There is a rising worldwide prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century. The associated complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, renal failure, and blindness result in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy, and enormous health costs. T2DM is a polygenic disease characterized by multiple defects in insulin action in tissues and defects in pancreatic insulin secretion, which eventually leads to loss of pancreatic insulin-secreting cells. The treatment goals for T2DM patients are effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids (if elevated) and, ultimately, to avert the serious complications associated with sustained tissue exposure to excessively high glucose concentrations. Prevention and control of diabetes with diet, weight control, and physical activity has been difficult. Treatment of T2DM has centered on increasing insulin levels, either by direct insulin administration or oral agents that promote insulin secretion, improving sensitivity to insulin in tissues, or reducing the rate of carbohydrate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. This review presents comprehensive and up-to-date information on the mechanism(s) of action, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pleiotropic effects, drug interactions, and adverse effects of the newer antidiabetic drugs, including (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-γ agonists (thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone); (2) the incretin, glucagon-like peptide-) receptor agonists (incretin-mimetics, exenatide. and liraglutide), (3) inhibitors of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (incretin enhancers, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin), (4) short-acting, nonsulfonylurea secretagogue, meglitinides (repaglinide and nateglinide), (5) amylin anlog-pramlintide, (6) α-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol and voglibose), and (7) colesevelam (a bile acid sequestrant). In addition, information is presented on drug candidates in clinical trials, experimental compounds, and some plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes based on experimental evidence. In the opinion of this reviewer, therapy based on orally active incretins and incretin mimetics with long duration of action that will be efficacious, preserve the β-cell number/function, and block the progression of diabetes will be highly desirable. However, major changes in lifestyle factors such as diet and, especially, exercise will also be needed if the growing burden of diabetes is to be contained.
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HbA1c is 6 %. On the basis of positive family history for diabetes, normal body weight and negative antibodies against islet-cell antigens, we perform blood molecular genetic analyses with the suspicion of a genetic form of diabetes. Genetic tests reveal a monogenic form of diabetes (MODY, Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) due to an heterozygous mutation in exon 6 of the glucokinase (GCK) gene. The same mutation is subsequently detected in the patient's mother.
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Human oral therapeutic doses of ritonavir and repaglinide were extrapolated to rats based on the body surface area. Ritonavir (20 mg/kg, p.o.), alone and along with repaglinide (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.), was given to normal, diabetic and hepatic impaired rats, and the PK/PD were studied.
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Neither the mean AUC(0-infinity) (geometric mean ratio: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.93-1.1, P = 0.88) nor the mean C(max) (geometric mean ratio: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.94-1.2, P = 0.35) of repaglinide were statistically significantly different in the group carrying the CYP2C8*3 mutant allele compared with wild-types. Grapefruit juice caused a 19% decrease in the geometric mean ratio of the 3-hydroxyquinidine to quinidine ratio (difference: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.87, P < 0.0001), which was used as an index of CYP3A4 activity, and an increase in the mean AUC(0-infinity) of repaglinide (geometric mean ratio: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.2, P = 0.0048), but had no statistically significant effect on the t(1/2). There was no statistically significant difference in blood glucose concentration in subjects who had or had not ingested grapefruit juice. The effect was more pronounced at the low dose of repaglinide (0.25 mg) than at the therapeutic dose of 2 mg.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nateglinide, a new antidiabetic agent, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The placental transfer of repaglinide from mother to fetus was low. Since a higher transfer rate of repaglinide was observed in fetal-to-maternal than maternal-to-fetal direction, active transport by OATP-transporters may be an important factor in fetal exposure to repaglinide.
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Repaglinide is the first stimulator of insulin secretion from the new meglitinide family. Via specific binding to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel of the beta cell membrane, it stimulates the rapid release of insulin. In preclinical studies, the insulin-stimulating effect of repaglinide has been found to be 10 to 20 times more potent than that of glibenclamide. Repaglinide is rapidly absorbed and has a short action, which makes it particularly well suited for the regulation of prandial blood glucose and meal-related dose adjustment. Since repaglinide is eliminated almost exclusively by non-renal routes, it can be used without danger in patients with moderately reduced renal function. Repaglinide is a suitable agent for first-line monotherapy in patients whose glucose metabolism cannot be optimally controlled by increasing physical activity and appropriate dietary measures. Repaglinide is clearly superior to glibenclamide in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia, and has a lower hypoglycemia risk than all the sulphonylureas. The flexibility of repaglinide makes it possible for good oral meal-related treatment.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, presenting a great challenge to the public health systems due to high morbidity and mortality, because of frequent micro-/macro-vascular complications. Many treatment options are now available, with different efficacy as well as mechanisms of action to improve deranged glucose metabolism. We review some of the available data on derivatives of meglitinide, namely nateglinide and repaglinide. These two compounds increase insulin secretion by a mechanism similar to the one of sulfonylureas, but with a shorter half-life. Nateglinide and repaglinide, derivatives of meglitinides, have characteristic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that, together with their proposed mechanism of action, make them useful for type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially when used in combination therapy.
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Sulfonylureas are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes because they stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. They primarily act by binding to the SUR subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel and inducing channel closure. However, the channel is still able to open to a limited extent when the drug is bound, so that high-affinity sulfonylurea inhibition is not complete, even at saturating drug concentrations. K(ATP) channels are also found in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle, but in these tissues are composed of different SUR subunits that confer different drug sensitivities. Thus tolbutamide and gliclazide block channels containing SUR1 (beta-cell type), but not SUR2 (cardiac, smooth muscle types), whereas glibenclamide, glimepiride, repaglinide, and meglitinide block both types of channels. This difference has been exploited to determine residues contributing to the sulfonylurea-binding site. Sulfonylurea block is decreased by mutations or agents (e.g., phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate) that increase K(ATP) channel open probability. We now propose a kinetic model that explains this effect in terms of changes in the channel open probability and in the transduction between the drug-binding site and the channel gate. We also clarify the mechanism by which MgADP produces an apparent increase of sulfonylurea efficacy on channels containing SUR1 (but not SUR2).
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The study comprised three screening visits, followed by a 7-day inpatient period. Thirty-four patients, with normal renal function (n = 12), mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction (n = 12) or severe renal dysfunction (n = 10), received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide on day 1, followed by preprandial 2-mg doses with main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) on each of days 2-4. A final 2-mg dose of repaglinide was administered on day 5.
To compare the metabolic effects of acarbose and repaglinide in type 2 diabetic patients who are being treated with a sulphonylurea-metformin combination therapy. The primary endpoint of the study was to evaluate which add-on treatment between acarbose and repaglinide is more efficacious in reducing PPG. The second endpoint was to evaluate which of these two treatment is more efficacious in the global management of glucose homeostasis in the enrolled patients.
76 patients were women and 99 patients suffered from type 2 diabetes. The mean age was 77.8 ± 9.4 years. The HbA1c of the patients with type 2 diabetes at admission was 6.5 ± 1.5 %. The greatest number of hypoglycemia episodes were associated with sulfonylurea and analoga (25), insulin (67), and the combination insulin and sulfonylurea (17). The applied sulfonylureas were in 38 % glibenclamide, in 55 % glimepiride and in 7 % repaglinide. The mean in-hospital stay was 10.4 days after admittance for hypoglycemia, the mean stay was 8.4 days for patients without hypoglycemia. Concerning creatinine there was a normal kidney function in 37.6 % of the patients, the calculated creatinine clearance was normal in only about 15 % of the patients. In 13 patients (12 %) any antidiabetic medication was stopped at time of discharge. 20 patients, chosen randomly, were analyzed concerning the costs associated with the hospital admittance. The mean age of these patients was 76.8 years and their mean stay in hospital was 10.2 day. The costs covered 3,158 €. The mean costs for the other internal patients was 2,716 €.
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In Germany, coverage decisions in the statutory health insurance (SHI) system are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recently, an evidence assessment by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) of the oral antidiabetics of the glinide class showed that their long-term benefit is not proven. Accordingly, the responsible Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) decided to exclude glinides from prescription in the SHI system. This was, however, objected to by the Ministry of Health, which is charged with legal supervision. We use this case to illustrate the path from evidence assessments to coverage decisions in Germany against the background of the latest health reform, which has changed the legal requirements for evidence assessments and the ensuing coverage decisions.
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This review focuses on hypoglycemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It discusses the pathophysiology of glucose metabolism in the kidney, the impact of dialysis on glucose and insulin metabolism, and the challenges of glucose monitoring in ESRD. The clinical relevance of these changes is reviewed in relation to altered blood glucose targets and modification of antidiabetes therapy to prevent hypoglycemia. Based on current data and guidelines, recommendations for the outpatient and inpatient setting are provided for diabetes management in ESRD.
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Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular risk compared with metformin. Gliclazide and repaglinide appear to be associated with a lower risk than other ISs.
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Several studies have shown an increase of mortality in diabetic patients treated with combinations of sulphonylureas and biguanides. Comparisons between different insulin secretagogues in combination with metformin with respect to all-cause mortality have not been reported so far.
Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic stable angina pectoris, and two-vessel or three-vessel disease participated in this study. The patients underwent two consecutive treadmill exercise tests (phase 1). On the day after these exercise tests, 2 mg of oral repaglinide was given to the patients. One week later, two exercise tests were repeated consecutively (phase 2).
Evidence obtained in the 1990's strongly supports the notion that glycaemic control is important not only in Type I (insulin-dependent), but also in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Although measurement of HbA(1c) is the standard for assessing the effect of glucose control in the occurrence and prevention of diabetic sequelae, more recent evidence indicates that other glucose parameters are also important. Postchallenge and postprandial hyperglycaemic peaks seem to be prospective determinants of vascular damage in early Type II diabetes. Currently, there is no overall accepted standard approach for the pharmacological management of Type II diabetes. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that reaching a near-normal glycaemic target is critically important and the pharmacotherapy of this progressive disease is difficult. Loss of endogenous insulin secretion has been substantiated to cause the progression of Type II diabetes in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. Early insulinization, however, was not advantageous over other forms of therapy. The advent of polypharmacy in recent years has greatly strengthened the treatment of this disease. This synergy has been extended of late with the development of early-phase insulin secretion agents. Two such agents, nateglinide and repaglinide, can be used to reduce mealtime glucose excursions and HbA(1c) as monotherapy, and in combination with metformin; their antidiabetic potential is similar to the combination treatment with glibenclamide and metformin. Additional substantiation of their long-term effect on improving life expectancy and reducing diabetic complications in Type II diabetic patients is now required.
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The use of repaglinide or metformin in drug therapy-nai;ve patients with type 2 diabetes over a 12-month period is associated with improvements in both glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile. The latter cannot necessarily be attributed to the pharmacotherapy per se, but provides reassurance in the context of initiating oral hypoglycaemic drug therapy with these agents.
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Repaglinide is a novel insulin secretagogue being developed for the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. It stimulates release of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cell, but appears to bind to a different receptor site from sulphonylureas. Repaglinide lowers fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in animals, healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Repaglinide is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, which may allow a relatively fast onset and offset of action. Excretion occurs almost entirely by non-renal mechanisms. In comparative clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, repaglinide 0.5 to 4 mg twice or 3 times daily before meals provided similar glycaemic control to glibenclamide (glyburide) 2.5 to 15 mg/day. Addition of repaglinide to existing metformin therapy resulted in improved glycaemic control. In contrast with glibenclamide, use of repaglinide allowed patients to miss a meal without apparently increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia.
In ESRD, a combination of impaired insulin clearance, changes in glucose metabolism, and the dialysis process make patients vulnerable to low blood glucose levels. Hypoglycemia accounts for up to 3.6% of all ESRD-related admissions. At admission or during hospitalization, hypoglycemia in ESRD has a poor prognosis, with mortality rates reported at 30%. Several guidelines suggest a modified hemoglobin A1c (A1c) goal of 7 to 8.5% (53 to 69 mmol/mol) and an average blood glucose goal of 150 to 200 mg/dL. Noninsulin antidiabetes agents like dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, repaglinide, and glipizide in appropriate doses and reduction of insulin doses up to 50% may help decrease hypoglycemia.
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Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies.