathogens causing soft tissue infections, except for Streptococcus pyogenes. Although ketolides and macrolides share relevant pharmacokinetic properties, the pharmacokinetics of both antimicrobial Viagra 30 Pills classes are not considered interchangeable. With a volume of distribution similar to that of azithromycin but plasma concentrations and an elimination half-life reflecting those of clarithromycin, the pharmacokinetics of ketolides may be considered 'intermediate' between those of macrolides and azalides. Thus the pharmacokinetics of ketolides can be considered similar but not identical to those of macrolides.

rulide tablets 150mg 2016-06-10

A total of 60 different bacterial colonies was isolated and identified. All of the isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Of the strains, 6.7%, 13.3%, 16.7%, and 25% were resistant to Ventolin Dose Counter doxycycline, metronidazole, cefixime, and amoxicillin, respectively. The resistance rate for both clindamycin and roxithromycin was 31.7%. Approximately 60.7% of the strains had the ermF gene, and 53.3% of the amoxicillin-resistant strains were found to have the cfxA gene. Two nim genes that were found in eight metronidazole-resistant strains were identified as nimB.

rulide drug interactions 2015-04-29

BRONCHIAL SUPERINFECTIONS: Macrolides are first-line antibiotics for acute bronchitis and infectious complications of Prednisone Alcohol Warning chronic bronchitis.

dose of rulide 2017-03-14

Recently, 14-member macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin and roxithromycin have been shown to have anticancer and antiangiogenic effects. We Lipitor Generic investigated the suppressive effect of roxithromycin on accelerated hepatocellular carcinoma growth in a rat hepatocarcinogenetic model and compared results with effects from TNP-470.

rulide 150 mg 2016-02-11

Pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in environmental matrices, but information on their trophic transfer in aquatic food webs is insufficient. This study investigated the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of 23 pharmaceuticals in Taihu Lake, China. Pharmaceutical concentrations were analyzed in surface water, sediments and 14 aquatic species, including plankton, invertebrates and fish collected from the lake. The median concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals ranged from not detected (ND) to 49 ng/L in water, ND to 49 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, and from ND to 130 ng/g dw in biota. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in zoobenthos relative to plankton, shrimp and fish muscle. In fish tissues, the observed pharmaceutical contents in the liver and brain were generally higher than those in the gills and muscle. Both bioaccumulation factors (median BAFs: 19-2008 L/kg) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (median BSAFs: 0.0010-0.037) indicated a low bioaccumulation potential for the target pharmaceuticals. For eight of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in food webs, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were analyzed from two different regions of Taihu Lake. The TMFs for roxithromycin, propranolol, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in the two food webs ranged from 0.28 to 1.25, suggesting that none of these pharmaceuticals experienced trophic magnification. In addition, the pharmaceutical TMFs did not differ significantly between the two regions in Taihu Lake.

rulide medication ingredients 2015-11-13

Included patients with PAD were randomized. Two patients withdrew. Of the remaining, 248 received roxithromycin and 257 placebo. In the treatment group 55% were seropositive and 53% in the placebo group. Mean follow-up was 2.1 years (range 0.06-5.1 years). In the placebo group, 26 died and 80 primary events occurred in total. In the treatment group, 28 died and 74 primary events were observed. The hazard ratio of death was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.90), and of primary events 0.92 (95% CI: 0.67; 1.26). Also on secondary events and ABPI changes, no significant differences were found.

rulide and alcohol 2015-03-09

To describe the patterns and impact of Legionella therapy, and predictors of outcome in a large group of hospitalized patients with legionnaires' disease.

generic rulide tablet 2017-10-03

We often observe shrinkage of nasal polyps with low-dose long-term macrolide treatment, which was recently developed in Japan for the treatment of intractable chronic sinusitis. In order to assess the efficacy of this treatment for nasal polyps, we administered the new macrolide roxithromycin (RXM) (1 tablet: 150 mg a day) for at least 8 weeks to 20 patients with nasal polyps associated with chronic sinusitis. It was competent in controlling nasal polyp with the overall incidence of improvement being 52%. The combination of RXM with azelastine (1 mg twice/day), an inhibitor of mediator release, was examined in 20 other patients. It augmented the rate of improvement to 68%, but the increase was not significant. The incidence of improvement increased with time after the start of medication in both groups. Smaller polyps were more likely to decrease in size, but some larger polyps also markedly decreased in size. Associated allergic conditions and the extent of eosinophilic infiltration had no relation to the treatment result. We speculate that the mechanism of effectiveness of RXM is through its suppressive potency in cytokine production from inflammatory cells.

rulide contraceptive pill 2016-08-20

Roxithromycin significantly inhibited the production of lipase and neutrophil chemotactic factor by P. acnes at a concentration one eighth of the MIC, at which the growth curve of P. acnes is not affected.

rulide with alcohol 2017-04-11

Among macrolide derivatives, azithromycin which is an azalide, is a totally original new drug as to its pharmacokinetics in serum and tissues. Compared to reference compounds such as erythromycin or roxithromycin, pharmacokinetic parameters of azithromycin are characterized by: (i) much lower serum concentrations; (ii) a much longer elimination half-life (48-96 h); (iii) high and persistent tissue concentrations. The latter characteristic has been demonstrated in animal models (experimental H. influenzae pneumonia in mice) and in human studies. In lung parenchyma, azithromycin concentrations were higher and more persistent (72 h) in infected mice (12 mg/kg) as compared to non infected mice (controls) receiving the same dose of azithromycin (50 mg/kg); this may result from high intracellular concentrations in polymorphonuclear leucocytes and release of the drug at pulmonary sites of infection. In man, concentrations of azithromycin have been measured in lung parenchyma, bronchial secretions, tonsils, during exploratory or surgical conditions. After a single dose of 500 mg of azithromycin, local levels may reach up to 10 mg/kg with persistence of high levels for > or = 72 h in lungs, tonsils, sinus and bronchial secretions (1.5 to 8.6 mg/kg or mg/l). Five consecutive doses of azithromycin (500 mg per day) maintained for 10 days tonsil concentrations higher than the MICs for susceptible bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

rulide alcohol 2017-11-25

The ecological impact of roxithromycin given orally at 300 mg/day on the intestinal floras in six human volunteers was studied. The resulting fecal concentrations of active roxithromycin were in the range of 100 to 200 micrograms/g of feces. Consecutive modifications in the composition of the fecal floras were limited to a decrease in counts of total members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The rest of the intestinal floras, including the predominant anaerobic floras, changed little. No overgrowth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, fungi, or highly erythromycin-resistant strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was observed. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae and of anaerobes isolated during treatment were not markedly more resistant to roxithromycin than those isolated before treatment started. Changes in intestinal resistance to colonization by exogenous microorganisms in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with human fecal flora were studied and were also found to be minimal. The impact of oral roxithromycin on the intestinal microbiota appears to be weaker than that previously observed with oral erythromycin, perhaps because the concentrations of roxithromycin in the feces were lower than those previously found for erythromycin.

rulide dose 2016-06-18

The in vitro activity of roxithromycin was compared with that of the other antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole) against 188 distinct clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis. Of these, 106 strains (66%) produced beta-lactamase. The MIC90 of roxithromycin was 0.25 micrograms/ml compared with values of 0.5, 1, greater than 8, greater than 8:0.4 micrograms/ml for erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, respectively. These results, allied with its improved pharmacokinetic properties, suggest that roxithromycin should be an effective treatment in children and adults for upper and lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis.