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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

ponstel s syrup

The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated.

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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, although not usually life-threatening, can cause disruption and discomfort for many women. It has often been poorly researched in the past, possibly because of the difficulty in measuring menstrual blood loss. Several different therapies are available and individual women can choose from a number of options. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as mefenamic acid or indomethacin will be the first choice for many women as they have few side effects and it is only necessary to take them when menstrual bleeding occurs. When contraception is also required, combined oral contraceptives are helpful. Progestogen and danazol therapy are also effective, although side effects do occur. A new development has been the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine contraceptive device which has been shown to result in large decreases in menstrual blood loss. For those women who would like a surgical approach but do not want to undergo hysterectomy, the relatively new technique of endometrial resection results either in amenorrhoea or reduced menstrual blood loss in the majority of women.

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We selected eight pharmaceuticals with relatively high potential ecological risk and high consumption-namely, acetaminophen, atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, ifenprodil, indomethacin, mefenamic acid, and propranolol-and conducted laboratory experiments to examine the persistence and partitioning of these compounds in the aquatic environment. In the results of batch sunlight photolysis experiments, three out of eight pharmaceuticals-propranolol, indomethacin, and ifenprodil-were relatively easily photodegraded (i.e., half-life<24h), whereas the other five pharmaceuticals were relatively stable against sunlight. The results of batch biodegradation experiments using river water suggested relatively slow biodegradation (i.e., half-life>24h) for all eight pharmaceuticals, but the rate constant was dependent on sampling site and time. Batch sorption experiments were also conducted to determine the sorption coefficients to river sediments and a model soil sample. The determined coefficients (K(d) values) were much higher for three amines (atenolol, ifenprodil, and propranolol) than for neutral compounds or carboxylic acids; the K(d) values of the amines were comparable to those of a four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene. The coefficients were also higher for sediment/soil with higher organic content, and the organic carbon-based sorption coefficient (logK(oc)) showed a poor linear correlation with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD(ow)) at neutral pH. These results suggest other sorption mechanisms-such as electrochemical affinity, in addition to hydrophobic interaction-play an important role in sorption to sediment/soil at neutral pH.

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Several classes of anti-inflammatory agents including acetyl-salicylic acid, salicylic acid, flufenamic acid, phenyl-butazone, indometacin, oxyphenyl-butazone, and mefenamic acid were found to be inhibitors of rat liver mitochondrial ATPase in both intact and freeze-ruptured mitochondria. The freeze-ruptured mitochondrial ATPase was found to be Mg2+- and ATP-concentration dependent. The standard uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol, not possessing anti-inflammatory activity, activates the enzyme in both preparations. A number of compounds of various structural classes possessing no anti-inflammatory property in vivo were found to have no inhibitory effect on the enzyme. This inhibition of ATPase by anti-inflammatory agents could be used as an in vitro test method for the primary screening of potential anti-inflammatory agents.

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Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of mefenamic acid for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults.

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Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important cause of ill health in premenopausal women. Although surgery is often used as a treatment, a range of medical therapies are also available. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce prostaglandin levels, which are elevated in women with excessive menstrual bleeding and also may have a beneficial effect on dysmenorrhoea.

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Hepatotoxicity is a known side effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In the present study, the effects of N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPA) scaffold NSAIDs on rat liver mitochondria were examined. Mefenamic acid (MEF, 200 µM) induced mitochondrial swelling, which was inorganic phosphate (Pi)-dependent and suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA, 2.5 µM), similar to calcium-induced swelling. Mitochondrial swelling was also observed following the addition of 200 µM flufenamic acid (FLU), meclofenamic acid (MCL), and tolfenamic acid (TOL). Less swelling was observed with the addition of 200 µM diclofenac (DIC) or NPA. Diphenylamine (DPA)-induced swelling occurred in a Pi-independent manner and was not sensitive to CsA. The mechanism by which DPA interacted with the mitochondrial inner membrane differed from those of the other NPA scaffold NSAIDs. The addition of 50 µM MEF, MCL, TOL, and FLU had uncoupling effects in mitochondrial inner membrane. These NSAIDs dose-dependently obstructed electron transport in the respiratory chain. NSAIDs are known to have various dynamic structures, and the solvation free energies (dGWs: an index of stereo-hydrophobicity) of the conformers obtained were determined using a molecular orbital analysis. The relationship between the dynamic structures and swelling induced by NPA scaffold NSAIDs was also examined.

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Pharmaceuticals are a class of chemicals whose fate in the environment has received increasing attention in the past few years. A quantitative method was developed for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac), caffeine and the antibacterial triclosan in wastewater effluent. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples on Waters Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction columns, derivatized with N,O-bis [Trimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estimated method detection limits ranged from 6 to 45 ng/L based on replicate analyses (n = 10). This method was applied to the analysis of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and compounds were detected at concentrations of 18-72 ng/L.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce bleeding and pain associated with IUD use. NSAIDs should be considered first-line therapy; if NSAIDs are ineffective, tranexamic acid may be considered as second-line therapy. Prophylactic ibuprofen administration with the first six menses after insertion appears unwarranted.

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Rat pups were assigned by litter to experimental NEC or CONTROL groups. Laser Doppler flowmetry evaluation of intestinal microvascular blood flow was studied at baseline, with mediator blockade (endothelin-A receptor, endothelin-B receptor, PG synthesis, or NO synthase) and with DPR. Repeated-measures analysis of variance test was applied with Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test (P < .05).

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To test the possible role of endothelial cells in mediating fade of norepinephrine-induced constriction and the effect of heartworm infection on these responses.

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Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals has become a major problem in many countries worldwide. However, little is known about the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water sources in Japan. The objective of this study was to clarify variations in the concentrations of seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and in cyclooxygenase(COX)-inhibiting activities in river water and domestic wastewater collected from the Tone Canal and the Edo River Basin in Japan. Total NSAID concentrations were higher in the Tone Canal than in the Edo River, and the highest concentration was observed at the domestic wastewater inflow point located in the Tone Canal (concentration averages of salicylic acid, ibuprofen, felbinac, naproxen, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, and ketoprofen in wastewater samples were 55.3, 162.9, 39.7, 11.8, 30.8, 259.7, and 48.3 ng L(-1), respectively). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed that wastewater samples collected during cooler seasons contained higher levels of COX-inhibiting activity. COX-inhibiting activities were highly correlated with NSAID concentrations (particularly for ketoprofen and diclofenac); however, other COX inhibitors, such as NSAIDs that were not examined in this study and/or other chemicals with COX-inhibiting activity, could exist in the water samples because the concentrations of NSAIDs obtained from the water samples did not account for the total COX-inhibiting activities observed. Therefore, COX inhibition assays may be helpful for evaluating the aquatic toxicity of COX inhibitors. In this study, we demonstrated that COX inhibitors in surface water may influence aquatic organisms more than was expected based on NSAID concentrations. Thus, further studies examining other COX inhibitors in the aquatic environment are necessary.

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It is well accepted that bacterial and virus infections elevate the levels of cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluids. Such high levels of cytokines might alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), subsequently affecting brain penetration of drugs. However, few reports have addressed this issue. Thus, we investigated brain penetration of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used as antipyretics, in mice treated with Shiga-like toxin II (SLT-II) derived from E. coli O157:H7, which significantly elevates cytokine levels. As antipyretics, we used diclofenac, mefenamic acid, and acetaminophen. We found that SLT-II significantly increased the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp) of diclofenac and mefenamic acid, but not of acetaminophen. Moreover, the Kp of diclofenac and mefenamic acid was increased by probenecid, an anionic compound. These results suggest that efflux anion transporters might be involved in the transport of diclofenac and mefenamic acid. Western blot analysis revealed that SLT-II decreased the expression of organic anion transporter-3, an efflux transporter located on the BBB and/or BCSFB. Taken together, these results suggest that SLT-II and/or SLT-II-stimulated cytokines might change brain penetration of drugs and could possibly increase the risk of their side-effects by altering the expression of transporters.

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This research aimed to determine the in vitro cytotoxic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) on KB, Saos-2, 1321N, U-87MG, SFBF-PI 39 cell lines.

ponstel drug interaction

To compare the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs and to assess the adequacy of their dose in primary dysmenorrhea (PD).

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Morpholinoethyl ester (3) and pyrrolidinoethyl ester (4) of mefenamic acid showed evidence of efflux mechanism. Inhibition by verapamil had a pronounced effect on the transport of 3 and 4. Indomethacin, however, completely inhibited the apical efflux of 3 but enhanced the efflux ratio of 4. Both compounds increased the ratio of cellular calcein accumulation by 3- to 5-fold over control. Consistent with the experimental data, the computational results suggest the involvement of P-gp or its interaction in 3 and 4 transport.

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Glucuronidation is one of the most common pathways in mammals for detoxification and elimination of hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds, including many drugs. Metabolites, however, can form active or toxic compounds, such as acyl glucuronides, and their safety assessment is often needed. The absence of efficient means for in vitro synthesis of correct glucuronide metabolites frequently limits such toxicological analyses. To overcome this hurdle we have developed a new approach, the essence of which is a coexpression system containing a human, or another mammalian UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), as well as UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase (UGDH), within the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system was first tested using resting yeast cells coexpressing UGDH and human UGT1A6, 7-hydroxycoumarin as the substrate, in a reaction medium containing 8% glucose, serving as a source of UDP-glucuronic acid. Glucuronides were readily formed and recovered from the medium. Subsequently, by selecting suitable mammalian UGT enzyme for the coexpression system we could obtain the desired glucuronides of various compounds, including molecules with multiple conjugation sites and acyl glucuronides of several carboxylic acid containing drugs, namely, mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and zomepirac. In conclusion, a new and flexible yeast system with mammalian UGTs has been developed that exhibits a capacity for efficient production of various glucuronides, including acyl glucuronides.

ponstel and alcohol

A series of novel omega-(N,N,N-trialkylammonium)alkyl ester and thioester derivatives [RCOM(CH2)nNR3+ X-, M = O or S. n = 2-6, X = I or Cl] of 11 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory carboxylic acid agents (naproxen, ketorolac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, sulindac, ketoprofen, flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, zomepirac, etodolac, and tifurac) was prepared and evaluated for their antiinflammatory, analgesic, and gastrointestinal erosive properties. In general, each prodrug retained the antiinflammatory activity characteristic of the corresponding parent drug but exhibited moderately to greatly reduced gastrointestinal erosive properties and significantly reduced analgetic potencies. This profile is likely due to a combination of factors including the rate of hydrolysis of the esters in the stomach, gut, and plasma, changes in the locus of absorption of the prodrug or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), and altered metabolic disposition patterns resulting from these changes. The results obtained from the compounds of this series indicate that esters of this general class may offer a means to modulate both the aqueous/lipid solubility and the hydrolytic/enzymatic cleavage indices of NSAID prodrugs which potentially possess a more favorable therapeutic ratio of antiinflammatory to gastrointestinal erosive activities.

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The present study investigated the photolytic behavior and photodegradation products of mefenamic acid (MEF) under ultraviolet-C irradiation. The results demonstrated that the photodegradation of MEF followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the direct photolysis quantum yield of mefenamic acid was observed to be 2.63 ± 0.28 × 10⁻³. Photodegradation of MEF included degradation by direct photolysis and by self-sensitization that the contribution rates of self-sensitized photodegradation were 5.70, 11.25 and 18.96 % for ·OH, ¹O₂ and O·₂⁻ , respectively. Primary transformation products of MEF were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The identified transformation products suggested three possible pathways of MEF photodegradation: dehydrogenation, hydroxylation, and ketonized reactions. Toxicity of phototransformation products were evaluated using the Microtox test, which revealed that photodegradation likely provides a critical pathway for MEF toxicity reduction in drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities.

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A spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of mefenamic, flufenamic, and meclofenamic acids in urine samples. The method is based on second-order data multivariate calibration (unfolded partial least squares (unfolded-PLS), multi-way PLS (N-PLS), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD), and bilinear least squares (BLLS)). The analytes were extracted from the urine samples in chloroform prior to the determination. The chloroform extraction was optimized for each analyte, studying the agitation time and the extraction pH, and the optimum values were 10 minutes and pH 3.5, respectively. The concentration ranges in chloroform solution of each of the analytes, used to construct the calibration matrix, were selected in the ranges from 0.15 to 0.8 microg mL-1 for flufenamic and meclofenamic acids and from 0.25 to 3.0 microg mL-1 for mefenamic acid. The combination of chloroform extraction and second-order calibration methods, using the excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of the three analytes as analytical signals, allowed their simultaneous determination in human urine samples, in the range of approximately 80 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1, with satisfactory results for all the assayed methods. Improved results over unfolded-PLS and N-PLS were found with PARAFAC, SWATLD, and BLLS, methods that exploit the second-order advantage.

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A spectrofluorometric method for the quantitative determination of flufenamic, mefenamic and meclofenamic acids in mixtures has been developed by recording emission fluorescence spectra between 370 and 550 nm with an excitation wavelength of 352 nm. The excitation-emission spectra of these compounds are deeply overlapped which does not allow their direct determination without previous separation. The proposed method applies partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration to the resolution of this mixture using a set of wavelengths previously selected by Kohonen artificial neural networks (K-ANN). The linear calibration graphs used to construct the calibration matrix were selected in the ranges from 0.25 to 1.00 mug ml(-1) for flufenamic and meclofenamic acids, and from 1.00 to 4.00 mug ml(-1) for mefenamic acid. A cross-validation procedure was used to select the number of factors. The selected calibration model has been applied to the determination of these compounds in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations.

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At least two authors worked independently at each step of the original review, then compared results and resolved differences. The current update was conducted by one author (AO). Methodological quality of eligible studies was assessed according to blinding of randomization, of intervention and of outcome assessment, and completeness of follow up. Weighted treatment effects, calculated using RevMan 4.2, included typical relative risk (RR), typical risk difference (RD), number needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH), and weighted mean difference (WMD), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed effect model was used for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity tests including I(2 )were performed to assess the appropriateness of pooling the data.

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5'-Hydroxylation appears to be the only cytochrome P-450 catalysed metabolic reaction of lornoxicam by human liver microsomes and this major in vivo biotransformation pathway is catalysed virtually exclusively by CYP2C9.

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The NSAIDs Indo, Ibu, Ke, Ket, P and Te yielded an antrum ulcer area: 5-29% and intestinal erosion, 101-395 mm2, similar to Indo (p > 0.50). In contrast there were neither ulcers nor intestinal erosions with Mac, A, Di, E and Nap (p > 0.50). While there were absence of ulcers with Ace, Me, Na, Ni and Pa and slight intestinal erosion (0-23 mm2; p < 0.01). II. There were differences in the following oral (NAIDs: Ace, Me, NA, Ni and Pa, yielding 0-5% fundic erosion and 0-22 mm2 intestinal erosion (p < 0.001). The other NSADs yielded 33-90% fundic erosion and 116-550 mm2 intestinal erosion, similarly to Indo (p > 0.50).

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The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether antiinflammatory drugs affect the pharmacodynamics of theophylline-induced seizures. Adult male Lewis rats were treated with either dexamethasone (DEX), hydrocortisone (HYD), ibuprofen (IBU), or mefenamic acid (MFA), for 4 consecutive days. On the fourth day they received a constant infusion of theophylline (2 mg/min IV) until the onset of maximal seizures. Then, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained for theophylline concentration determinations by HPLC. It was found that pretreatment with the corticosteroids DEX and HYD elevated the CSF theophylline concentration required to induce maximal seizures in comparison to the untreated rats (242 +/- 6, 232 +/- 6, and 203 +/- 10 mg/l, respectively, n = 10, p < 0.05). MFA also increased the CSF theophylline concentration at that end-point in comparison to the controls (p < 0.01), whereas pretreatment with IBU had no effect (280 +/- 10 MFA, 225 +/- 9 IBU vs. 220 +/- 8 controls, n = 12). The data suggests that concomitant treatment with antiinflammatory drugs, together with theophylline, do not increase the risk for theophylline-induced seizures. Moreover, in certain cases they may elevate the seizure threshold and protect against these hazardous episodes.

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ponstel dosing 2015-09-03

Like many clinical non-small-cell lung cancers, the Lewis lung carcinoma produces prostaglandins. The Lewis lung carcinoma was used as a model of both primary and metastatic disease to assess the ability of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (mefenamic acid, diflunisal, sulindac, and indomethacin), the collagenase inhibitor minocycline, and the lipoxygenase inhibitor phenidone to act as modulators of cytotoxic cancer therapies. Although none of the single modulators given i.p. daily on days 4-18 altered tumor growth or the number of metastases found on day 20, modulator combinations consisting of minocycline/a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and, especially, of phenidone/a cyclooxygenase inhibitor resulted in modest tumor growth delay and a decreased number of lung metastases on day 20. The most effective modulators of cisplatin (CDDP) were phenidone/sulindac and phenidone/indomethacin, which led to 2.4- to 2.5-fold increases in the tumor growth delay produced by CDDP. The most effective modulations of cyclophosphamide resulted from administration of minocycline, minocycline/sulindac, or phenidone/sulindac and led to 2.0- to 2.1-fold increases in tumor growth delay by cyclophosphamide. The most effective modulators of melphalan produced 4. buy ponstel 5- to 4.7-fold increases in tumor growth delay by the drug and were minocycline/sulindac, minocycline/mefenamic acid, and phenidone/sulindac. The most effective modulation of carmustine (BCNU) was obtained with minocycline/sulindac and minocycline/diflunisal leading to 2.8- to 3.1-fold increases in tumor growth delay by BCNU. Finally, the most effective modulation of radiation was obtained with minocycline/sulindac and phenidone/sulindac and resulted in 2.8- to 3.3-fold increases in tumor growth delay by radiation. The modulator combination that along with the cytotoxic therapies was most effective against metastatic disease was phenidone/mefenamic acid. There was no clear relationship between effective modulation of the cancer therapies and the degree of reduction in serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by the agents in Lewis lung tumor bearing mice.

ponstel capsules 2017-09-28

Second-order advantage of excitation-emission fluorescence measurements was applied to the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PC) and mefenamic acid (MF) in urine samples. Two drugs were quantified by buy ponstel multivariate curve resolution coupled to alternative least squares (MCR-ALS) in micellar media of sodium dodesyl sulfate (SDS). Experimental conditions including pH and SDS concentration were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, pH 2.0 and 0.05 mol L(-1) of SDS, paracetamol and mefenamic acid were determined in concentration range 4.00-20.00 microg mL(-1) and 0.80-5.00 microg mL(-1), respectively, in urine samples.

ponstel medication information 2016-06-26

The clinical, radiological, and histological features of two patients with severe intestinal damage induced by mefenamic acid and mimicking coeliac disease buy ponstel are described. Symptoms rapidly reverted on withdrawal of the drug, and in one case, did not relapse during treatment with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

ponstel s dosage 2016-06-22

Seventeen RCTs were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review and data buy ponstel were extracted independently. Odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes were estimated from the data of nine trials. The results of the remaining seven crossover trials with data unsuitable for pooling and one trial with skewed data were described in the Other Data section.

ponstel generic name 2016-01-08

The study of the effect of sodium mefenaminate on radiation resistance of rats yielded positive results. Clinical investigations showed mefenamic acid to decrease the activity of cathepsin D-like buy ponstel protease in colonic cancer tissue. The acid failed to affect the proteolytic activity of the normal mucosa. It revealed an immunomodulating activity and influenced the hemostatic system which usually manifested itself in amelioration of hypercoagulation.

ponstel syrup 2015-06-04

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils, and should therefore be expected to contribute to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells. It is produced from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). We used a H2O2-electrode to assess the ability of a variety of anti-inflammatory drugs to inhibit conversion of H2O2 to HOCl. Dapsone, mefenamic acid, sulfapyridine, quinacrine, primaquine and aminopyrine were potent inhibitors, giving 50% inhibition of the initial rate of H2O2 loss at concentrations of about 1 microM or less. Phenylbutazone, piroxicam, salicylate, olsalazine and sulfasalazine were also effective inhibitors. Spectral investigations showed that the inhibitors acted by promoting the formation of compound II, which is an inactive redox intermediate of MPO. Ascorbate reversed inhibition by reducing compound II back to the active enzyme. The characteristic properties that allowed the drugs to inhibit MPO reversibly were ascertained by determining the inhibitory capacity of related phenols and anilines. Inhibition increased as substituents on the aromatic ring became more electron withdrawing, until an optimum reduction potential was reached. Beyond this optimum, their buy ponstel inhibitory capacity declined. The best inhibitor was 4-bromoaniline which had an I50 of 45 nM. An optimum reduction potential enables inhibitors to reduce MPO to compound II, but prevents them from reducing compound II back to the active enzyme. Exploitation of this optimum reduction potential will help in targeting drugs against HOCl-dependent tissue damage.

ponstel medication dosage 2017-02-11

The association of aspirin use and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk is unclear. This study determined buy ponstel whether use of any individual compound is associated with ALS risk by conducting a total population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

ponstel user reviews 2016-11-23

Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method buy ponstel involves formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 287.6 nm and 313.2 nm as two wavelengths. Second developed method is based on two wavelength calculation. Two wavelengths selected for estimation of ethamsylate were 274.4 nm and 301.2 nm while that for mefenamic acid were 304.8 nm and 320.4 nm. Both the developed methods obey Beer's law in the concentration ranges employed for the respective methods. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

ponstel drug interactions 2015-10-15

The objective of this study buy ponstel was to investigate trophoblast thyroid hormone binding proteins that may modulate interactions between D3 and T4.

ponstel 250 capsule 2015-03-09

Single doses of piroxicam (20 mg) and mefenamic acid (500 mg) were compared, double-blind, for analgesic effectiveness in the treatment of oral surgical pain in out-patients. Excluding placebo responders and patients with mild or no baseline pain, 118 cases (57 piroxicam, 61 mefenamic acid) were analyzed for efficacy. The treatments were statistically equivalent and highly effective; over 75% of patients in both groups reported a reduction of 2 points or buy ponstel more in pain severity. The percentage of patients reporting complete relief of severe pain was slightly higher for piroxicam, the onset of analgesic activity was equivalent, and side effects were infrequent (5%) and mild with both medications. Piroxicam was clearly efficacious in relieving post-exodontic pain. If these findings are confirmed in other painful conditions and safety on extended use is established, piroxicam should prove quite useful as a general analgesic for the treatment of a wide variety of painful conditions.

ponstel drug 2015-03-28

Day-case center buy ponstel in a tertiary care hospital in India.

ponstel pill 2015-08-09

We studied the spontaneous contractile activity and the effect of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis on the motility of the detrusor muscle isolated from estrous and ovariectomized rats. The constancy with time of the isometric developed tension and of the frequency of contractions of preparations obtained from estrous and spayed rats were not significantly different. In addition, the basal tone was in both cases stable and comparable during the whole experiment. Indomethacin (10(-5) M) or mefenamic acid (10(-5) M) abolished the phasic spontaneous motility whereas the basal tone was significantly diminished with time, the decrement being stabilized after 30 or 40 minutes. The action of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis was similar in isolated rings from estrous or ovariectomized animals. Cumulative dose-response curves of PGE2, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha demonstrated that PGF2 alpha evoked contractions with less efficacy and potency than PGs of the E series in both experimental groups. The most important finding was that the dose-response curves of PGE2 and PGE1 were shifted to buy ponstel the right in preparations obtained from ovariectomized rats, whereas the reactivity to PGF2 alpha was similar in estrus or after ovariectomy. In spayed rats injected with 17-beta-estradiol the contractile response of the isolated detrusor to PGE1 had greater efficacy and potency than in preparations from untreated ovariectomized animals. The present findings suggest the possibility that micturition problems commonly found in menopause could be due to a diminished sensitivity to PGE associated to low estrogen levels.

ponstel medication 2016-01-19

In order to reduce the gastrointestinal side effect, of mefenamic acid, its carboxylic group was condensed with buy ponstel the hydroxyl group of 1,2,3-trihydroxy propane 1,3-dipalmitate/stearate to give 3a and 3b. These compounds were evaluated for their gastric toxicity, anti-inflammatory activity by the carageenan induced paw oedema test and analgesic activity by the acetic acid induced writhing method. The release of mefenamic acid from the esters 3a and 3b was studied at pH 3, 4, 5 and 7.4 with direct analysis by reverse phase HPLC using acetonitrile:acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 3.5): methanol (40:25:35) at 1 mL/min. The prodrugs showed less hydrolysis at pH 5 compared to pH 7.4 indicating that the prodrugs do not dissociate at stomach pH but release mefenamic acid at pH 7.4 in adequate amounts. The hydrolysis studies were also performed in rat plasma. A higher plasma concentration of mefenamic acid was observed in animals treated with 3a and 3b compared to the animals treated with the parent drug, and even after 8 h the concentration of mefenamic acid was 2 times higher. The peak plasma concentration of mefenamic acid in animals treated with mefenamic acid was attained in 1.5 h compared with 2 h in the case of prodrugs treated animals. The prodrugs showed less gastric ulceration compared to mefenamic acid at 100 mg/kg, a severity index of 1.10, 1.22 being observed with 3a, 3b and with mefenamic acid a severity index of 2.37 was observed. The prodrugs showed better anti-inflammatory activity compared to the parent drug and analgesic activity comparable to the parent drug. These findings suggest that the prodrugs 3a and 3b synthesized might be used as biolabile prodrugs of mefenamic acid with increased bioavailability and less gastrointestinal side effects.

ponstel suspension 2016-12-16

The aim of the present work was to study in vivo COX-2-COX-1 selectivity of 16 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in equipotent ulcerogenic doses in two in vivo experimental models. Indomethacin, ibuprofen, nimesulide, aceclofenac, aspirin, sodium Duricef Cost diclofenac, meloxicam, naproxene, paracetamol, piroxicam, tenoxicam, nabumetone, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, etodolac, and ketorolac were administered to female Wistar rats (N = 10 each group). In experiment I, solid food plus subcutaneous NSAIDs were given. In experiment II, NSAIDs were given by oral gavage and in bolus. Macroscopic gastric antral ulcer area (30%) and intestinal erosiva area (295 mm2) in experiment I and necrotic gastric fundus area (65%) and erosive intestinal area (182 mm2), "in vivo" the NSAIDs COX-1 was showed. Neutrofilia assessed in gastric intestinal mucosa where also ibuprofen and paracetamol not given neotrophilic infiltration. In conclusion, COX-2-COX-1 selectivity was demonstrated in vivo with the drugs aceclofenac, nabumetone, meloxicam, nimesulide, and paracetamol.

ponstel dosage 2016-06-23

Fixed drug eruption is a heterogeneous pattern of cutaneous reaction to certain drugs. Different morphological patterns of fixed drug eruption can occur. We describe a new morphology of fixed drug eruption showing a reticulated pattern as a result of ingestion of mefenamic acid and discuss the possible mechanism underlying Lopid Generic Price such an appearance.

ponstel pills 2015-06-20

In this study, we investigated the in vitro characteristics of mefenamic acid (MA) microparticles as well as their effects on DNA damage. MA-loaded chitosan and alginate beads were prepared by the Benicar Dosage Range ionotropic gelation process. Microsponges containing MA and Eudragit RS 100 were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The microparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, surface morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profiles. Most of the formulation variables manifested an influence on the physical characteristics of the microparticles at varying degrees. We also studied the effects of MA, MA-loaded microparticles, and three different polymers on rat brain cortex DNA damage. Our results showed that DNA damage was higher in MA-loaded Eudragit microsponges than MA-loaded biodegradable chitosan or alginate microparticles.

ponstel reviews 2017-10-23

Four trials (n = 672) were included in the review. There was a Cipro Online statistically significant decrease in the incidence of PDA on day three in the ibuprofen group [typical RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.29, 0.49); typical RD -0.29 (95% CI -0.35, -0.22); NNT 3 (95% CI 3, 5); 4 trials, n = 672], in the need for rescue treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors [typical RR 0.17 (95% CI 0.11, 0.27), typical RD -0.27 (95% CI -0.35, -0.22); NNT 4 (95%CI 3, 5), and in the need for surgical ligation [typical RR 0.34 (95% CI 0.14, 0.81), typical RD -0.04 (95% CI -0.07, -0.01); NNT 25 (95% CI 14, 100). The PDA had closed spontaneously by day three in 60% of the neonates in the control group. There was a significant increase in the serum creatinine levels in the ibuprofen group [WMD 0.13 mg/dl (95% CI 0.08, 0.17); 2 trials, n = 495]. Ibuprofen reduces urine output. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality, grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage, chronic lung disease at 28 days or 36 weeks, necrotizing enterocolitis , gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal perforation or time to reach full feeds. One trial (Gournay 2002) (n = 135) reported on three infants in the ibuprofen group who developed pulmonary hypertension responsive to nitric oxide treatment.

ponstel capsule 2015-02-25

Many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (including sulphasalazine, sulindac, indomethacin, naproxen, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, piroxicam and mefenamic acid) were found to be competitive inhibitors (with respect to folate) of avian liver phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase (AICAR transformylase, EC 2.1.2.3) and bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase (EC 1.5.1.3). In contrast, aspirin and the antipyretic-analgesic drugs acetaminophen and antipyrine Allegra And Alcohol were weak inhibitors of these enzymes. Structure-activity correlation suggests that an aromatic ring with a side chain containing a carboxylic acid is a requirement for competitive inhibition of the transformylase. The above-listed NSAIDs also inhibited the folate-coenzyme-mediated biosynthesis of serine from glycine and formate (i.e., the C1 index) by human blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) in experiments where the drug was added to a culture of BMCs. Acetaminophen had a weak inhibitory effect on the C1 index. Consistent with the results obtained in vitro is the observation that the C1 index of BMCs from rheumatoid-arthritis patients treated with drugs which possess little antifolate activity (e.g. acetaminophen) is higher than the C1 index of BMCs from rheumatoid-arthritis patients treated with NSAIDs possessing more potent antifolate activity (e.g. sulindac, sulphasalazine, naproxen and ibuprofen). The mean activity of the transformylase in BMCs taken from healthy humans was 1.98 nmol of product/h per 10(6) cells and the activity was positively correlated with BMC folate levels. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that (1) the antifolate activity of NSAIDs, and hence cytostatic consequences, are important factors in producing anti-inflammatory activity and (2) aspirin exerts its anti-inflammatory effects after its conversion into salicylic acid, which possesses greater antifolate activity than its parent compound.

buy ponstel online 2015-09-19

Several lines of evidence suggest that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be effective in preventing colorectal cancer. These include animal experiments, case-control studies, and clinical experience with sulindac in promoting the regression of adenomatous colon polyps in adenomatous polyposis coli. We determined the antiproliferative activity of various nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including two sulindac derivatives, against human colon cancer cells in vitro. Ht-29, SW480, and DLD-1 cells were continuously incubated with serial drug dilutions for 6 days prior to fixation. Cell number was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay, and drug concentrations which inhibited cell growth by 50% were estimated for each agent by interpolation. All drugs exhibited antiproliferative activity against Ht-29 and DLD-1 cells, and most inhibited SW480 cells. For Ht-29 cells, the 50% inhibitory concentration varied from 55 microM for diclofenac to 2100 microM for 5-aminosalicylic acid, with three drug groups of high, intermediate, and low potency evident. Inhibition of cell growth by sulindac sulfide was reversible following drug removal. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs exert an antiproliferative effect against human colon cancer cells with a wide range of potencies. A Feldene 20 Mg cytostatic response was demonstrated with sulindac sulfide. These data further support the potential role of these agents for chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia.

ponstel generic cost 2017-07-07

The aim of the present study was to establish whether, in terminal arterioles from the rat cremaster, acetylcholine (ACh) elicits nitric oxide (NO)-independent dilation corresponding to the transient ACh-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization described in arteries. For this purpose, the responses of terminal arterioles [mean diam 15.0 +/- 0.4 (SE) microns] were studied by intravital microscopy in rat cremaster muscle. During 15 min of superfusion by 10(-5) M ACh, the Cozaar 50mg Tablets response was characterized by an initial maximal dilation (peak time < 3 min) followed by a more sustained dilation that slightly decreased with time. Inhibition of NO synthesis by 2 x 10(-4) M N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) significantly reduced, but did not eliminate, both the peak and sustained responses. Simultaneous administration of 2 x 10(-4) M L-NNA and 2 x 10(-5) M mefenamic acid, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, did not induce a significantly different response from that observed with L-NNA alone. Procaine (10(-3) M), which is known to inhibit completely ACh-induced hyperpolarization in carotid artery, drastically reduced the initial part of the ACh-induced dilation but not the sustained response. Simultaneous administration of procaine and L-NNA almost completely inhibited the peak response to ACh. Similar results were obtained when L-NNA was combined with a superfusion bath containing 20 mM KCl, a concentration known to reduce hyperpolarization in arteries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

ponstel 250mg capsules 2017-09-02

In experiments on albino rats on the model of "cotton wool granuloma" it was found that Coumadin Tablet Colors non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibited the growth of the granulation and fibrous tissue that was followed by a normal decrease of contents of protein and RNA but not DNA in it. By their effect on RNA and granuloma weight butadione and mefenamic acid are significantly more active than antipyrine.

ponstel and alcohol 2017-04-08

Mefenamic acid was processed by cryogenic milling. Surface energy heterogeneity was determined using a Surface Energy Analyser (SEA) and cohesion measured using a uniaxial compression test. To decouple the surface area and surface energy contributions, milled mefenamic acid was "normalised" by silanisation with methyl groups, confirmed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

ponstel dosage instructions 2016-12-15

Mephenamic acid is characterized by low solubility, which affects its dissolution rate and bioavailability. The objective of this study was to develop fast-release microspheres of ammonium salt of the drug (AMM) by emulsion congealing.The effect of polymer, drug to polymer ratio, surfactant, type and volume of oil phase, stirring rate, microsphere size, encapsulation efficiency and stability of the microspheres were investigated. The results pointed out a good yield (69–98%) and encapsulation efficiency (71–100%). Optimum conditions include moderate molecular weight PEG, inclusion of Tween 20 and/or Span 80, high ratio of PEG (1 : 4, drug : PEG), use of mineral oil and high stirring rate (2000 rpm). Dissolution efficiency ranged between 57% and 90%. Effect of ageing on drug content and release revealed that the microspheres prepared remained stable throughout 1 year of storage. The described method was simple, efficient and resulted in stable microspheres with enhanced drug release.

ponstel 250 mg 2017-09-10

Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is an uncommon, eczematous photosensitive eruption affecting predominantly elderly men and to which drug-induced photosensitivity may sometimes appear clinically identical. This retrospective study compares the monochromatic irradiation results in 11 patients with CAD and 14 patients with drug-induced photosensitivity, to assess whether such testing is useful in the differentiation of these two conditions. Thus, the action spectra of the drug photosensitivity patients were plotted and compared with those of 12 nonphotosensitive control patients: 10 patients were found to be photosensitive in the UVA range; the implicated drugs included quinine, sparfloxacin, amiodarone, doxycycline, mefenamic acid, nalidixic acid, fenbrufen, diclofenac, enalapril, diltiazem and prochlorperazine maleate. One patient on doxycycline was photosensitive in both the UVA and UVB ranges. The remaining three patients were not tested until after discontinuation of their drug and their light tests were then normal. In the CAD group, five patients were photosensitive in the UVA, UVB and visible light ranges and six were photosensitive in the UVA and UVB ranges. Comparison of the mean minimal erythema dose responses then demonstrated dissociation of the drug-induced from the CAD group in the UVB region; the result was statistically significant. This suggests that UVA-sensitivity dissociated from UVB-sensitivity is a relative indicator of drug-induced photosensitivity and monochromatic irradiation testing may therefore be helpful in the differentiation of these two disorders.

ponstel drug interaction 2015-07-14

A significant decreasing in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in human lymphocytes irradiated with MEF as compared to irradiated lymphocytes without MEF. The maximum decreasing in frequency of micronuclei was observed at 100 µM of MEF (38% decrease), providing maximal protection against ionizing radiation.

ponstel 250 tablets 2015-01-04

The effect on cytotoxicity of combining a range of clinically important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs was examined in the human lung cancer cell lines DLKP, A549, COR L23P and COR L23R and in a human leukaemia line HL60/ADR. A specific group of NSAIDs (indomethacin, sulindac, tolmetin, acemetacin, zomepirac and mefenamic acid) all at non-toxic levels, significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin), as well as teniposide, VP-16 and vincristine, but not the other vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vinorelbine. A substantial number of other anticancer drugs, including methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cytarabine, hydroxyurea, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, mitoxantrone, actinomycin D, bleomycin, paclitaxel and camptothecin, were also tested, but displayed no synergy in combination with the NSAIDs. The synergistic effect was concentration dependent. The effect appears to be independent of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory ability of the NSAIDs, as (i) the synergistic combination could not be reversed by the addition of prostaglandins D2 or E2; (ii) sulindac sulphone, a metabolite of sulindac that does not inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzyme, was positive in the combination assay: and (iii) many NSAIDs known to be cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, e.g. meclofenamic acid, diclofenac, naproxen, fenoprofen, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and ketoprofen, were inactive in the combination assay. The enhancement of cytotoxicity was observed in a range of drug sensitive tumour cell lines, but did not occur in P-170-overexpressing multidrug resistant cell lines. However, in the HL60/ADR and COR L23R cell lines, in which multidrug resistance is due to overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP, a significant increase in cytotoxicity was observed in the presence of the active NSAIDs. Subsequent Western blot analysis of the drug sensitive parental cell lines, DLKP and A549, revealed that they also expressed MRP and reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that mRNA for MRP was present in both cell lines. It was found that the positive NSAIDs were among the more potent inhibitors of [3H]-LTC4 transport into inside-out plasma membrane vesicles prepared from MRP-expressing cells, of doxorubicin efflux from preloaded cells and of glutathione-S-transferase activity. The NSAIDs did not enhance cellular sensitivity to radiation. The combination of specific NSAIDs with anticancer drugs reported here may have potential clinical applications, especially in the circumvention of MRP-mediated multidrug resistance.

ponstel buy 2016-08-03

Only one study, trial B in the report of Gersony 1983, was found eligible. No additional studies were identified in the literature searches performed in July 2007. The trial compared the effect of surgical ligation of PDA vs. medical treatment with indomethacin, each used as the primary treatment. No trials comparing surgery to other cyclooxygenase inhibitors (ibuprofen, mefenamic acid) were found. Trial B of Gersony 1983 enrolled 154 infants. The study found no statistically significant difference between surgical closure and indomethacin treatment in mortality during hospital stay, chronic lung disease, other bleeding, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, creatinine level, or intraventricular hemorrhage. There was a statistically significant increase in the surgical group in incidence of pneumothorax [RR 2.68 (95% CI 1.45, 4.93); RD 0.25 (95% CI 0.11, 0.38); NNH 4 (95% CI 3, 9)] and retinopathy of prematurity stage III and IV [RR 3.80 (95% CI 1.12, 12.93); RD 0.11 (95% CI 0.02, 0.20), NNH 9 (95% CI 5, 50] compared to the indomethacin group. There was as expected a statistically significant decrease in failure of ductal closure rate in the surgical group as compared to the indomethacin group: [RR 0.04 (95% CI 0.01, 0.27); RD -0.32 (95% CI -0.43, -0.21), NNT 3 (95% CI 2, 4)].

ponstel syrup children 2017-03-23

Silver iron oxide nanoparticles (AgFeO2 NPs) with narrow size distribution have been synthesized, characterized and was applied for biothiols separation. AgFeO2 and AgFeO2 modified chitosan (AgFeO2@CTS NPs) were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and then characterized by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Different biological thiols (dithiothreitol, glutathione, thiabendazole, and sulfamethizole) were investigated and characterized using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The new material displays dual functionality; 1) for separation and 2) can be served as the matrices for SALDI-MS. Data showed a clear background in the case of nanomaterials compared to conventional matrices (mefenamic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) for MALDI-MS).