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Precose (Acarbose)
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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

acarbose precose medication

Metabolic and non metabolic cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster in the same individual. The association of the cardiovascular risk factors is referred as metabolic syndrome (MS). This syndrome is associated with an increased risk of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The cluster of cardiovascular risk factors of the MS includes: insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance or diabetes, abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, a proinflammatory and prothrombotic state. MS is one of the major issues in the management of cardiovascular disease because of its epidemic proportion and its impact on increasing risk of developing both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main therapeutic goal in the management of patients with the MS is to reduce risk for clinical cardiovascular events and to prevent type 2 diabetes. In particular, for individuals with established diabetes, risk factors management must be intensified to reduce their higher cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle changes have a critical role in the clinical management of the risk factors predisposing to MS, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity. A large body of evidence suggests the use of Metformin and Acarbose for the treatment of the syndrome as these drugs have consistently shown to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. Most anti-hypertensive drugs have unfavorable metabolic profile while b-blockers, centrally acting agents and drugs targeting the renin angiotensin system should always be considered for the treatment of hypertension in patients with MS.

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Extracts from Rhei Rhizoma extracts (RR) have been reported to attenuate metabolic disorders such as diabetic nephropathy, hypercholesterolemia and platelet aggregation. With this study we investigated the anti-diabetic action of 70% ethanol RR extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and determined the action mechanism of active compounds of RR in vitro. In the diabetic mice, serum glucose levels at fasting and post-prandial states and glucose area under the curve at modified oral glucose tolerance tests were lowered without altering serum insulin levels, indicating that RR contained potential anti-diabetic agents. The fractions fractionated from RR extracts by XAD-4 column revealed that 60%, 80% and 100% methanol fractions enhanced insulin sensitivity and inhibited alpha-glucoamylase activity. The major compounds of these fractions were sennosides, rhein and rhaponticin. Rhaponticin and rhein enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Rhaponticin increased adipocytes with a differentiating effect similar to pioglitazone, but rhein and sennoside B decreased triglyceride accumulation. Sennoside A and B inhibited alpha-glucoamylase activity as much as acarbose. In conclusion, a crude extract of RR improves glucose intolerance by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and decreasing carbohydrate digestion via inhibiting alpha-glucoamylase activity. Rhein and rhaponticin are potential candidates for hypoglycemic agents.

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Glycosylation often mediates important biological processes through the interaction of carbohydrates with complementary proteins. Most chemical tools for the functional analysis of glycans are highly dependent upon various linkage chemistries that involve the reducing terminus of carbohydrates. However, because of ring opening, the structural integrity of the reducing sugar ring (pyranose or furanose) is lost during these techniques, resulting in derivatized carboydrates that markedly differ from the parent molecule. This paper describes a new aqueous-based, one-pot strategy that involves first converting the sugar to a C-glycoside ketone, followed by conversion to ketohydrazones or oximes. Hence, the C-glycoside ketones are tagged with fluorescence, colored, cationic or biotin-labeled groups or immobilized onto hydrazine-functionalized beads. No activating or protecting groups are required, and the chemistry is mild enough for a wide range of carbohydrates. We demonstrate the versatility of the approach to diverse glycans, including bead immobilization and lectin analysis of acarbose, an antidiabetic drug, to dabsyl-tagged enzyme substrates to screen cellulases, and for the analysis of plant cell wall hemicellulosics.

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The design and synthesis of a small library of pyrrolidine iminocyclitol inhibitors with a structural similarity to 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabitol (DAB-1) is reported. This library was specifically designed to gain a better insight into the mechanism of inhibition of glycosidases by polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines or iminocyclitols. Pyrrolidine-3,4-diol 15a and pyrrolidine-3,4-diol diacetate 15b had emerged as the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors in the series. Docking studies performed with an homology model of α-glucosidase disclosed binding poses for compounds 15a, 15b, 16a, and 16a' occupying the same region as the NH group of the terminal ring of acarbose and suggest a closer and stronger binding of compound 15a and 15b with the enzyme active site residues. Our studies indicate that 2 or 5-hydroxyl substituents appear to be vital for high inhibitory activity.

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The three-dimensional structure of the Bacillus stearothermophilus "maltogenic" alpha-amylase, Novamyl, has been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 1.7 A. Unlike conventional alpha-amylases from glycoside hydrolase family 13, Novamyl exhibits the five-domain structure more usually associated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Complexes of the enzyme with both maltose and the inhibitor acarbose have been characterized. In the maltose complex, two molecules of maltose are found in the -1 to -2 and +2 to +3 subsites of the active site, with two more on the C and E domains. The C-domain maltose occupies a position identical to one previously observed in the Bacillus circulans CGTase structure [Lawson, C. L., et al. (1994) J. Mol. Biol. 236, 590-600], suggesting that the C-domain plays a genuine biological role in saccharide binding. In the acarbose-maltose complex, the tetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is found as an extended hexasaccharide species, bound in the -3 to +3 subsites. The transition state mimicking pseudosaccharide is bound in the -1 subsite of the enzyme in a 2H3 half-chair conformation, as expected. The active site of Novamyl lies in an open gully, fully consistent with its ability to perform internal cleavage via an endo as opposed to an exo activity.

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Mammalian alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-linked glucose polymers according to a complex processive mechanism. We have determined the X-ray structures of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase complexes with the smallest molecule of the trestatin family (acarviosine-glucose) which inhibits porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase and yet is not hydrolyzed by the enzyme. A structure analysis at 1.38 A resolution of this complex allowed for a clear identification of a genuine single hexasaccharide species composed of two alpha-1,4-linked original molecules bound to the active site of the enzyme. The structural results supported by mass spectrometry experiments provide evidence for an enzymatically catalyzed condensation reaction in the crystal.

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Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase is a therapeutic approach for diabetes. In this study, a method based on online liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical detection (LC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD) was developed to screen and identify alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from selected beverage extracts, including pu-erh tea ( Camellia sinensis var. assamica), eagle tea ( Litsea coreana Levl.), and radix glycyrrhizae ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.). As a result, two components, (-)-epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechingallate (ECG), as potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, were found in pu-erh tea. The IC(50) values of EGCG and ECG on alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) were 175.1 and 246.9 microM, respectively, and both were lower than that of acarbose (IC(50) = 3553.0 microM), a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Kinetic studies revealed that both EGCG and ECG inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity in a noncompetitive manner. The study suggests that the developed LC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD system is a powerful tool for rapid screening and identification of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in complex samples and that EGCG and ECG may be good candidates as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

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Two new acarbose analogues were synthesized by the reaction of acarbose with sucrose and dextransucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512FMC and B-742CB. The major products for each reaction were subjected to yeast fermentation, and then separated and purified by Bio-Gel P2 gel permeation chromatography and descending paper chromatography. The structures of the products were determined by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). B-512FMC-dextransucrase produced one major acarbose product, 2(I)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose and B-742CB-dextransucrase produced two major acarbose products, 2(I)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose and 3(IV)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose.

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A total of 535 T2DM patients who failed to achieve glycemic control with insulin and a traditional oral hypoglycemic agent were randomized to receive vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin. Body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial plasma glucose (FPG and PPG), insulin dose, and adverse events were evaluated during the study.

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Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a strong association between an elevated colon cancer risk and increased fecal excretion of secondary bile acids, neutral sterols, and prolonged gastrointestinal transit time. Starch malabsorption, on the other hand, has been reported to be a possible protective factor in colon carcinogenesis. To study the impact of starch malabsorption on these parameters, 12 healthy volunteers consumed a diet rich in starch for two 4-week periods. During a double-blind crossover trial they received the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose (BAY g 5421) in one of the study periods and placebo in the other. During acarbose treatment stool wet weight increased by 68%, stool dry weight by 57%, and gastrointestinal mean transit time by 30%. Fecal concentrations (mg/g dry weight) of the neutral sterols coprostanol, coprostanone, campesterol, 4-cholesten-3-one, and beta-sitosterol decreased by 36.8, 48.7, 42.1, 34.6, and 39.4%, respectively, under acarbose. Concentrations of the major secondary bile acids, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid, decreased by 59.9 and 52.2%, respectively. In spite of an increased stool weight, also daily excretion (mg/day) of these two bile acids was lower under acarbose (47.9 and 36.6%, respectively) compared to placebo, whereas excretion of the main primary bile acid, cholic acid, rose from 22.58 mg/day to 379.80 mg/day during the acarbose period. The changes in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion found during acarbose treatment may explain a protective effect of starch malabsorption on colon cancer development.

precose 100 mg

Methanol extract, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts obtained from the methanol extract, six isolated polyphenols (chebulagic acid, chebulic acid trimethyl ester, corilagin, methyl gallate, narcissin, and rutin), and shikimic acid were evaluated for enzyme inhibition and toxicity.

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Terminalia sericea extract (IC(50)=92mg/ml) exhibited a considerable alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity which was better than acarbose (IC(50)=131mg/ml) under our assay conditions. In the reverse transcriptase assay, T. sericea also showed good inhibitory activity (IC(50)=43mg/ml), which was higher than that of the reference drug, Adriamycin (IC(50)=100mg/ml). The ethyl acetate extract of Elaeodendron transvaalense exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity in both the NF-kappaB and Tat assays with inhibitory activity of 76% and 75% respectively at a concentration of 15mg/ml. The acetone and chloroform extracts of E. transvaalense and Zanthoxylum davyi also showed good activity in the NF-kappaB and Tat assays.

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This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes.

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The α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of five bioactive components, namely 1-deoxynojirimycin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol contained in mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) plants have been compared. Spectroscopy methods were employed to compare their α-glucosidase inhibitory mechanisms. The results revealed that 1-deoxynojirimycin (competitive), resveratrol and oxyresveratrol (noncompetitive) were stronger inhibitors than acarbose, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (mix competitive and noncompetitive) showed modest activities. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol could quench the fluorescence spectra statically by forming stable complexes, while the quenching of cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside belonged to dynamic quenching by the collision of molecules. The interactions between ligands and α-glucosidase were mainly driven by hydrophobic force, or hydrogen bonding consequently induced conformational changes and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Docking results suggested that they could bind to α-glucosidase at different sites. This work provides useful information for the understanding of the ligands-α-glucosidase interactions and identifies oxyresveratrol as a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor.

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The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is beneficial in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. To determine whether it attenuates the commonly associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we used an experimental NASH model. Rats were fed ad libitum a nutritionally adequate high fat diet (71% of calories as fat) with or without acarbose (200 mg/1000 calories) for 3 weeks. All rats given the high fat diet only developed typical NASH whereas acarbose attenuated several of the characteristic hepatic alterations of NASH: there was less steatosis and inflammation, with a significant reduction in the mRNA of the hepatic inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and of its protein. There was also a decrease in the CYP2E1 mRNA and in collagen, with similar trends for CYP2E1 protein and procollagen mRNA. Because acarbose attenuates many of the hepatic alterations associated with experimental NASH, it is now indicated to determine whether it exerts similar beneficial effects in patients afflicted by this disease.

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Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia with extremely high insulin levels and the presence of circulating autoantibodies against insulin, in patients who have never been exposed to exogenous insulin. We report two patients with the syndrome. A 36 years old male presenting with hypoglycemia in the emergency room had an oral glucose tolerance test showed basal and 120 min glucose levels of 88 and 185 mg/dl. The basal and 120 min insulin levels were 2,759 and 5,942 μUI/ml. The presence of an insulin secreting tumor was discarded. Anti-insulin antibodies were positive. He was successfully treated with a diet restricted in carbohydrates and frequent meals in small quantities. A 65 years old female presenting with hypoglycemia in the emergency room had the fasting insulin levels of 1,910 µUI/ml. No insulin secreting tumor was detected by images and anti-insulin antibodies were positive. The polyethylene glycol precipitation test showed a basal and after exposition insulin level 1,483 and 114 µUI/ml, respectively. She responded partially to diet and acarbose and required the use of prednisone with a good clinical response.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder, and although oral monotherapy is often initially successful, it is associated with a high secondary failure rate, which contributes to the development of long-term diabetes complications resulting from persistent hyperglycemia. For patients not taking insulin, accumulating evidence suggests that combination therapy using oral antidiabetic agents with different mechanisms of action may be highly effective in achieving and maintaining target blood glucose levels. Low-dose combination therapy may be associated with fewer side effects than higher-dose monotherapy and may achieve similar or better glycemic control. The best-studied combination is that of sulfonylurea compounds plus metformin, a therapeutic approach that addresses both underlying defects in the disorder: insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Other multidrug regimens under investigation are sulfonylurea compounds plus either alpha-glucosidase inhibitors or thiazolidinediones, and combinations of various insulin-sensitizing agents. For many patients, combination oral therapy may be used appropriately as primary management early in the course of type 2 diabetes, along with diet modification and exercise. Later in the course of the disease, the use of combinations of oral agents may delay the need for insulin while maintaining glycemic control, thus making aggressive oral treatment more acceptable for many patients.

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Acarbose reduced excessive blood glucose fluctuations.

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These results showed that sitagliptin and α-GIs, miglitol more so than acarbose, improved hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM after single administration, and had different effects on insulin and incretin secretion.

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Eighteen trials involving 4535 participants that lasted a mean of 31.3 weeks (24 to 52 weeks) were included. Compared with placebo, drug classes did not differ in effect on HbA(1c) level (reduction ranging from -0.70% [95% credible interval {CrI}, -1.33% to -0.08%] for acarbose to -1.08% [CrI, -1.41% to -0.77%] for insulin). Weight increase was seen with insulins (2.84 kg [CrI, 1.76 to 3.90 kg]) and thiazolidinediones (4.25 kg [CrI, 2.76 to 5.66 kg]), and weight loss was seen with glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (-1.63 kg [CrI, -2.71 to -0.60 kg]). Insulins caused twice the absolute number of severe hypoglycemic episodes than noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents.

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precose 25 mg 2016-07-30

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) has not been described as a cause of hypotension after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the intensive care unit (ICU). A 74 year buy precose old man underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. After the ROSC, inotropic agents were not reduced but increased. PPH had occurred, according to the flow sheet, so a provocation test was performed. We noted hypotension but no serum hypoglycemia or tachycardia. The hypotension was diagnosed as PPH. We chose acarbose for treatment; thus, the inotropic agents were discontinued. This is the first case in which hypotension occurred in a patient recovering after CPR in the ICU and that the PPH was treated with acarbose. PPH should be considered and treated to manage hypotension in elderly patients in the ICU.

precose cost 2015-10-01

To compare the efficacy of add-on antihyperglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes that is not controlled with metformin buy precose and a sulfonylurea.

precose acarbose tablets 2016-08-31

All four main studies of lifestyle intervention on diabetes incidence found a clear benefit for diet and exercise intervention compared with usual care. Although the study populations differed by race and ethnicity, the mean BMI, and the intensity of the lifestyle intervention provided, all investigators found substantial diabetes risk reduction with modest weight loss and increased physical activity. Results of these trials give health care providers useful and heartening information to share with patients at risk for diabetes. The challenge remains to find feasible and cost-efficient methods buy precose to identify people at risk and to deliver effective lifestyle interventions. Findings from trials of pharmacologic agents such as metformin, acarbose, and troglitazone are encouraging; however, the ADA recommends that drug therapy should not be used routinely to prevent diabetes until more information regarding the cost-effectiveness of such intervention is known [20]. Results from trials that found a lower incidence of diabetes among those randomly assigned to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, or hormone therapy are intriguing but must be viewed with caution because they are based on post hoc analyses. Because it is difficult to conduct randomized controlled trials of major operative procedures such as bariatric surgery, observational studies that compare surgical interventions for weight loss with traditional weight-loss management may be the best evidence available. These studies have the potential for healthy-person bias in that people who choose bariatric surgery may have other healthy behaviors that are often difficult to measure and control for; such behaviors could account for their lower incidence of diabetes. Undeniably, the best test to diagnose those at high risk for diabetes is not yet known. New strategies that identify those with pre-diabetes and that overcome the limitations of the current tests, particularly the 2-hour post-challenge glucose test, are needed.

precose generic 2016-03-30

Based on a large nationwide diabetic cohort, 113 051 patients with type 2 diabetes newly on metformin-based dual or triple therapy were identified in 2009-2011 and followed until 2013, or death if this occurred sooner. Primary interest targeted hospitalizations for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure buy precose . Secondary outcomes were hypoglycaemia and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess time-to-event hazard ratio between propensity score-matched antidiabetic treatment groups.

precose dose 2017-01-16

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with insulin resistance and consists of a constellation of factors that raise the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the primary goals of treating MetS are prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Three levels of intervention may be considered for individuals with MetS : 1) management of underlying risk conditions by controlling weight excess, enhancing regular physical exercise and promoting healthy diet; 2) management of individual risk factors such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and prothrombotic state; and 3) targeting insulin resistance by using specific insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones. The most important therapeutic intervention effective in subjects with MetS should focus on modest weight reduction and regular leisure-time physical activities. Although lifestyle modification is the first-line therapy, drug therapy may be necessary in many patients to achieve recommended goals regarding lipid profile, blood pressure and blood glucose control. Rather than to use a magic bullet that might fully reverse the underlying cause of the syndrome, one appealing alternative would be to use a so-called "polypill" targeting each of the components of MetS. However, such a polypill should ideally contain numerous molecules that all have shown a potential interest for the management of MetS such as metformin, acarbose, a thiazolidinedione, a statin, a fibrate, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, aspirin. The growing prevalence and high-risk nature of MetS highlights the need to identify buy precose individuals with this condition and to treat them with an aggressive multitargeted approach.

precose dosing 2017-12-28

Brettanomyces lambicus was isolated and identified from a typical overattenuating Belgian lambic beer and exhibited extracellular and intracellular alpha-glucosidase activities. Production of the intracellular enzyme was higher than production of the extracellular enzyme, and localization studies showed that the intracellular alpha-glucosidase is mostly soluble and partially cell wall bound. Both intracellular and extracellular enzymes were purified by ammonium buy precose sulfate precipitation, gel filtration (Sephadex G-150, Sephadex G-200, Ultrogel AcA-44), and ion-exchange chromatography (sulfopropyl-Sephadex C-50, (carboxymethyl-Sephadex C-50). The intracellular alpha-glucosidase exhibited optimum activity at 39 degrees C and pH 6.2. The extracellular enzyme exhibited optimum catalytic activity at 40 degrees C and pH 6.0. The molecular masses of purified intracellular and extracellular alpha-glucosidases, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were 72,500 and 77,250, respectively. For both enzymes there was a decrease in the rate of hydrolysis with an increase in the degree of polymerization, and both enzymes hydrolyzed dextrins isolated from lambic wort (degrees of polymerization, 3 to 9 and more than 9). The K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside, maltose, and maltotriose for the intracellular enzyme were 0.9, 3.4, and 3.7 mM, respectively. The K(i) values for both enzymes were between 28.5 and 57 muM for acarbose and between 7.45 and 15.7 mM for Tris. These enzymes are probably involved in the overattenuation of spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

precose medicine 2016-12-25

The data from this trial presents evidence which shows that treatment by general practitioners can enable buy precose patients both with and without insulin therapy to achieve a high quality of diabetes control. Hence, the results derived from ambulatory evaluations of treatment programmes can not be automatically tansferred to patients treated at hospitals. Regarding inpatient treatment, adapted structured treatment and teaching programmes are mandatory.

precose drugs 2016-08-16

Commercial production of acarbose is exclusively via done microbial fermentation with strains from the genera of Actinoplanes. The addition of C7N-aminocyclitols for enhanced production of acarbose and concurrently reduced formation of impurity C by cultivation of A. utahensis ZJB-08196 in 500-mL shake flasks was investigated, and validamine was found to be the most effective strategy. Under the optimal conditions of validamine addition, acarbose titer was increased from 3560 ± 128 mg/L to 4950 ± 156 mg/L, and impurity C concentration was concurrently decreased from 289 ± 24 mg/L to 107 ± 29 mg/L in batch fermentation after 168 h of cultivation. A further fed-batch experiment coupled with the addition of validamine (20 mg/L) in the fermentation medium prior to inoculation was designed to enhance the production of acarbose. When twice feedings of a mixture of 6 g/L glucose, 14 g/L maltose, and 9 g/L soybean flour were performed at 72 h and 96 h, acarbose titer reached 6606 ± 103 mg/L and impurity C concentration was only 212 ± 12 mg/L at 168 h of cultivation. Acarbose titer and proportion of acarbose/impurity C increased by 85.6% and 152.9% when compared with control experiments. This work demonstrates for the first time that validamine addition is a simple and buy precose effective strategy for increasing acarbose production and reducing impurity C formation.

acarbose precose medication 2016-12-09

Screening was performed in a high-risk population. As of 1 March 1997, 4,424 subjects had been screened, and data were available for 3,919 (88.5%) subjects. Of these subjects, 1,200 (30.6%) had glucose intolerance. Of the subjects with glucose intolerance, 521 (13.3%) had previously undetected type 2 diabetes, and 679 (17.3%) had IGT. Of the IGT population, 412 (60.7%) subjects were eligible for the study This population had the following characteristics: the mean age was 54.8 years, 52% of the subjects were female, 53% had more than one risk factor for buy precose type 2 diabetes, >90% had a family history of diabetes, 78.2% had a BMI > or =27 kg/m2, 47.5% had high blood pressure, 51.2% had dyslipidemia, and 22.8% of the women had a history of gestational diabetes.

precose tablets 2016-09-11

Metformin, troglitazone, acarbose, and orlistat have been shown to decrease the risk of progression to diabetes in patients at risk for developing diabetes. Other questions that address issues such as buy precose identifying target populations, cost-effectiveness, and screening strategies must be answered to more fully define the place of pharmacologic therapy to prevent or delay diabetes.

precose tabs 2016-08-09

A recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was found to be produced as several isoforms arising from different N--terminal processing. Some of those isoforms were purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop buy precose vapour-diffusion method under the following conditions: 35 mM sodium acetate (pH 4.6), 6.25%(v/v) 2-propanol, in the presence of 1.23%(w/v) acarbose (a pseudo-oligosaccharide inhibitor) in the drop. The crystals diffracted beyond 2.0 A resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7 (2), b = 92.9 (4), c = 53.2 (2) A, beta = 109.4 (1) degrees.

precose reviews 2015-08-30

Rabbits were fed with 1 of 2 diets in this study: normal chow, 30 mg acarbose per 100 g chow for 7 days. Rabbits were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 groups: control (n = 10), acarbose (n = 10), acarbose + 5HD (n = 10, intravenous 5 mg/kg of 5-hydroxydecanoate), and 5HD (n = 10, intravenous 5 mg/kg of 5HD). Rabbits then underwent 30 minutes of coronary occlusion followed by 48-hour reperfusion. Postprandial blood glucose levels were higher in the control group than in the acarbose group. The infarct size as a percentage of the left ventricular area at risk was reduced significantly in the acarbose (19.4% +/- 2.3%) compared with the control groups (42.8% +/- 5.4%). The infarct size-reducing effect of acarbose was abolished by 5HD (43.4% +/- 4.7%). Myocardial interstitial 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid levels, an indicator of hydroxyl radicals, increased during reperfusion after 30 minutes of ischemia, but this buy precose increase was inhibited in the acarbose group. This was reversed by 5HD.

precose drug interactions 2015-03-09

In this prospective intervention study we could show that acarbose, by decreasing postprandial hyperglycaemia, can reduce the incidence of silent myocardial infarctions in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. This approach should therefore be Cozaar 20 Mg evaluated in other higher risk populations.

precose drug 2016-10-16

Seven known alpha-glucosidase/beta-fructosidase inhibitors were examined for inhibitory effect against invertases in pooled human dental plaque. The inhibitors used were acarbose, Trestatin, nojirimycin, 1-deoxynojirimycin, glucono-delta-lactam, conduritol-B-epoxide, and Hoe 467A. Plaque homogenates were incubated with 14C-labelled sucrose and invertase activity was assayed by determination of radio-labelled monosaccharide after paper chromatography. Conduritol-B-epoxide, acarbose, and Trestatin reduced the invertase activity an average of 62%, 51%, and 35% respectively. The other inhibitors affected the enzyme activity negligibly. By combining conduritol-B-epoxide with acarbose or Trestatin in other plaque homogenates the inhibition of invertases increased from 35% to 61%. This observation supported the concept that the invertases in dental plaque consist of both Cipro Vita Tablets alpha-glucosidases and beta-fructosidases.

precose generic name 2015-01-20

Currently, no single agent can be definitively recommended for diabetes prevention. Trileptal Patient Reviews Future studies should be designed with diabetes incidence as the primary outcome and should be of sufficient duration to differentiate between genuine diabetes prevention as opposed to simple delay or masking of this condition.

precose online 2017-12-14

The three gliptins showed almost similar glycemic control and incidence of adverse events. However, for FBG control, saxagliptin demonstrated superiority Levitra Online Paypal to sitagliptin, while, inferiority to vildagliptin.

precose medication 2015-10-21

ATF4, a DNA-binding factor that modulates responses to amino acid availability and ribosomal function, has been shown to be altered in both liver and fibroblasts from two strains of long-lived mice, i.e. Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout mice. New data now show elevated ATF4 levels, and elevation of ATF4-dependent proteins and mRNAs, in liver of mice treated with acarbose or rapamycin, calorically restricted mice, methionine-restricted mice, and mice subjected to litter crowding. Elevation of ATF4, at least Zofran 1 Mg in liver, thus seems to be a shared feature of diets, drugs, genes, and developmental alterations that extend maximum lifespan in mice.

precose 50 mg 2015-09-20

This study was designed to investigate whether daidzein inhibits α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities and alleviates postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Daidzein showed prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 values of daidzein against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.048 and 0.301 mmol, respectively, which showed that daidzein was more effective than acarbose. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly suppressed in the daidzein-administered group than in the water group of both streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal mice. Moreover, the area under the curve was significantly lowered following daidzein administration (2043 versus 2475 mmol min l) in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. These results indicated that daidzein may Detrol Similar Drugs be a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and suppress the postprandial hyperglycemia caused by starch.

precose tablet 2015-04-18

The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is Norvasc Maximum Dosage becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants.

precose drug class 2017-12-01

Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) catalyzes the formation of cyclodextrins from amylose through an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. On the basis of the three-dimensional structures of CGTases three histidine residues, which are conserved between CGTases and alpha-amylases, are located at the active center and are proposed to constitute the substrate binding sites. The three histidine residues (His-140, His-233, and His-327) of CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 1011 were individually replaced by site-directed mutagenesis to probe their roles in catalysis. Asparagine-replaced CGTases (H140N-, H233N-, and H327N-CGTase) retained cyclization activity but had altered production ratios of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin. Replacement of histidine by asparagine residues Tricor Dose strongly affected the kcat for beta-cyclodextrin-forming, coupling, and hydrolyzing activities, whereas it barely affected the Km values. The activation energies for alpha-cyclodextrin hydrolysis were increased more than 12 kJ/mol by the replacement. Furthermore, the Ki values of acarbose, which is thought to be a transition-state analog of glycosidase catalysis, were 2-3 orders of magnitude larger in asparagine-replaced CGTases than that in wild-type CGTase. Therefore, the three histidine residues participate in the stabilization of the transition state, whereas they participate little in ground-state substrate binding. H327N-CGTase had decreased activity over an alkaline pH range, indicating that His-327 is important for catalysis over an alkaline pH range.

precose patient review 2015-11-25

The active fraction extracted from dragon's blood displayed an inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 0.152 microg/mL, which is nearly half of the crude material. Its inhibition on alpha-glucosidase was noncompetitive. In addition, when this fraction was orally administered to mice dosed with Acarbose (20 mg/kg), the active fraction (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) significantly suppressed increase of blood glucose levels after sucrose loading in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this extract from Zoloft 25 Mg dragon's blood exerts an anti-diabetic effect by suppressing intestinal carbohydrate absorption and thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose.

precose dosage 2017-09-22

This finding suggested that their hypoglycemic mechanism was similar to Arcoxia Medication Acarbose. Lobster sauce may contain phenyalanine.

buy precose online 2015-07-05

In human, digestion of cooked starch mainly involves breaking down of α-amylase to α-limit dextrins and small linear malto-oligosaccharides, which are in turn hydrolyzed to glucose by the gut mucosal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM). Human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA), amino- and carboxyl-terminal portions of MGAM (ntMGAM and ctMGAM) catalyze the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in starch, playing a crucial role in the production of glucose in the human lumen. Accordingly, these enzymes are effective drug targets for the treatments of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study, a Plackett-Burman based statistical screening procedure was adopted to determine the most critical factors affecting cooked starch digestion by the combination of HPA, ctMGAM and ntMGAM. Six factors were tested and experimental results showed that pH and temperature were the major influencing factors, with optimal pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, ntMGAM had no significant contribution to the glucose production from starch digestion compared to the HPA and ctMGAM. The optimal proportion of HPA and ctMGAM in a starch digestion system was further determined by response surface methodology. Results showed a maximum starch digestion (88.05%) within 0.5 h when used HPA:ctMGAM=1:9 (U). The inhibitory effects of various inhibitors on the cooked starch digestion by HPA1/ctMGAM9 were evaluated by determining their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Acarviostatin II03 showed the highest inhibitory activity, with 67 times higher potency than acarbose. Moreover, acarviostatin II03 could significantly depress postprandial blood glucose levels in Buy Cleocin Gel mice, better than that by acarbose. These findings suggest that our in vitro enzymatic system can simulate in vivo starch digestion process, and thus can be used to screen and evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitors.

precose user reviews 2016-04-19

Baseline characteristics of the acarbose and metformin groups were similar. Glucose control improved significantly in both groups at 24 weeks. The percentage of patients achieving HbA1C < Evista Generic Canada 6.5% was comparable for acarbose and metformin therapy at 24 weeks. Body weight reduction from baseline to 24 weeks was 3.3 kg in the acarbose group and 2.7 kg in the metformin group, whereas the change in HbA1c and body weight was similar in both groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index improved only in the acarbose group at 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of therapy, fasting glucagon and 0.5 hour postprandial glucagon levels decreased markedly in the acarbose group compared to the metformin group.