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Retrovir (Zidovudine)
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Retrovir

Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Zerit

 

Also known as:  Zidovudine.

Description

Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.

Dosage

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

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Antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis is associated with significant anemia and neutropenia in HIV-uninfected infants during the first 3 months of life. Anemia was more profound in HAART-exposed infants.

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In contrast to other reports from developing countries where patients had received ARVs in an uncontrolled manner, our study showed that implementation of HAART together with good clinical, biological and logistical monitoring can reduce the emergence of resistant strains in Africa.

retrovir 300 mg

ZDV mutations were not detected in ZDV/3TC/PI-treated patients and they developed slowly in those treated with ZDV/3TC. Few protease mutations known to confer phenotypic PI resistance developed in the ZDV/3TC/PI arms of either study. The low prevalence of ZDV and PI mutations is encouraging regarding the future treatment options of these patients.

retrovir drug interactions

Summary Among 288 HIV-1-infected, breastfeeding women who received zidovudine prophylaxis and were followed with their infants in Nairobi, we found no associations between maternal genetic polymorphisms in CCR5 (59029G/A, 59353T/C, 59356T/C, 59402G/A), RANTES (-403G/A) and SDF-1 (3'801G/A) and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission; plasma, cervical and breastmilk viral loads; or breastmilk chemokine concentrations.

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Significant relationships were observed between the intracellular concentrations of zidovudine triphosphate and lamivudine triphosphate and the baseline level of CD4 cells. Lamivudine triphosphate concentrations were related in a linear manner to the apparent oral clearance of lamivudine from plasma. A direct linear relationship was found between the intracellular concentrations of zidovudine triphosphate and lamivudine triphosphate. The percent change in CD4 cells during therapy and the rate of decline in HIV RNA in plasma were related to the intracellular concentrations of zidovudine triphosphate and lamivudine triphosphate.

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Genome-wide DNA hypermethylation induced by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) has been suggested to be involved in the development of AZT resistance. We used a CD4 T-lymphoblastoid CEM line and its AZT-resistant MT500 variant with reduced thymidine kinase activity. Evaluation of total DNA methylation, after AZT treatment, failed to show an increase in the 5-methylcytosine level in both parental and AZT-resistant cells. The effect was instead observed at a more specific gene level, on the three HpaII sites present in exon 1 of the human thymidine kinase gene. These results suggest that AZT treatment can induce site-specific hypermethylation, even in the absence of a more general DNA hypermethylating effect.

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Zidovudine (AZT) is eliminated by extensive metabolism to an ether glucuronide (GAZT). The nonnarcotic analgesic metamizole (dipyrone) is a typical polydrug, the active metabolite being 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (4-MAA). About 20% of 4-MAA is excreted in the form of glucuronide in the urine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 4-MAA inhibits the glucuronidation of AZT, by comparing the GAZT formed in the presence and absence of 4-MAA in the microsomal fractions. Microsomal fractions were obtained from 6 human livers. AZT and 4-MAA were added in concentrations of 1 mmole, corresponding to the therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations of both drugs. Incubation time was 20 min. Concentrations of GAZT were measured using reverse-phase HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The mean value of GAZT formed in the microsomal samples without the addition of 4-MAA was 1.87 +/- 0.74 pmole/mg protein. In the presence of 4-MAA, the concentrations averaged 1.77 +/- 0.77 pmole/mg protein, and did not differ significantly from those measured without 4-MAA. In conclusion, the glucuronidation of AZT is not inhibited by 4-MAA, the main active metabolite of metamizole. From the in vitro findings it is predicted that concomitant metamizole administration may fail to enhance by metabolic interference the AZT concentrations under therapy.

retrovir 200 mg

New therapeutic strategies aiming at an improved management of patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus are actually based, at least partly, on older concepts and molecules developed since the discovery of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Accordingly, the first antiretroviral drug available zidovudine, after being left over for some time, now is an active component of tritherapies because of its ability to reduce the emergence of the K65R resistance mutation induced by some nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Similarly, the old concept of inhibiting the virus entry in its target cells, that was once developed with soluble recombined CD4, has been revived in the form of fusion inhibitors, such as the already marketed enfuvirtide, and the currently under phase I development BMS-488043 and SCH-D. Finally, monotherapy, which was abandoned since the advent of the more powerful tritherapies, has now regained interest with the boosted protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir.

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Patients' initial CD4 counts ranged (5-95% centiles) from 104 to 529 x 10(6)/l (median, 274 x 10(6)/l) and HIV RNA levels from 1900 to 339680 copies/ml (median, 44240 copies/ml). For the first analysis, with CDC stage B or C disease as endpoint, both the most recent HIV RNA level and CD4 count predicted the development of clinical disease [relative hazard (RH) for HIV RNA, 1.96 per 10-fold difference in HIV RNA; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-2.73; P = 0.0001; and RH for CD4 count, 1.82 per twofold difference in CD4 count; 95% CI, 1.27-2.56; P = 0.0009]. When both HIV RNA and CD4 count were included in a multiple regression model, both markers provided information additional to that given by the other (RH for HIV RNA, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.23-2.50; P = 0.002; and RH for CD4 count, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.95-2.07; P = 0.09). In the second analysis, with AIDS as endpoint, both HIV RNA level (P = 0.02) and CD4 count (P = 0.004) were independently associated with clinical progression. These results were essentially unchanged after adjustment for treatment arm (zidovudine/lamivudine versus control arms).

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To evaluate the association between acyclovir use and survival in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, observational data from 1044 persons with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and < or = 250 CD4 cells/mm3 following initiation of zidovudine were analyzed. Of these patients, 336 (32%) received regular acyclovir (> or = 6 weeks in 2 months). There were no differences in mortality data between acyclovir users and nonusers overall or when analyzed from 1 year after first use of zidovudine, from time of AIDS in those with ARC at enrollment, from patients with AIDS or < 100 CD4 cells/mm3 at enrollment, or from patients taking acyclovir for up to 10 months. Acyclovir use was associated with increased mortality (relative hazard, 1.28; P = .057) independent of herpesvirus infections and of other characteristics associated with mortality. In this study, the use of acyclovir at doses for treatment of herpes simplex virus infection in combination with zidovudine was not associated with prolonged survival.

retrovir generic name

This study deals with the combination of chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malaric drug) and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, anti-human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) drug) with a chimeric toxin (TS) obtained by chemical linking of saporin (a ribosome inactivating protein from the plant Saponaria officinalis) and human transferrin, in the intoxication of the human chronic myeloid leukaemia cells (K562). Our data demonstrate that AZT, at concentrations comparable to those reached in the blood of HIV-infected patients under pharmacological treatment with this drug, can increase the toxicity of TS in cooperation with CQ inducing an increased effect on protein synthesis in K562 cells ( approximately 50% inhibition of protein synthesis for TS alone, and TS with AZT and approximately 70% with both AZT and CQ). Furthermore, pre-treatment of cells with AZT alone can induce an increase of apoptosis in K562 cells intoxicated with TS. By comparing data obtained with the model toxin ricin, we get indications that the two toxins partially differ in their intracellular routes, also suggesting that chimeric constructs containing ricin-like toxins (i.e. immunotoxins) could be coupled with the use of common and cheap drugs for the treatment of cancer in HIV-infected patients.

retrovir 250 mg

We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control') gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression--an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs.

retrovir capsules

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is common in persons with advanced HIV infection and can be prevented by prophylactic use of rifabutin; however, routine prophylaxis is costly and incompletely effective. Chronic anemia is a common manifestation of MAC infection. We conducted a retrospective population study of the annual incidence of MAC bacteremia and blood transfusion for anemia in a regional HIV-positive population before and after the introduction of rifabutin to determine the effect of MAC prophylaxis on the incidence of transfusion-requiring anemia. The HIV-infected patient populations in 1992 and 1993 were comparable in number, severity of immunodeficiency, and zidovudine (ZDV) use. The use of rifabutin for MAC prophylaxis for those with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts < 100/microl increased from 17.2% in 1992 to 33.7% in 1993 (p < 0.001), whereas diagnostic surveillance for MAC bacteremia was stable. In 1993, there was a decrease in the number of HIV-infected persons from whom MAC was isolated (10 vs. 26, p = 0.004), and a significant decrease in the number of patients transfused for anemia (15 vs. 35, p = 0.002), number of transfusion episodes, and numbers of units transfused, associated with significant cost and resource savings. Adoption of MAC prophylaxis was followed by a significant decrease in the number of diagnosed MAC infections and in transfusion requirements in an HIV-positive population with sustained surveillance and similar levels of immunodeficiency, which may represent a health and economic benefit of effective [correction of defective] MAC prophylaxis in a population at risk.

retrovir drug

Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts of over 900 strains of cultured blue-green algae (cyanophyta) were examined in vitro for their ability to inhibit the reverse transcriptases (RT) of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). Eighteen (2.0%) aqueous extracts showed activity against AMV and HIV RTs. The maximal level of RT inhibition achieved by some of the active extracts was equivalent to that measured for 3'-azido-2',3'-di-deoxythymidine (AZT) at 668 ng/ml. Examination of partially purified fractions prepared by C18 column chromatography demonstrated that the RT inhibition observed could not be attributed entirely to the degradation of transcript DNA, template RNA, or enzyme protein in the reaction mixture. Thus, these results indicate that cultured blue-green algae may represent a novel source of compounds that inhibit RT activity, including that of HIV-1.

retrovir tablets spc

A new method of biochemical modulation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) was studied experimentally. Nude mice transplanted with cells of the human gastric cancer cell line MKN28 were divided into 4 groups, i.e., control, 5-FU, AZT, and 5-FU plus AZT, and the antitumor activities were compared. Based on the assessment of tumor volume, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the 5-FU and 5-FU plus AZT groups (P<0.05, P<0.01, versus control, respectively). The thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition rate, an index of inhibition of the de novo pathway, was significantly higher in the 5-FU and 5-FU plus AZT groups than in the control group (P<0.01), but it did not differ from the control in the AZT group. TS-bound FdUMP tended to be higher in the 5-FU plus AZT group than in the 5-FU group. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) and the uptake ratio of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), indices of salvage pathway activity, were significantly lower in the AZT and 5-FU plus AZT groups than in the control group (TK, P< 0.05, P < 0.01; uptake ratio of BrdU, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). There were slight losses of body weight in the 5-FU and 5-FU plus AZT groups compared with that in the control group, but no difference between the AZT and control groups in weight loss. These findings suggest that addition of AZT plays an important role in potentiating the antitumor activity of 5-FU through both blockage of a compensatory increase of activity in the salvage pathway and also an increase in TS-bound FdUMP, and has no adverse effects. Thus, the combination of 5-FU and AZT could be useful as a new modality in gastric cancer chemotherapy.

retrovir dosage forms

At Week 48, intent-to-treat, switch-included analysis showed plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 copies/mL in 100% (29/29) of patients and <50 copies/mL in 93% (27/29); 59% of patients who achieved <50 copies/mL had <3 copies/mL (16/27). Similar virologic suppression was observed in patients with baseline HIV-1 RNA above or below 100000 copies/mL. HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ cell counts changed from baseline by a median of -3.4 log(10) copies/mL and +172 cells/microL, respectively. One virologic failure occurred at Week 16. Median TRECs/100000 peripheral blood lymphocytes increased 6-fold between baseline and Week 48. Median adherence rates were consistently 100% by self-report and 94% by pill count. Grade 2-4 treatment-related adverse events included dreams (16%), nausea (13%), decreased white cells (8%), dizziness (8%), sleep disorders (8%), and malaise and fatigue (8%). A suspected ABC hypersensitivity reaction occurred in 8% (3/38) of patients.

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A 27-year-old white woman developed symptomatic hyperbilirubinemia and anemia while receiving an indinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral (ARV) regimen that required disruption of therapy. Extensive laboratory examinations were performed including determination of indinavir and ritonavir concentrations. The findings were attributed to two independent processes, an unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to indinavir and anemia due to zidovudine.

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To test whether zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) (AZT) inhibition of thymidine phosphorylation causes depletion of the TTP pool resulting in mitochondrial DNA depletion, 3T3-F442a cells were differentiated in the presence of AZT and analyzed to determine mitochondrial DNA content and deoxynucleotide levels. These results suggest that AZT toxicity may not be related to deoxynucleotide pool alterations.

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With the identification of HIV-1 as the etiological agent of AIDS, infected people have pursued to varying degrees pharmaceutical treatment to arrest disease progress. This paper evaluates the use of AZT and other antiretroviral agents, as well as access to, and utilization of, medical and social services among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Miami, Florida. An ongoing prospective study of street-recruited IDUs in Miami-Dade County identified 20 HIV-infected IDUs who had HIV disease (CDC classification IV), and took antiretroviral and other medications after intervention. Participants included 13 active and 7 inactive IDUs. Longitudinal data and in-depth interviews made possible detailed studies of participants during periods when they were taking antiretroviral medications. Those IDUs who are HIV-positive have also received intensive medical and social services. Participants in the study reported nausea, malaise, insomnia, and dysphoria upon initiating AZT therapy. Eleven readily attributed these symptoms to use of antiretroviral medications, primarily AZT. Nevertheless, 9 reported an overall positive impression of the drug's effects; seven despite initial negative reactions to the medication. These results, plus measurement of medication in the blood, indicate that the IDUs studied not only took the antiviral(s), but often were willing to do so in spite of this medication making them feel bad.

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Using an in vitro model, we demonstrate that when CD4 T cells from HIV infected subjects are enriched from total blood lymphocytes the immune response to antigen is augmented. However, augmentation of this response is confined to HIV infected subjects with relatively preserved CD4 T cell counts. Enriching for CD4 T cells had no effect on antigen responses in patients with low CD4 lymphocyte counts. These findings support the concept that CD4 T cells in late stage HIV have inherent qualitative defects.

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We have recently demonstrated that azidothymidine (AZT) elevates the levels of circulating platelets in mice made immune deficient by infection with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MAIDS mice). In an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of the AZT platelet elevating effect, we examined the number of splenic and bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming cells (CFU-mk) and the ploidy of megakaryocytes derived from CFU-mk using fluorescence cytophotometric methods. Two other dideoxynucleosides (ddN) 2'3'-dideoxyinosine (ddl) and 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) were assessed to determine the specificity of the effect of AZT. MAIDS mice were given ddN in drinking water for 15 days. AZT was the only ddN that significantly increased circulating platelet levels in MAIDS mice. AZT significantly increased splenic CFU-mk in MAIDS mice, but bone marrow CFU-mk were not affected. ddl and ddC failed to change either platelet levels or the numbers of splenic or bone marrow CFU-mk. The ploidy of megakaryocytes derived from splenic and bone marrow CFU-mk were examined by first identifying CFU-mk by staining for acetylcholinesterase, followed by nuclear staining with propidium iodide. The fluorescence of individual cells was then measured using a Perceptics image analysis system. Modal ploidy of CFU-mk megakaryocytes derived from spleen cells of AZT-treated immunodeficient mice was shifted upwards from 16N to 32N. Similarly, AZT treatment changed the modal ploidy number of colony megakaryocytes derived from bone marrows of immunodeficient mice from 16N to 32N. The ploidy distribution was also significantly shifted. ddl and ddC failed to significantly alter either modal ploidy number or distribution of megakaryocytes derived from splenic or bone marrow CFU-mk. These findings suggest that AZT may affect physiological processes that lead to platelet formation.

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retrovir drug name 2017-01-04

Chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like and peptidyl-glutamyl-peptide hydrolysing activities of purified human 26S and 20S proteasomes, the latter depleted or enriched in 11S regulator, were assayed after incubation with indinavir, lamivudine and zidovudine at 1-80 microM alone and in combination. To assess the drug effects on cellular functions regulated by proteasomes, the accumulation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins, the processing of the nuclear factor kappa B precursor p105, and the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear buy retrovir factor kappa B, isoform alpha (IkappaBalpha) were evaluated by Western immunoblotting in Jurkat cells after incubation for 6 h with the drugs above.

retrovir tablets spc 2015-02-20

The prevalence, clinical presentation, and risk factors for hyperlactatemia among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy was determined during a 1-month period for patients in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Overall, 73 (8.3%) of 880 patients presented an increase in serum lactate of >1.1 times the upper normal limit (UNL). For 9 patients (1%), lactate elevation was moderate or severe (>2.2 times the UNL). Patients who presented with hyperlactatemia were more likely to be receiving stavudine with or without didanosine (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.8), as compared with patients who received zidovudine-based regimens. The risk increased with increasing time receiving stavudine with or without didanosine. The association between hyperlactatemia and stavudine with or without didanosine was not biased by these medications being more recently available and, therefore, being given preferentially to patients who had prolonged use of nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Hyperlactatemia was associated with lipoatrophy, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Age, sex, or stage of infection with human immunodeficiency virus were not predictive of hyperlactatemia. Determination of lactate levels may prove useful in the screening for buy retrovir mitochondrial toxicity.

retrovir generic name 2015-10-23

Patients aged ≥16 years who switched from a first-line regimen including stavudine to a ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based second-line regimen with lamivudine or emtricitabine and zidovudine or tenofovir in seven ART programmes in southern Africa were included. We estimated the causal effect of buy retrovir receiving tenofovir or zidovudine on mortality and virological failure using Cox proportional hazards marginal structural models. Its parameters were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weights. Baseline characteristics were age, sex, calendar year and country. CD4(+) T-cell count, creatinine and haemoglobin levels were included as time-dependent confounders.

retrovir drug 2017-05-13

The efficacy of antifolate, antiviral, and other drugs was compared in an experimental model of pneumocystosis. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) administered alone in doses of greater than or equal to 60 mg/kg/day was highly effective in treatment and prophylaxis. Low (less than or equal to 15 mg/kg/day) doses of SMX showed limited, buy retrovir dose-related anti-Pneumocystis carinii activity in therapy but were more effective in prophylaxis. The dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors trimethoprim (TMP), pyrimethamine, and trimetrexate exhibited little anti-P. carinii activity when administered alone and did not enhance the efficacy of SMX; the effects of the DHFR inhibitors could not be related to the dose or the concentration in serum. These data suggested that the rat model is an excellent system for studying the anti-P. carinii activity of sulfonamides but is of limited value in studying DHFR inhibitors. The antiviral drugs azidothymidine, dideoxyinosine, inosine pranobex (Isoprinosine), amantadine, and acyclovir displayed little or no activity against P. carinii; however, azidothymidine did not impair the efficacy of SMX or TMP-SMX. These results supported the clinical practice of giving antiviral agents together with antifolate drugs to patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and suggested that the beneficial effects of antiviral agents on the occurrence of pneumocystosis are due mainly to their effects on the virus or the host immune response. In contrast to the antiviral drugs, 9-deazainosine, a nucleoside analog with antiprotozoal properties, demonstrated marked activity against P. carinii which was related to dose and route of administration. These data raised the possibility that anti-P. carinii activity is a general property of purine nucleosides and suggested that further exploration of this class of compounds might lead to clinically useful agents.

retrovir overdose 2017-09-29

A search of MEDLINE for English-language literature published from 1989 to the present was conducted to identify the buy retrovir factors that affect vertical transmission of HIV infection as well as ways to reduce risk. As of August 1998, there were an estimated million people infected with HIV in the US, and, in 1994, AIDS was the third-leading cause of death among women aged 25-44 years. The prevalence of maternal-fetal transmission is approximately 1.6/1000 births. Neonatal transmission rates in the US are 15-25% as compared to 25-35% in Africa. It is believed that 50% of vertical transmission occurs during labor and delivery through exposure to secretions and blood. HIV is also transmitted through breast milk. The literature review revealed several postulated determinants of vertical transmission, such as maternal, obstetric, infant, and viral factors. The literature indicates that high levels of maternal viral load and advanced maternal disease increase risk of vertical transmission, that treatment of pregnant women and newborns with zidovudine decreases transmission risk, and that breast feeding should be avoided unless there is no safe alternative to breast milk. In addition, it is recommended that HIV-positive pregnant women undergo assessment of viral load and degree of immunosuppression, that infected women be treated with oral zidovudine during pregnancy and intravenous zidovudine during labor, that combination therapy be considered when appropriate, and that patients be counseled about the risk of transmission during invasive prenatal testing.

retrovir brand name 2016-04-01

Emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected infants occurred between 2 buy retrovir wk and 6 mo post partum, most likely because of exposure to maternal ARV drugs through breast milk. Our findings may impact the choice of regimen for ARV treatment of HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers and their infected infants.

retrovir dosage forms 2017-12-27

To determine the effect of lamivudine ( buy retrovir 3TC) on syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI (NSI) HIV-1 populations in vivo.

retrovir syrup dosage 2016-09-17

Prospective research cohort of patients initiating ART between April 2004 and April 2005 in Kampala, Uganda. The main endpoint was buy retrovir the substitution of at least 1 drug included in the initial combination.

retrovir syrup 2016-10-19

Adherence to a fixed dose combination of dual nucleoside antiretroviral therapy was compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV buy retrovir )-infected patients newly started on a fixed dosed combination of lamivudine (3TC) 150 mg/zidovudine (ZDV) 300 mg versus its components taken as separate pills. Medicaid pharmacy claims data were used for analyses. To examine the association between treatment group and medication adherence, three types of multivariate regressions were employed. In addition, all regressions were conducted for the whole population using data from 1995 to 2001 as well as a subpopulation, which excluded data prior to September 1997. Model covariates included patient characteristics, healthcare utilization, and non-study antiretroviral therapy use. The likelihood of > or =95% adherence among patients on combination therapy was three times greater than patients taking 3TC and ZDV in separate pills. Also, combination therapy patients had on average 1.4 fewer adherence failures per year of follow-up and nearly double the time to adherence failure compared to the separate pills group. Consistency among study results suggests that fixed dose combination therapies such as lamivudine (3TC) 150 mg/ zidovudine (ZDV) 300 mg should be considered when prescribing HIV treatment that includes an appropriate dual nucleoside.

retrovir 250 mg 2016-07-04

To examine buy retrovir changes in HIV-1 susceptibility (genotype and phenotype) during an initial abacavir monotherapy phase followed by the addition of zidovudine and lamivudine.

cost of retrovir 2015-11-01

Antiviral drug susceptibility assays for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are required to monitor the development of drug resistance during clinical trials and antiretroviral drug therapy. First-generation phenotypic assays possess a number of drawbacks, not least the selection of unrepresentative virus populations buy retrovir during cocultivation. Here we describe a rapid phenotypic assay for the assessment of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. This procedure, called the recombinant virus assay, allows the generation of viable virus by homologous recombination of a PCR-derived pool of RT coding sequences into an RT-deleted, noninfectious proviral clone, pHIV delta BstEII. A nested PCR procedure has been optimized to allow the amplification of an RT pool from both uncultured and cocultured infected patient peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) DNA for subsequent use in the creation of recombinant viruses. Analysis of two patients during the course of zidovudine therapy showed that this approach produced viruses which accurately exhibited the same genotype and phenotype as that of the original infected PBL DNA. The recombinant virus assay can be performed in approximately 3 weeks without the use of donor PBLs and therefore represents a rapid, nonselective procedure for the assay of clinical isolates.

retrovir drug class 2017-12-02

Employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we have characterized the radicals formed in 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (3'-AZT) and in its 5'-analog 5'-azido-5'-deoxythymidine (5'-AZT) after electron attachment in gamma-irradiated aqueous (H(2)O or D(2)O) glassy (7.5 M LiCl) systems. ESR spectral studies and theoretical calculations show that the predominant site of electron capture in 3'-AZT and in 5'-AZT is at the azide group and not at the thymine moiety. The azide group in AZT is therefore more buy retrovir electron affinic than the most electron affinic DNA base, thymine. Electron attachment to 3'-AZT and 5'-AZT results in an unstable azide anion radical intermediate (RN(3)*(-)) that is too short-lived to be observed in our work even at 77 K. At 77 K, we observe the neutral aminyl radical (RNH*) after loss of N(2) from RN(3)*(-) followed by protonation of nitrene anion radical (RN*(-)) to give RNH*. The expected RN*(-) intermediate is not observed as protonation from water is complete at 77 K even under highly basic conditions. Formation of RND* in D(2)O solutions confirms water as the source of the NH proton in the RNH*. Our assignments to these radicals are aided by DFT calculations for hyperfine coupling constants that closely match the experimental values. On annealing to higher temperatures (ca. 160-170 K), RNH* undergoes bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions from the thymine methyl group and the sugar moiety resulting in the formation of the thymine allyl radical (UCH(2)*) and two sugar radicals, C3'* and C5'*. RNH* also results in one-electron oxidation of the guanine base in 3'-AZG. This work provides a potential mechanism for the reported radiosensitization effects of AZT.

retrovir syrup zidovudine 2016-08-01

With the results from the Delta and ACTG 175 clinical trials clearly showing an increased benefit of two drugs over monotherapy, combination nucleoside analog therapy looks set to play a major role in the battle against HIV. It is therefore essential that suitable combinations of drugs are used in clinical trials. We investigated the intracellular activation of zidovudine (ZDV), zalcitabine (ddC), and lamivudine (3TC) in MOLT-4 cells in two- and three-drug combinations at clinically achieved concentrations. The phosphorylation of ZDV and 3TC to their active triphosphate anabolites was not affected by the presence of the other drugs studied. However, the phosphorylation of ddC was significantly inhibited when incubated with 3TC, resulting in levels of ddC triphosphate (ddC-TP) less than 50% of control values. This can be explained by the requirement of both nucleoside analogs for the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase to carry out the initial step in their phosphorylation buy retrovir pathways, and by the comparatively low plasma concentrations of ddC achieved in vivo. These results suggest that regimens containing nucleoside analogs should be designed taking into account potential interactions affecting phosphorylation.

retrovir dose 2016-10-07

Antiviral therapy has in the past buy retrovir met with limited success and only a few antiviral drugs have been available. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has created an urgent need for the development of antiviral therapy against this infection. HIV replication offers several targets for inhibitory compounds, the foremost presently being the HIV reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes. Despite the short time since the beginning of the epidemic, 3 nucleoside analogue drugs (zidovudine, didanosine and zalcitabine) which act at the reverse transcriptase site are already licensed for use against HIV, and others (stavudine, alovudine and 3-TC) are still under clinical evaluation. Part II of this article discusses non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors undergoing investigation, protease inhibitors, and compounds active against various other targets in HIV. Treatment guidelines are also provided in Part II.

retrovir medication 2017-09-20

A nested cohort study within a randomized clinical trial (the Mashi Study). Laboratory Requip 1 Mg toxicities among infants born to women who initiated HAART before delivery were compared with toxicities among those born to women who received zidovudine and a single dose of nevirapine or placebo in labor. Infants were randomized to breastfeed with extended zidovudine or to formula-feed.

retrovir medicine 2017-07-22

Zidovudine-resistance mutations were Dutasteride Avodart Reviews detected in seven (9%) of 82 individuals. Mutations associated with resistance to other reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) were detected in two individuals. Primary-resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors (V82A, L90M) were detected in three (4%) of 70 individuals; two of these had also RTI-resistance mutations. Decreased sensitivity to three or four protease inhibitors was seen in three individuals, one of whom was infected with HIV-1 variants that harboured 12 mutations associated with resistance to multiple RTI and protease inhibitors.

retrovir tablets 2015-03-02

Even though Cuba is generally considered an area where subtype B is dominant, we detected a high proportion of non-B subtype viruses. The low prevalence of resistance mutations to RTIs and PIs reflects the delay in introducing these drugs to Cuba. Multidrug resistance to RTIs was not found, so Prilosec Dogs Dose , as of now, the use of these drugs continues to be an option for Cuban patients.

retrovir pediatric dosing 2016-01-13

Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) alone was found to be as effective as low-dose TMP-SMX plus zidovudine and standard-dose TMP-SMX alone in preventing and treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in an immunosuppressed-rat model. Zidovudine Nexium 150 Mg alone had no preventive or curative effect on PCP. We conclude that the initially reported reduced incidence of PCP in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with zidovudine alone is not due to anti-P. carinii activity of zidovudine. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of low-dose TMP-SMX for the prevention and treatment of PCP should be further investigated.

retrovir 300 mg 2016-05-05

Increased stillbirth rates occur among HIV- Neurontin 800 Pills infected women, but no studies have evaluated the pathological basis for this increase, or whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) influences the etiology of stillbirths. It is also unknown whether HIV infection of the fetus is associated with stillbirth.

retrovir dosing 2015-06-13

NORA [Nevirapine OR Abacavir study, a sub-study of the Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) trial] randomized 600 symptomatic HIV-infected Ugandan adults (CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm(3)) to receive zidovudine/lamivudine plus abacavir (cABC arm) or nevirapine (cNVP arm). All Imodium Dosage virological tests were performed retrospectively, including resistance tests on week 96 plasma samples with HIV RNA levels ≥1000 copies/mL. Phenotypic resistance was expressed as fold-change in IC(50) (FC) relative to wild-type virus.

retrovir drug interactions 2017-03-01

This article provides a review on the pharmacokinetics of Precose Drugs antivirals in the neonate. The pharmacokinetic parameters in the neonate are compared with those of the adult, and when possible, the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared in neonates of different ages.

retrovir capsules 2016-06-04

Fifty-three asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-infected men (CD4+ cell count < 500 x 10(6)/l) participated in the study. Results of renal function and haematology tests were within normal limits Topamax Buy Online and all hepatic function tests were up to three times the upper limit of normal. Patients received 200 mg oral zidovudine and serial blood samples were collected for 4 h (18 patients) or 8 h (35 patients). Serum zidovudine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (12 patients) or radioimmunoassay (41 patients). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods. The relationships between body weight or BSA and maximum serum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), apparent serum clearance (CL/F), and apparent terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) were determined by simple least-squares linear regression.

retrovir 200 mg 2015-06-18

Both zidovudine (ZDV) and stavudine (D4T) must be intracellularly converted to their respective active triphosphate anabolites (ZDV-TP and D4T-TP). It is hypothesized that the combination of ZDV and D4T may lead to altered formation of phosphorylated anabolites for either drug. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D4T on intracellular ZDV phosphorylation. Human PBMCs were incubated with [(3)H]ZDV in the presence and absence of D4T. Cells were harvested at several time points over 12 h to determine area under the intracellular concentration versus time curve (AUC) of ZDV and its phosphorylated anabolites. Radiolabled ZDV and anabolites were quantified using HPLC and LS. The AUC for ZDV-TP was 0.53 and 0.52 pmol x h/10(6) PBMC in the absence and presence of D4T, respectively. The AUC for ZDV monophosphate was 157.45 and 172.44 pmol x h/10(6) PBMC pre and post D4T. D4T does not appear to affect the formation of intracellular ZDV phosphates in human PBMCs under the conditions studied.

retrovir oral suspension 2017-09-11

In the CBV/LPV/r-arm, 29 out of 35 patients [(83%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 66.9-92.2%] and 18 out of 40 patients (45%; 95% CI 29.7-61.5%) in the ATV/LPV/r-arm had a HIV-RNA level <50 copies/ml at week 48. The intent-to-treat analysis revealed inferior virologic response in the ATV/LPV/r arm (Chi-Q and Fisher´s Exact Test p<0.001) and resulted in premature termination of the trial. Eleven patients in the ATV/LPV/r-arm discontinued therapy because of virological failure. These failures mostly presented with low level replication (<1,000 copies/ml). Increases in CD4 cell counts was significantly more rapid in the ATV/LPV/r arm (p=0.02), but comparable at week 48.

retrovir generic 2016-01-18

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of K101Q, Y181C and H221Y emerging in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with different mutations patterns in phenotypic susceptibility to currently available NNRTIs (nevirapine NVP, efavirenz EFV) and NRTIs (zidovudine AZT, lamivudine 3TC, stavudine d4T) in China.

buy retrovir 2016-01-31

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) that arises in immune-deficient patients is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is universally associated with the EBV. Patients with EBV(+) PCNSL face a particularly poor prognosis with median survival times of 2-12 months despite aggressive management with radiation therapy. We have developed a preclinical model of EBV(+) PCNSL to explore strategies that specifically target EBV-infected B lymphoblasts in vivo. Stereotactic implantation of EBV-transformed human lymphoblastoid B-cell lines into the caudate nucleus of the nude rat resulted in lethal CNS tumor burden manifested by the onset of focal neurological symptoms within 21 days. Histological evaluation at autopsy revealed a multifocal, perivascular human EBV(+) lymphoblastic B-cell infiltrate that displayed a latency type III EBV gene expression profile similar to PCNSL that develops in some immune-deficient patients. Radiation (1600 cGy) of lymphoblastoid B-cell lines resulted in up-regulation of the EBV thymidine kinase (EBV-TK) transcript and sensitization of these cells to drug-induced apoptosis using nucleoside analogs. Enhanced expression of EBV-TK mRNA in EBV(+) PCNSL tumors by radiation therapy occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. In vivo trials using the nude rat PCNSL model demonstrated significantly improved mean survival time (MST) with single fraction whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and antiviral therapy consisting of zidovudine (AZT) and ganciclovir (GCV; MST 41.3 +/- 3.3 days; P = 0.05), compared with either antiviral therapy (MST 32.1 +/- 1.1 days) or WBRT alone (MST 22 +/- 0.8 days). We found constitutive and abundant EBV-TK mRNA expression in a stereotactic core biopsy specimen from a solid organ transplant patient with EBV(+) PCNSL. Withdrawal of immunosuppression did not result in disease regression. This patient achieved a complete response after therapy with high-dose AZT and GCV in the absence of WBRT, and remains in remission on oral maintenance AZT/GCV therapy 3 years after diagnosis. These results suggest that antiviral therapies can be effectively explored in vivo using a preclinical animal model of human EBV(+) PCNSL with subsequent translation to patients with EBV(+) PCNSL.