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Parlodel (Bromocriptine)

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Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip


Also known as:  Bromocriptine.


Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.


Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

parlodel drug study

Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A comprised 21 patients who used unidirectional buccoadhesive bromocriptine methylate discs once daily for 1 month. Group B included 21 patients who used vaginoadhesive bromocriptine methylate discs once daily for 1 month. Serum prolactin (PRL) was measured before and after therapy in all cases.

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To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and hyperandrogenism in neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia, the authors evaluated 10 patients. Three were amenorrheic, while seven had oligomenorrhea. Nine patients had galactorrhea. The Ferriman-Gallway hirsutism score was 12 +/- 2. Vaginal smear maturation value was 53 +/- 8. Bone density, measured by dual photon absorptionometry in the spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric region, was 98 +/- 1.5, 92.7 +/- 3, 88.5 +/- 4.2, and 92.6 +/- 3.3 percentile of controls matched for age, sex, weight, and ethnicity, respectively. Serum prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), total testosterone, and free testosterone were 82 +/- 10 ng/ml, 8.5 +/- 1.1 mIU/ml, 11.1 +/- 2.6 mIU/ml, 4695 +/- 594 ng/ml, 90 +/- 17 ng%, and 2.36% +/- 0.3%, respectively. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine index were normal. Bone density strongly correlated with vaginal maturation value (r = 0.904, P less than 0.01). It is concluded that (1) neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia is associated with hirsutism and androgen excess primarily of adrenal origin and (2) a subset of these patients is at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. It may be possible to identify patients at risk of osteoporosis by examining vaginal smears for maturation value. Early detection and management are imperative in this group of patients.

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Twenty-five patients with acromegaly were treated by transsphenoidal microsurgery. Fourteen patients (56%) were considered cured according to the following criteria: a. basal plasma GH less than 10 mU/l; b. glucose suppressed plasma GH less than or equal to 4 mU/l, and c. disappearance of TRH responsiveness if present preoperatively. Thirteen of the cured patients were re-evaluated after a mean follow-up period of 3.5 years (range 1.5 to 5.5 years). At that time, basal plasma GH was still less than 10 mU/l and glucose suppressed plasma GH was still less than or equal to 4 mU/l in all patients, indicating the practical value of our criteria. The remaining 11 patients (44%) received additional treatment by external pituitary irradiation and bromocriptine. Owing to surgery, 5 patients (20%) developed partial or panhypopituitarism.

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PRL responses to 200 microgram of iv TRH were measured in 16 healthy women with normal early pregnancy before and at the endo of bromocriptine treatment of 5.0--7.5 mg daily for 1--2 weeks. Before the start of bromocriptine, TRH caused a PRL elevation from 19.1 +/- 2.2 to 95.2 +/- 12.6 ng/ml (mean +/- SE) after 20 min, with a mean maximal PRL increment of 71.7 +/- 11.6 ng/ml. Bromocriptine suppressed basal plasma PRL level to 3.6 +/- 0.8 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). TRH then caused a PRL rise to 18.8 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 20 min, with a mean maximal PRL increment of 15.7 +/- 1.8 ng/ml. The absolute PRL response was significantly smaller (P less than 0.001) during bromocriptine intake than before, whereas the mean percent increments in PRL levels after TRH administration were similar in the presence and absence of bromocriptine. Fifteen of these women were restudied with TRH stimulation 4--6 weeks after legal abortion, and the PRL responses to TRH were normal. When 7 of these women were once again treated with bromocriptine and retested with TRH, no absolute or relative PRL response to TRH emerged. These results release differs between the pregnant and nonpregnant states.

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To study the prolactin secretion and its dependence on the sex steroid concentrations during pregnancy, we measured the circulating prolactin, oestradiol-17 beta, progesterone and testosterone levels following vacuum curettage for termination of early pregnancy in 10 normal women and in 10 other women whose prolactin levels had been lowered with bromocriptine treatment. In normal women, anaesthesia and vacuum curettage led to consistent and significant (p < 0.01) rises in prolactin levels between 0.5 to 5 hours after abortion. This increase was not seen in women treated with bromocriptine whose prolactin level of 8.6 +/- 1.4 ng/ml (mean +/- SE) before abortion was lower than that of 29.6 +/- 6.4 ng/ml found in normal women. The oestradiol and progesterone concentrations decreased rapidly but similarly in both groups of patients following the evacuation of the uterus, whereas the testosterone level did not change significantly. These results indicate: (i) vacuum curettage stimulates prolactin secretion, (ii) the prolactin-stimulating effect of stress appears to be stronger than the prolactin-suppressing effect of postabortal oestradiol and/or progesterone declines, and (iii) bromocriptine blocks the stress-induced prolactin rise.

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1) In selected cases the conservative treatment of young women diagnosed with type I endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/G1 could be indicated. 2) Conservative pharmacological treatment of young women with well-defined endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/G1 type I should be monitored with followup histopathological examinations of material obtained from D&C of the endometrium and assessment of concentrations of sex hormones in the serum. 3) This kind of therapy requires frequent and thorough gynecological and clinical follow-up.

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To assess the effectiveness of dopamine agonist bromocriptine in reducing the incidence and severity of OHSS in patients undergoing assisted reproduction and its effect on pregnancy rates.

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Young female mice were grouped on Day 21 after birth and subjected to removal of the vomeronasal organ. Soiled bedding from intact adult males failed to advance the onset of first oestrus in these lesioned mice compared to the various control groups. Vomeronasal organ lesions of prepubertal females also prevented increases in uterine weight following exposure to soiled bedding for 48 h on Day 23 when compared to controls. Lowering prolactin by injections of bromocriptine for 48 h on Day 26, but not Day 23, advanced the onset of puberty in intact and vomeronasal organ-lesioned females. Elevating prolactin by injections of domperidone were without effect on the early onset of oestrus when compared to sham-injected controls. It is concluded that marked similarities exist in both the receptor system and neuroendocrine mechanism of male pheromone action observed in prepubertal females and that seen in the adult.

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1. The effects of treatment with the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine were studied in nine patients with essential hypertension receiving methyldopa as sole therapy. 2. In Phase 1 of the study, the addition of bromocriptine on a single-blind basis caused a significant fall in lying and standing blood pressures. Plasma prolactin fell significantly but there was no significant change in the other biochemical parameters measured. All patients volunteered that they felt a sense of well-being after starting bromocriptine treatment. 3. In Phase 2 of the study the substitution of placebo for bromocriptine in a randomized double-blind trial significantly increased lying and standing blood pressures and plasma prolactin. No consistent or significant changes were observed in methyldopa-induced side-effects following the substitution of placebo for bromocriptine. 4. In Phase 3 of the study, a gradual increase in blood pressure was observed in all patients over a few months after stopping bromocriptine therapy. 5. The significance of these findings in relation to the role played by plasma prolactin and central dopaminergic activity in blood pressure regulation is discussed.

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This report describes 200 women in the childbearing age group with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas treated by transsphenoidal microsurgery. There were 136 patients with microadenomas (10 mm or less in diameter), 30 with macroadenomas, 11 with invasive adenomas, and one with hyperplasia. The overall rate for postoperative normalization of serum prolactin was 57%, and it was 72% for those patients with microadenomas. Pregnancy was desired by 90 women, and 78 (84%) became pregnant, although 10 required postoperative bromocriptine to do so. Serious postoperative complications were rare, and produced no major morbidity. The results of surgery were most favorable in women with microadenomas and preoperative serum prolactin levels of 100 ng/ml or less.

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The dopamine agonist bromocriptine and L-dopa significantly inhibited whereas dopamine antagonist haloperidol aggravated the gastric lesions induced by pylorus ligation in mice as found earlier for rats. Furthermore, the successful use of a dopamine antagonist alone for the induction of gastric lesions also in mice was demonstrated, since the gastric lesions were induced by a single dose of haloperidol without any additional noxious treatment. Bromocriptine successfully inhibited both the gastric lesion-potentiating as well as the gastric lesion-inducing effect of haloperidol.

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34 crossbred and purebred bitches referred for possible pregnancy termination. Seven additional pregnant bitches were used as controls.

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Bromocriptine has been found to be an effective agent in the treatment of advanced cancer of the uterine cervix, and it was thus possible that the tumours were prolactin-dependent. A prolactin receptor assay was established and validated, but no receptors were found in cervical tissue whether normal or with benign or malignant disease. It is unlikely that cervical tumours are prolactin-dependent.

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Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by a loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. The symptomatic treatment, which consists of the supply of the deficient neurotransmitter dopamine, does not, however, prevent the progression of the disease and is frequently associated with major motor and psychiatric side effects. Recent basic and clinical investigations have led to the development of new therapeutical strategies for Parkinson's disease. The authors review and describe these new approaches which include: [1] treatments aimed at slowing down the progression of the disease, [2] treatments aimed at decreasing the motor side effects and [3] the use of intracerebral transplantations.

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Student's t test and proportion test were used.

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There was a history of menorrhagia, swelling of the feet and increasing coarsening of the facial appearance. She had biochemical evidence of acromegaly and subsequently had a transsphenoidal macroadenectomy. There was postoperative clinical and biochemical remission. Magnetic resonance imaging done six months postsurgery showed no evidence of tumour regrowth. Clinical and biochemical evidence of acromegaly recurred after pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed tumour regrowth.

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A macroprolactinoma recurred in a 25-year-old lady, who had initially presented with inability to conceive, secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea and persistent headache. She was diagnosed as a patient of pituitary macroadenoma of 1.7 cm with elevated serum prolactin level. She was given Bromocriptine, which normalized her menstruation as well as the prolactin level followed by conception during treatment. Pregnancy remained uneventful till 27 weeks when she developed severe headache and total loss of vision from left eye and partial from right eye at 27 weeks. MRI showed enlargement of macroadenoma upto 2.5 cm with compression on optic chiasma. Transsphenoidal adenectomy was performed. After surgery visual field defect improved but plasma prolactin level remained elevated. She delivered vaginally at 39 weeks. Later, treatment with Bromocriptine (15 mg/day) failed to keep prolactin level normal and Lisuride hydrogen (0.8 mg/day) reduced the prolactin levels.

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Prolactin was isolated and identified as a separate pituitary hormone distinct from human growth hormone. Since that time a rapidly expanding literature has accumulated on the physiology of pituitary prolactin secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Currently the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary prolactin secretion are under intensive investigation. Development of sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay for prolactin and improved roentgenographic techniques have increased the diagnostic acumen for incipient pituitary microadenomas. Dynamic function tests of prolactin secretion have not helped to distinguish whether a patient has a microadenoma or not. The basal prolactin level is probably the most useful single investigation for diagnosis a pituitary tumour. If women with pituitary tumours have ovulation induced with bromocriptine therapy, then there is a considerable risk of rapid enlargement of the tumour with the development of serious visual field defects often during the last trimester. The precise level of the risk is not clear, but is probably not great. The introduction of bromocriptine has heralded a major change in the menagement of the hyperprolactinaemia-hypogonadism syndromes and resulted in safer and easier treatment of many cases of infertility, menstrual disorders and, to a lesser extent of impotence. At present, bromocriptine therapy is the treatment of choice for hyperprolactinaemia.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia

The return of menses in amenorrheic normoprolactinemic women after treatment with bromocriptine is well documented. To determine whether an increased pituitary prolactin-secreting capacity may be the underlying mechanism, 14 women with amenorrhea were studied. None complained of galactorrhea, but in all 14 it was possible to express a few drops of milk from the nipple. All women were normoprolactinemic and had normal sellar tomography. A standard thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed and bromocriptine (2.5 mg twice daily) was administered. Within 8 weeks, 9 of 14 patients had return of menses. The second group of five patients did not respond to bromocriptine. The mean prolactin response to TRH was significantly greater in those women who experienced return of menses, although there was individual overlap between both groups. This finding suggests that enhanced prolactin secretory capacity may account for amenorrhea is some apparently normoprolactinemic patients. The TRH test may serve to identify those patients who may benefit from bromocriptine.

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Single 1, 2, 5 and 10mg doses of pergolide produced mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 2.09, 4.57, 20.3 and 26 μg/L, respectively, in rhesus monkeys (administration of therapeutic doses to volunteers was considered unethical). The time to Cmax ranged between 2.4 and 2.7 hours at all dose levels. Mean steady-state pergolide plasma concentrations of 0.0275 to 1.167 μg/L were recorded during treatment with pergolide 2.25 to 9 mg/day in patients with Parkinson's disease; extensive interpatient variability was noted. 55% of a 0.138mg radiolabelled oral dose of pergolide was excreted in the urine of volunteers; a further 40 to 50% of radioactivity appeared in the faeces and approximately 3% appeared in expired air. Analysis of urine and faecal extracts indicated the formation of 10 or more metabolites.

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We report four patients with Parkinson's disease who had an unusual pattern of severe chorea and dystonia in the evenings only. The temporal pattern of abnormal movements and simultaneous monitoring of plasma levodopa and clinical state were consistent with dyskinesias associated with subtherapeutic (low dopa dyskinesias) rather than peak concentrations of levodopa (high dopa dyskinesias). In two patients, addition of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist was helpful in ameliorating this complication of antiparkinson therapy.

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At 24 weeks, pramipexole alleviated LID with more efficiency in the switch group.

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From July 1981 to September 1988, 106 infertile patients with hyperprolactinemia treated with bromocriptine were reviewed retrospectively with special attention to the dosage of bromocriptine and the evaluation of infertility before treatment 84 patients (79.2%) became pregnant. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the following doses of bromocriptine: 7.5, 5.0, and less than 5.0 mg/day. The pregnancy rate was 90.7%, 84.6%, and 66.7% respectively with the highest at 7.5mg/day, which was significantly higher than that at less than 5.0mg/day (P less than 0.02). The average duration from treatment to pregnancy was 3.6, 3.4, and 7.4 months respectively. The duration in the less than 5mg/day group was twice that in the other two groups. 84.5% of the pregnancies occurred within 6 months of treatment. Pretreatment of organic lesions and additional therapy for induction of ovulation were given to 29.8% of patients who later became pregnant. Systematic evaluation of the causes of infertility other than hyperprolactinemia before the use of bromocriptine and an optimal dose of 5-7.5mg/day will give the best results.

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Glycoprotein-secreting pituitary tumors are uncommon. With increased awareness that pituitary tumors may secrete FSH, LH, TSH, and the alpha-subunit, either as a sole product or in any combination, these tumors are more likely to be recognized. The standard therapy is surgical resection and, possibly, postoperative radiotherapy for residual tumor mass or persistent hormonal secretion. We report a patient with a FSH- and alpha-subunit-secreting tumor who refused surgery and was treated with the dopamine agonist bromocriptine as primary therapy. Bromocriptine treatment resulted in reduction of serum FSH and alpha-subunit levels to normal, improvement of visual field defects, and improvement in hypogonadism despite lack of demonstrable change in tumor size, as assessed by computed tomographic scan. Chromatographic analysis of the serum revealed distinct peaks corresponding to those of labeled FSH and alpha-subunit. The clinical and biochemical responses in this patient suggest that some glycoprotein-secreting tumors may be responsive to dopamine agonist therapy.

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parlodel 10 mg 2017-09-02

To test this hypothesis, we studied the buy parlodel effect of short-term bromocriptine (B) (a D2R agonist) treatment on spontaneous 24-h GH secretion in obese women, while body weight and caloric intake remained constant.

parlodel dose 2016-12-07

The response to bromoergocryptine (Parlodel, Sandoz) was examined buy parlodel in 42 pathospermic patients. The authors conclude that Parlodel did not influence the spermiogram considerably. Serum prolactin levels were lowered significantly, while the FSH, LH, testosterone, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 17-beta-oestradiol concentrations did not change. Improvement was reported in potentia coeundi in one third of the patients.

parlodel gel 2017-10-30

We describe two patients with macroprolactinomas who intended to get pregnant. One of them had been previously treated surgically and the second one was treated with bromocriptine and got pregnant before the tomographic studies were checked. Both patients developed during pregnancy buy parlodel symptoms of macroprolactinoma enlargement and were initially treated with bromocriptine but this was not tolerated and were switched to cabergoline. Both pregnancies ended with a normal full term newborn.

bromocriptine parlodel dose 2016-12-08

Several observational studies suggest an association between treatment with ergoline-derived dopamine agonists and valvular regurgitation. In this article, we present an buy parlodel overview of the literature and conduct a meta-analysis.

parlodel ovulation drug 2017-12-18

Functional modifications of both D-1 and D-2 dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes following repeated administration of lisuride, a DA agonist that acts selectively on buy parlodel D-2 DA receptors were studied. The functional state of D-1 and D-2 DA receptors was evaluated from measurements of SKF 82526-stimulated and bromocriptine-inhibited adenylate cyclase activity in different brain regions of rats treated daily for 26 days with saline or lisuride (100 micrograms/kg i.p.). Persistent stimulation by lisuride of DA receptors in striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, frontal cortex, hippocampus and pituitary gland induced a down-regulation of D-2 receptors without changing the functional activity of D-1 receptors.

parlodel medicine 2017-12-25

Dopamine agonists have yielded two important advances to our understanding of the basal ganglia--they have facilitated the subdivision of different classes of dopamine receptors, and they have established the fact that important dopaminergic effects can be achieved by activation of dopamine receptors in a manner that is unrelated to anoxal impulse traffic in dopaminergic neurons--a phenomenon similar in its diffuse, slow, characteristics to an endocrine effect. The tangible clinical benefit of dopamine agonists has been evident in patients with prominent dyskinesia or wearing off reactions. It is possible that earlier use of agonists, in low doses combined with similarly low doses of levodopa, may improve the long term treatment of Parkinson's disease, but as yet there is no firm evidence. In the future, we can expect to see agonists with more prolonged effects, deriving from the formation of active metabolites. We can also hope to gain further insight into the correlations buy parlodel between the various animal models of dopaminomimetic activity, and specific aspects of drug efficacy and toxicity in parkinsonian patients. Such information should allow the design of improved pharmacotherapy.

parlodel tablets 2017-09-28

To investigate the mechanism of reversing multidrug buy parlodel resistance of hepatocarcinoma by bromocriptine (BCT) in vitro and in vivo.

parlodel generic 2015-09-12

Ten out of 35 women had a significant drop in the serum prolactin while on the JFE. The non-responders to JFE were on higher doses buy parlodel of antipsychotic drugs. The main side effect was a transient and mild burning sensation in the nose. A cost analysis favoured JFE over dopamine agonists.

parlodel 5mg tablets 2016-11-27

In 120 Patients with metastatic breast cancer prolactin stimulation tests with 200 mcg TRH i.v. were done. The mechanism of the TRH-induced prolactin release was characterized in vitro. Basal prolactin buy parlodel levels were stimulated in all patients with an average increase of 400% (means basal level 441 mU/l, after stimulation 1753 mU/l). Hyperprolactinemic patients showed the highest absolute prolactin levels following stimulation. Patients with basal prolactin levels under 500 mU/l showed the highest relative increase of prolactin levels (delta = 550%). The prolactin stimulation tests with TRH had no diagnostic advantage compared to the basal prolactin levels in predicting the activity of the disease (basal values: sensitivity 12%, specificity 100%, stimulated values: sensitivity 10%, specificity 99%). During inhibition of plasmaprolactin with bromocriptine, an 330% increase of plasmaprolactin following TRH was observed in vivo. The same was shown in vitro: Pituitary cells cultured in vitro with 10(-6) M dopamine showed an increase of prolactin secretion after coincubation with 10(-7) M TRH. There was a linear increase of the prolactin concentration during the incubation period in dopamine-free cell cultures. The increase of prolactin concentration in vitro was constant during the whole incubation period (5 h), not influenced by the basal prolactin concentration and was seen as early as 30 min in incubation. The in vivo and in vitro results are in agreement with the hypothesis of a rapid, dopamine-independent effect of TRH on the secretion of stored prolactin in the pituitary.

parlodel maximum dose 2016-06-04

Primary resistance to dopamine agonists occurs in 10-15% of prolactinomas but secondary resistance following initial biochemical and anti-proliferative response is very rare and has only been hitherto described in four previous cases, two with bromocriptine and two with cabergoline. We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a large macroprolactinoma with suprasellar extension buy parlodel . She was initially treated with bromocriptine therapy with a resolution of symptoms, marked reduction in prolactin concentration and complete tumour shrinkage; a response which was subsequently maintained on cabergoline. After 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy, her prolactin concentration began to rise and there was symptomatic recurrence of her tumour despite escalating doses of cabergoline up to 6 mg weekly. Non-compliance was outruled by observed inpatient drug administration. The patient underwent surgical debulking followed by radiotherapy with good response. This case adds to the previous two cases of secondary resistance to cabergoline therapy in prolactinomas a marked initial response. While the mechanism of secondary resistance remains unknown and not possible to predict, close observation of prolactinoma patients on treatment is necessary.

parlodel tablet price 2016-09-14

There was a significant reduction in the incidence of buy parlodel moderate OHSS (P=0.037), early OHSS (P=0.012) as well as the number of admissions (P=0.030). Average duration of hospitalization was also significantly reduced (P=0.036). In the study group, the incidence of clinically significant OHSS was 17.5% as compared to 40.9% in the control group. No difference was detected between the groups in clinical pregnancy rates (P=0.0054).

parlodel and alcohol 2017-09-12

The role of prolactin (PRL) in regulating the transport of the bile acid taurocholate (TC) was assessed using isolated rat hepatocytes. Na(+)-dependent TC cotransport was determined in hepatocytes from female nonpregnant, pregnant (19-20 days pregnant), postpartum (48 hr postpartum) and postpartum rats treated with bromocriptine to block PRL secretion. In separate experiments ovariectomized rats were infused i.v. with solvent alone (OVX) or with ovine PRL (100, 300 and 600 micrograms/day) for 7 days (OVX+oPRL). The least squares estimates of Km (microM) and Vmax (nmol/min/mg protein) for Na(+)-dependent TC uptake were, respectively: 15 and 1 in nonpregnant, 9 and 0.4 in pregnant, 9 and 1.1 in postpartum and 15 and 1 in bromocriptine-treated postpartum rats, and were 15 and 1 in OVX, 15 and 1 in OVX+oPRL (100 micrograms/day), 30 and 2 in OVX+oPRL (300 micrograms/day) and 18 and 2 in OVX+oPRL (600 micrograms/day) rats, respectively. Calculation of the 95% joint confidence limits for Km and Vmax showed that Na(+)-dependent TC uptake was significantly decreased in pregnant rats, and significantly increased in postpartum rats relative to nonpregnant controls. Bromocriptine-treated postpartum rats were not different from controls. Infusion of 300 and 600 micrograms/day oPRL significantly increased Na(+)-dependent TC transport relative to OVX rats. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity buy parlodel did not differ among the groups. These data indicate that PRL is responsible for the increased Na(+)-dependent transport of TC in the maternal liver postpartum, and that administration of oPRL to ovariectomized rats increases this transport in a dose-dependent manner.

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Gigantomastia during pregnancy is exceedingly rare, with an incidence of 1/28, buy parlodel 000-100,000 pregnancies. Treatment during pregnancy is a dilemma, and postpartum reduction mammoplasty remains the mainstay of treatment.

parlodel dosage 2017-11-09

The "absolute safety" of bromocriptine as a drug of choice buy parlodel in suppression of lactation is questioned. Two cases of cerebrovascular events after the use of bromocriptine for lactation suppression are presented, and the available, pertinent literature is reviewed.

parlodel drug uses 2017-07-12

A 50-yr-old woman presented to our Department for evaluation of an intra- and suprasellar mass causing progressive visual defect. Mild hyperprolactinemia causing menstrual irregularities was diagnosed Cymbalta And Cost in February 1989. In 1992, serum PRL levels ranged from 50 to 70 microg/l and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hypothalamic-pituitary region showed the presence of a 7 mm microadenoma. Bromocriptine therapy resulted in normalization of PRL levels and menstrual cycle, while a repeat MRI showed no change. Menses stopped in March 1998, when the patient was 46 yr old. Subsequently, the patient complained of worsening headaches and, starting from July 2001, visual disturbances. In March 2002, MRI showed a large pituitary tumor, measuring 40x37x28 mm. In May 2002, the patient was operated through the transsphenoidal approach with apparent total tumor removal. Histological examination confirmed a pituitary adenoma that stained negative for all pituitary hormones. Four months after surgery, the patient reported an improvement of visual function. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, performed 4, 13 and 25 months after surgery, showed a partially empty sella with no evidence of residual tumor.

parlodel tablet uses 2016-06-11

At the age of 10 years a prolactin-producing pituitary tumor was diagnosed in a boy now aged 16 1/2 years. After surgical removal with a relapse after 1 year, a second surgical intervention and pituitary radiation were necessary. In the cause of further hyperprolactinemia, Pravidel treatment (Bromocriptine) was started with success. After 4 1/2 years medical treatment was discontinued for 1 week, but remains of active tumor tissue activity with increased prolactin Neurontin Starting Dose concentrations were found, so that further treatment with Pravidel is necessary.

parlodel dosing 2017-03-20

Injection of bromocriptine from 5 days before until 5 days after mating clearly suppressed the periovulatory prolactin surge in ewes in the anoestrous and oestrous Accutane Pills season but did not change the litter size significantly. Progesterone, GH, TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations were not influenced by the bromocriptine treatment. The progesterone concentrations were lower during the first weeks after mating in the anoestrous season compared to the oestrous season, while there was no difference between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. During later gestation this seasonal difference was only observed in the non-pregnant ewes. At the same time there was a clear difference between pregnancy and non-pregnancy in both seasons. The prolactin, GH and thyroid hormone values also varied significantly during gestation. Since these patterns are identical in pregnant and non-pregnant ewes, the fluctuations are due to environmental factors and not to pregnancy or altered progesterone concentrations. In the anoestrous season prolactin, GH, T4 and T3 levels were higher than in the breeding season, while rT3 showed the opposite pattern. The TSH concentration did not differ between the two seasons. These results suggest that seasonal variations in prolactin, GH and thyroid hormones or the periovulatory prolactin surge do not affect litter size of ewes during pregnancy in the oestrous or the anoestrous season.

bromocriptine parlodel dosage 2017-04-29

Bromocriptine (BRC) is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid Prevacid Solutab Generic possessing dopamine agonistic activity. We had previously observed significant changes in renal hemodynamics in rats pretreated with BRC to suppress endogenous prolactin plasma levels. To investigate further the effects of BRC on single nephron and whole-kidney function, micropuncture and clearance experiments were performed on euvolemic and volume-expanded rats pretreated with BRC (1 mg i.p.) or solvent. Both groups of BRC-pretreated rats had a significantly higher renal plasma flow and a lower arterial pressure, filtration fraction and renal vascular resistance than control (solvent-treated) rats. In volume-expanded rats, BRC caused a small but significant decrease in whole-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in superficial single nephron GFR; BRC did not affect GFR or single nephron GFR in euvolemic rats. Proximal tubular reabsorption and urinary excretion of water and electrolytes were not altered by BRC under conditions of euvolemia or volume expansion. It was concluded that BRC exerts a dopamine agonist-like effect to increase renal plasma flow and suppress endogenous plasma prolactin levels, whereas the urinary water and electrolyte excretion and superficial proximal tubular reabsorption are not altered appreciably. The increased ratio of single nephron GFR/GFR suggests that in volume-expanded rats, BRC redistributes glomerular filtration to superficial nephrons, possible by preferential dilation of superficial afferent arterioles.

parlodel online 2015-06-19

After aorto caval fistulae (ACF) surgery on adult male Wistar rats to induce CH, animals were assigned to the preventive Zoloft 750 Mg protocol (drug treatment began immediately after surgery) or corrective protocol (hypertrophy was allowed to develop before drug treatment). After treatments, isoproterenol was administered to half of the animals to further induce CH. The groups included the passive control, the sham-operated animals, those with ACF surgery but without drug treatment, and the 3-week treatments with captopril, losartan, or the low or high dose of bromocriptine.

parlodel drug 2016-05-05

Data from 747 patients (251 males; median age, 42 y; interquartile range [IQR], 34-52 y) were collected. A total of 601 patients had taken cabergoline alone; 36 had been treated with bromocriptine alone; and 110 had received both drugs at some stage. The median cumulative dose for cabergoline was 152 mg (IQR, 50-348 mg), and for bromocriptine it was 7815 mg (IQR, 1764-20 477 mg). A total of 28 cases of moderate valvular stenosis or regurgitation were observed in 24 (3.2%) patients. No associations were observed between cumulative doses of dopamine agonist used and the age-corrected prevalence of any valvular abnormality Omnicef 80 Mg .

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia 2016-11-20

Medical therapy has an important role in Allegra Tablet Dose the management of prolactinomas and somatotroph adenomas.

parlodel 5 mg 2016-03-03

The administration of cyclosporine A, cyclosporine A plus bromocriptine, or bromocriptine results in down-regulation of antinuclear autoantibody levels in the sera of patients with uveitis. Decreased levels of autoantibodies against DNA, histones, cardiolipin, RNP, Sm, Ro (SS-A), and La (SS-B) were detected in the sera of patients with uveitis receiving cyclosporine A or cyclosporine A plus bromocriptine following 3 months of treatment. In contrast to the decreased antibody titers obtained following the treatment, the total immunoglobulin levels remained within the normal range. The results indicate that Accutane 4 Mg cyclosporine may affect B cell function, thereby yielding the observed decrease in autoantibody levels. This phenomenon might have clinical importance as a serological indicator of the efficiency of the patients to respond to the drug.

parlodel generic name 2017-09-14

A woman affected by Cushing's disease underwent bilateral adrenalectomy followed by radiotherapy of the hypothalamic-pituitary area when she was 18 years old. Thereafter, she used hydrocortisone acetate replacement therapy (35.5 mg divided into two daily doses). At the age of 26 years, the patient exhibited the clinical signs of the Nelson's syndrome, i.e. skin and gingival hyperpigmentation accompanied by amenorrhea, and elevated ACTH plasma levels (2,850 pg/ml, normal range 15-80 pg/ml). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the sellar region evidenced a pituitary macroadenoma, measuring 14 x 13 mm. The patient was initially treated with cyproheptadine hydrochloride (12 mg/day) for 18 months. There was a partial improvement of the symptoms, with a reduction of the ACTH plasma levels to 112 pg/ml, but without any modification of the tumor mass. Due to sleepiness and weight gain, the cyproheptadine treatment was interrupted and substituted by a cabergoline (0.5 mg twice a week) therapy. Soon after cabergoline was applied an improvement of the clinical symptoms and signs was observed such as a regression of the tumor mass and the normalization of the ACTH plasma titers (38 pg/ml). Later, cabergoline was substituted by bromocriptine (7.5 mg/day) and the plasma levels of ACTH increased again (247 pg/ml), and headache and cutaneous hyperpigmentation were recorded. When cabergoline was reintroduced there was a clinical improvement and normalization of ACTH plasma levels (64 pg/ml). The MRI analysis of the sella region demonstrated a complete remission of the pituitary adenoma. The results obtained show for the first time that a long-term treatment with cabergoline also brings about a complete remission of Nelson's syndrome in the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma.

parlodel reviews 2015-04-08

Concentrations of serum prolactin (PRL) were determined in 55 consecutive patients with primary SS and 110 controls by a fluoroimmunometric assay in a prospective case-control design.

parlodel y alcohol 2017-08-26

The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness and safety profile of bromocriptine monotherapy or as an adjunct to clomiphene citrate in women with galactorrhea and normal prolactin levels.

parlodel tab 2016-02-18

In a previous study we reported stimulation of growth velocity in hypopituitary children by dopaminergic therapy (DA), i.e. either L-dopa or bromocriptine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if DA stimulated endogenous GH release and growth in children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), who also had microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. The effect of DA on serum LH, FSH, gonadal steroids, cortisol, T4, and TSH also was examined. Six prepubertal children [four girls and two boys; bone age (BA), 1.5-4 yr] with IUGR were divided into two study groups. Group I (n = 3) received L-dopa (15 mg/kg) orally every 6 h for 6 months. Group II (n = 3) received bromocriptine (1.25 mg) orally every 12 h for 6 months. At the end of the 6 months of DA therapy, both groups received human GH (hGH) (0.1 IU/kg) im thrice weekly for 6 months. The growth rate in group I was 6.5 +/- 0.1 (+/-SD) cm/yr after 6 months of DA compared with a pretreatment growth rate of 4.1 +/- 0.7 cm/yr. Individual increments ranged from 38-80%. All three children achieved normal growth rates for their BA. Similarly, the growth rate in group II increased to 7.7 +/- 0.9 cm/yr from a pretreatment growth velocity of 4.2 +/- 1.6 cm/yr. The growth increments of group II ranged from 43-133%. Two children of group II achieved normal growth rates for their BA, and all had a significant increase in height (P less than 0.05). Four of the six children achieved normal growth velocities after 6 months of hGH therapy. Five of the six children significantly increased their mean hGH responses to L-dopa or bromocriptine during chronic DA therapy compared with the pretreatment period. Maximum serum hGH values in group I increased from a pretreatment mean (and range) of 12 +/- 4 (+/-SE) ng/ml (5-18 ng/ml) to 46 +/- 12 ng/ml (21-64 ng/ml). The maximum hGH concentrations in group II increased from a pretreatment mean and range of 21 +/- 7 ng/ml (11-34 ng/ml) to 48 +/- 4 (42-56 ng/ml). Also, four of the six children had correspondingly increased somatomedin-C concentrations after DA therapy. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that dopaminergic therapy, i.e. L-dopa or bromocriptine, induced linear growth in patients with a form of IUGR associated with microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. DA therapy perhaps may be useful in treating other various forms of IUGR.

parlodel cost 2017-06-05

Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

buy parlodel online 2015-10-13

Ninety-four women and seven men were treated with low dose bromocriptine for (a) hyperprolactinemia or (b) normoprolactinemia but with galactorrhea and a pituitary adenoma. All the pituitary adenomas became smaller or remained the same. Prolactin levels decreased with treatment and inappropriate galactorrhea improved in the 53 patients except for 7 where there was no change. Of the 41 women with premenstrual mastalgia 78% improved with treatment. Of the 74 women with ovulatory problems, a biphasic pattern was restored in 65 patients. Thirty-two patients out of the 92 trying to conceive achieved a pregnancy with an abortion rate of 12.5% and non-lethal congenital abnormality of 9.8% (2.1% in Singapore population). Fertility was restored in 3 hyperprolactinemic oligospermic males and improved libido was professed by most of the treated men. Side effects were present but were on the whole tolerable. Pregnancy rate was better in those with high levels of prolactin (greater than 1000 miU/l) than in those with hyperprolactinemia of between 500 and 1000 miU/l although this was not statistically significant chi 2 = 0.69. In the lower hyperprolactinemic range there was noticeable number of patients with endometriosis and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels.