Participants in this prospective multicenter study were patients with in-stent restenosis treated with sirolimus-eluting stents. The primary endpoint was freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (i.e. death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, or stent thrombosis) in the long term (> or =24 months), with 6-month angiography planned for all patients.
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At 6 months, mean in-stent late luminal loss was lower in the celecoxib group (0.49 mm, SD 0.47) than in the control group (0.75 mm, 0.60) (absolute difference 0.26 mm; 95% CI 0.12-0.40). Frequency of secondary outcomes at 6 months was also lower in the celecoxib group, mainly because of a reduced need for revascularisation of the target lesion.
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The rate of symptomatic emboli associated with IE was reduced in patients who received continuous daily statin therapy before onset of IE. Despite fewer embolic events observed in patients who received antiplatelet agents, a significant association was not found after adjusting for propensity factors. A continued evaluation of these drugs and their potential impact on subsequent embolism among IE patients is warranted.
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Baseline clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics were similar among the three groups. Patients who developed refractory shock had significantly more bleeding quantified by abdominal/pelvic CT (P < 0.001), had a higher rate and amount of red blood cell transfusion (P < 0.001), and were managed invasively more frequently (68.7%) than the rest of the population. The primary endpoint trended higher in patients presenting with refractory shock; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The volume of bleeding quantified by CT and the timing of imaging diagnosis did not correlate with the primary endpoint. Red blood cell transfusion, but not clopidogrel discontinuation, was associated with the primary endpoint.
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Reducing the dose of sirolimus eluting from a biocompatible HAp coated stent reduces signs of delayed vascular healing, without affecting neointimal hyperplasia.
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*2 and *17 allele carriage are independent predictors for the antiplatelet effect of chronic clopidogrel therapy.
Thienopyridines and other agents target the platelet P2Y(12) receptor and inhibit several platelet activities mediated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The measurement of vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, expressed as platelet reactivity index (PRI), mirrors the degree of P2Y(12) receptor inhibition and can detect the well-known variable response to clopidogrel. The commercially available VASP assay uses flow cytometry (FC) and requires that the test be run within 48 hours of blood collection. A new ELISA VASP assay offers the advantages of using more widely available technology and the potential to freeze and store samples before analysis. The objectives of the present study were to compare the performance of the ELISA and FC methods and to describe the relative flexibility of the ELISA-based assay. Human blood samples encompassing a wide range of levels of P2Y(12) blockade achieved in vitro by preincubation with P2Y(12) antagonists or in vivo from patients treated with clopidogrel were included, reflecting the wide spread of values reported in clinical studies. The correlation between the PRI measured by ELISA and FC was highly significant (r=0.95, p<0.001), (n=80). After the initial activation, samples were stable for at least four weeks when frozen (-20°C) prior to analysis by ELISA. Frozen samples from patients treated with clopidogrel appeared stable for up to nine weeks. Based on these results, the ELISA-based assay appears to provide a reliable and more flexible alternative to the FC method to determine P2Y(12) receptor blockade and may enable more extensive utilisation of the VASP assay in clinical studies.
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Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist is standard therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention and in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Switching from clopidogrel to prasugrel may be required in some patients for efficacy and safety. However, there are potential concerns that overlap of these two agents might increase the risk of bleeding. This review summarizes pharmacodynamic and clinical data to guide clinicians on how and when switching from clopidogrel to prasugrel should be conducted. Loading dose prasugrel should be considered in nearly all indications to avoid any possible gap in adequate platelet inhibition during switching, as overlap of these two agents is unlikely to result in bleeding.
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Nuisance bleeding is common in patients on prolonged DAPT post-DES implantation and can impact compliance. Nuisance bleeding appears to have important clinical implications and, if confirmed in prospective trials, should be added to the safety end points assessing new antiplatelet agents.
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CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 alleles appear to contribute to heterogeneous clopidogrel metabolism. The aims of the present study were to assess the phenotype-genotype relationship of CYP2C19*2 and *17 allele carriage and to explore the clinical impact of those polymorphisms at 6-month follow-up of an acute event in an unselected population of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.
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Use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) is common in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT). Recent warnings about potential interactions of PPIs with clopidogrel metabolism leading to impaired DAT efficacy has prompted the recommendation of substituting PPIs with H(2)-receptor antagonists such as ranitidine. We investigated whether ranitidine interacts with P2Y(12) inhibition on the platelet level.
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We analyzed data for 3754 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 1999 and August 2008. The patients were placed into 4 groups according to the perioperative use of clopidogrel and tranexamic acid. Group 1 included patients administered neither of these medications (n = 3160, 84.2%); group 2 included patients who received tranexamic acid only (n = 444, 11.8%); group 3 included patients who received clopidogrel only (n = 113, 3.0%); and group 4 included patients who received both medications (n = 37, 1.0%).
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In PRoFESS, the 2.5-year recurrent stroke risk in patients receiving ASA+ER-DP was 8.2% in those with headache within 7 days of starting treatment and 9.4% in those without [HR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.98; P = 0.03]. Recurrent stroke risk was 5.0% in patients who discontinued ASA+ER-DP due to headache by day 90 versus 9.2% in those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.35-0.77; P = 0.001). No such difference was observed in clopidogrel-treated patients. In ESPS2, risk of recurrent stroke was 6.2% in patients who discontinued ASA+ER-DP due to headache by day 90 versus 9.8% in patients who did not (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31-1.27; P = 0.19) and 7.3% in patients who discontinued ER-DP due to headache by day 90 versus 13.2% in those who did not (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27-1.04; P = 0.06).
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The platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression and platelet/leukocyte conjugates as well as the clopidogrel response variability (evaluated by the VASP phosphorylation test and expressed as platelet reactivity index, PRI) were assessed in 74 ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in relation to the PON-1 Q192R genotype and to serum HDL-cholesterol levels, and PON-1 (paraoxonase and arylesterase) activities. Patients were loaded with 600 mg of clopidogrel followed by 75 mg per day. HDL-cholesterol levels and PON-1 activities at baseline (before clopidogrel loading) were not altered at 5- and 30-day post-clopidogrel loading, whereas baseline platelet activation parameters were significantly attenuated. At 5 days, 17 patients were clopidogrel non-responders (PRI: 64.2 ± 11.1%). HDL-cholesterol was inversely associated with platelet activation parameters independently on platelet response variability to clopidogrel whereas a negative association between platelet activation parameters and paraoxonase activity was observed in patients adequately responding to clopidogrel but not in clopidogrel non-responders. Similarly, the platelet activation markers were significantly higher in PON-1 Q192Q genotype carriers compared with those having one or two R alleles only in patients adequately responding to clopidogrel.
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A total of 2604 patients were enrolled. The absolute overall change in use of quality indicators in the QI group was 8.5% compared with 0.8% in the non-QI group (odds ratio for achieving a quality indicator in QI versus non-QI 1.66, 95% CI 1.43-1.94; P < .001). The main changes were observed in the use of risk stratification and clopidogrel loading dose.
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A significant decrease in the clearance of clopidogrel during the coadministration of methadone consistent with a decrease in clopidogrel conversion to its active metabolite and this may decrease its efficacy and may have life-threatening consequences for the patients undergoing clopidogerel maintenance therapy.
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This was a prospective observational study of 156 elderly patients admitted consecutively to a general internal medicine ward with creatinine clearance >30 mL/min who were treated with enoxaparin sodium twice daily. Anti-factor Xa activity and bleeding events were documented in all patients. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the effects of clinical characteristics such as renal dysfunction, age and bodyweight on these parameters.
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Older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) face high risk of stroke and bleeding with antithrombotic therapy. Balancing safe and effective use of aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin in this population is important.
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Forty subjects with stable CAD were randomised to clopidogrel therapy (75mg/day) or control. Blood and endothelial function testing occurred at baseline, one week and three months following randomisation. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed via reactive hyperaemic index (RHI). Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced whole blood aggregation and the VerifyNow™ system. Plasma markers of endothelial function (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA) and oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase, MPO) were also tested. The primary endpoint was endothelial function assessment (RHI) at three months. At one week RHI increased by 20±10% in the clopidogrel group; this effect was maintained at three months (21±9% increase from baseline; P<0.01). A significant decrease in ADP-induced platelet aggregation and P2Y12 reaction units was observed in the clopidogrel therapy group (P<0.01). There was no correlation between endothelial function and platelet function testing in the clopidogrel therapy group.
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Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin, given up to 1 year, in the setting of STEMI is a highly cost-effective strategy.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Several factors have led to the increase in vascular disorders, including the aging population, unhealthy lifestyles, increasing rates of diabetes and raised lipids, and further risk factors resulting in inflammation and calcification of the vascular endothelium. Activated platelets in damaged blood vessels can trigger arterial thrombus formation, leading to vascular occlusion with subsequent organ hypoperfusion and clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Platelet inhibitors such as aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix(®) and generics) are prescribed as primary or secondary prevention to attenuate chronic platelet activation. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond adequately to uniform antiplatelet treatment. These 'non-responders' have an increased risk for stent thrombosis, stroke, and other ischemic complications. Platelet function (PF) tests can identify these patients thus enabling physicians to offer personalized and alternative treatment strategies. Recent alternatives to clopidogrel include prasugrel (Efient(®)) and ticagrelor (Brilique(®)) - that are both more potent than clopidogrel but also more expensive and associated with a higher risk of bleeding complications. Given these drawbacks, PF testing might help clinicians to prescribe optimal antiplatelet agent to maximize patient safety and efficacy while minimizing costs. While randomized studies using different test systems have left clinicians puzzled about the medical value of tailored antiplatelet therapy, accumulated evidence from recent studies on tailored antiplatelet therapies and the association with improved outcomes have now resulted in a consensus expert opinion for the specific adoption of PF diagnostics into clinical practice.
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In patients with ACS following PCI, concomitant use of PPIs was not associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients receiving either clopidogrel or ticagrelor. Our findings indicate it is reasonable to use a PPI in combination with clopidogrel or ticagrelor, especially in patients with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
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In patients undergoing PCI, LR to clopidogrel assessed by VASP-FCT is an independent predictor of cardiovascular death at the PRI cutoff value of > or =61%. The LR clinical impact seems to be dependent on the type of stent implanted.
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Dual antiplatelet therapy for stent-assisted coiling of cerebral aneurysms is essential to prevent thromboembolic complications. There is concern that Y-stent-assisted coiling may increase thromboembolic complications compared with coiling with a single stent. Several reports have demonstrated that cilostazol may improve clopidogrel responsiveness. We investigated whether triple antiplatelet therapy with addition of cilostazol to aspirin plus clopidogrel for Y-stents can prevent thromboembolic events.
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This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of a biodegradable polymer-coated Rapamycin-Eluting Stent (Excel) used in conjunction with six-month dual antiplatelet therapy in daily practice.
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Four (1.9%) patients died and the remaining 203 patients formed the study population. Prevalence of premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy was 12.8% (n= 26, aspirin, n= 12; clopidogrel, n= 9; both, n= 5). The median duration between stent implantation and discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy was 2.8 months. Reasons for discontinuation included cost (n= 1), gastric discomfort (n= 1), allergy (n= 3), bleeding (n= 3), advice from doctors (n= 7) and no reason (n= 11). Logistic regression showed that living alone was the only independent predictor of premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (50.0% vs 11.3%, P= 0.001).