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On the 9th day of the 4th spray the larval count in the plot treated with 3% E. agallocha formulation drastically came down to 0.23 larva/plant, compared to 1.63 in the ethanol control plot and 1.60 in the unsprayed plot. Blocks sprayed with 3% E. agallocha formulation yielded 35.8 quintals/hectare (q/ha) of healthy pods compared to Ekalux® (pod yield: 60.7 q/ha), 3% Vijay Neem® (60.22 q/ha), yield plot (6 q/ha) and ethanol control (7 q/ha). In C. cajan, 1% E. agallocha, 3% Nimbecidine® and 0.07% indoxacarb were equally potent in reducing the larval population of H. armigera and the non-target pest Spilosoma obliqua to 0%, from the 9th day (3rd spray). Indoxacarb plot recorded the maximum yield of 16.1 q/ha with 2.4% pod damage. Plots sprayed with 1% E. agallocha yielded 14.7 q/ha with 2.32% pod damage. The effect of 3% Nimbecidine® spray (14.35 q/ha) was comparable to E. agallocha formulation. Unsprayed and ethanol control plots yielded 12.41 and 11.2 q/ha of pods with an average pod damage of 4.7%.
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The database search (up to 10 August 2010) identified 1 new trial, in addition to the 9 included in the original systematic review, and 11 further trials were included after a hand-search and reference check. Of these 21 trials, 11 were excluded and 10 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. Thirteen dichotomous datasets of primary outcomes and 4 datasets with secondary outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall results of the computed datasets suggest that GIC has a higher caries-preventive effect than amalgam for restorations in permanent teeth. No difference was found for restorations in the primary dentition.
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The main aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of different operating parameters like adsorbent dose, initial Cr(6+) concentration and pH on the removal of Cr(6+) from aqueous solution using neem bark powder (NBP). A series of batch experiments were performed to find out the adsorption isotherms and kinetic behaviour of Cr(6+) in the aqueous solution. The adsorption process was examined with three independent variables viz. NBP dosage, initial Cr(6+) concentrations and pH. Seventeen batch experiments designed by Box-Behnken using response surface methodology were carried out, and the adsorption efficiency was modelled using polynomial equation as the function of the independent variables. Based on the uptake capacity and economic use of adsorbent, the independent variables were optimized by two procedures. The desirability of first and second optimization procedures were found to be 1.00 and 0.84, respectively, which shows that the estimated function may well represent the experimental model. The kinetic study indicated that the rate of adsorption confirms to the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thermodynamics study indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The surface texture changes in NBP were obtained from FT-IR analysis. The optimized result obtained from RAMP plots revealed that the NBP was supposed to be an effective and economically feasible adsorbent for the removal of Cr(6+) from an aqueous system.
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Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.
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Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats.
Herbal mouthrinse was found to be a potent plaque inhibitor, though less effective than Chlorhexidine Gluconate. However, it can serve as a good alternative for the patients with special needs as in case of diabetics, xerostomics, and so on.
A total of 80 extracted non-carious human teeth were kept in seven disinfectant media-10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, neem extract and normal saline. Ten samples were placed in each disinfectant individually for a period of 7 days, at room temperature. In all, 10 teeth were treated with microwave irradiation at 650 W for 3 min. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of tryptic soy broth at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Semiquantitative analysis of all the samples was done in Clade agar at 37°C for 48 h.
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Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids.
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The LD50 of crude neem extract (N-4) and (N-9) was found to be 4.80% and 0.47%, respectively. The range of mortality was found to be increasing (at 95% confidence limit) with increase in concentration of solution.
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To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus).
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FIR induced 55 and suppressed 10 genes, while SDR induced 49 and suppressed 5 genes. Of these, 46 and 4 genes were commonly up/down-regulated after FIR and SDR. NLE inhibited IR-induced NAIP, BIRC6, BIRC8, NOL3 and enhanced BAK1, BAX, BCL10, CASP1, CASP10 CARD8 and CRADD. Furthermore, NLE conferred FIR- and SDR-induced cell death.
Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU) was enumerated using a digital colony counter.
The crystal structures, synthesis procedure, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic properties of a new squaraine SqINH·H2O and its anhydrous arrangement are described. This squaraine is obtained through an acid-base reaction using squaric acid (H2Sq) and isoniazid (INH) as precursors. Both squaraines crystallize in the monoclinic system, but in different space groups: the hydrated and anhydrous arrangement crystallizes in the P2₁ and P2₁/c space group, respectively. The crystallographic data strongly suggest that the structures present an expressive increase in their electronic delocalization all over the molecular structure of both compounds, when compared with the reagents. The bond distances for both structures present an average value intermediate between a single and double character (1.463(3) Å for SqINH·H2O and 1.4959(3) Å for SqINH). The vibrational and electronic data also corroborate with this proposal, since the band shifts indicate that the conjugation over the system is increased, as indicated by the blue shift observed for the carbonyl stretching bands for both compounds. The presence of the water molecule is responsible for a decrease in fluorescence emission, as determined by the emission spectra recorded for both compounds.
The metal site in the title compound [MnCl(2)(C(12)H(12)N(2))(2)]·2.5H(2)O has a distorted octa-hedral geometry, coordinated by four N atoms of two 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine ligands and two Cl atoms. Two and a half water molecules of hydration per complex unit are observed in the crystal structure. The compounds extend along the c axis with O-H⋯Cl, O-H⋯O, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.70 (2) Å] contributing substanti-ally to the crystal packing. The Mn and one of the water O atoms, the latter being half-occupied, are located on special positions, in this case a rotation axis of order 2.
Azadirachtin, crude neem oil (NO), and clarified neem oil extract (CNO) were combined with copper to inhibit the growth of the soft-rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. A synergistic interaction was observed between CNO and a low dose of copper on nutrient media (two-factor anova with triplicate replication: P < 0·05). Interaction was confirmed on lab-scale collagen-lignin-anthracite briquettes by measuring their unconfined compressive (UC) strength. The effective collagen strength of the briquettes was enhanced by applying CNO to their surface prior to inoculation: the room temperature UC strength of the briquettes was 28 ± 4·6% greater when CNO (0·4 mg cm(-2) ) was surface-applied, and was 43 ± 3·0% greater when CNO plus copper (0·14 μg cm(-2) ) were surface-applied.
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Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated.
This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.
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Aquaneem, an emulsified product prepared from the neem (A. indica) kernel was tested against four pathogenic bacteria of fish (i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli and Myxobacteria spp.) to test its efficacy as an antibacterial agent. Growth inhibitory property of the product at 10, 15 and 20 ppm has been noticed and recorded. The percentage reduction of bacterial cell population was noted to be maximum on 9th day at 20 ppm concentration (i.e. 70.14%, 74.15% and 61.75% for A. hydrophila, P. fluorescens and E. coli respectively) with the only exception of myxobacteria which showed maximum reduction percentage (63.90%) on 15th day. Among all the bacteria tested A. hydrophila, P. fluorescens and Myxobacteria spp. exhibited maximum sensitivity to Aquaneem in terms of percentage reduction of bacterial cell population in comparison to E. coli.
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This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes 'Itália.' Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females]×five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25±2°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin (+3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations≥50 ppm azadirachtin (+14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.
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Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.
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The objective of this investigation was to improve the solubility of the poorly water soluble drug atorvastatin (ATR), using solid dispersion (SD) techniques, with Neem Gum (NG) as a hydrophilic carrier. The effects of the polymer concentration and method of preparation on the solubility and dissolution rate were studied. The results showed that the solubility of ATR increases with increasing NG concentration. However, dissolution rate of ATR from its SD was dependent on the method used to prepare SD. An in vitro drug release study revealed that the solvent evaporation technique is a more convenient and effective method of preparing SD than kneading method. The SD was characterized using DSC, SEM, and XRD study. An in vivo study was performed in which the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibition activity was measured. A significant reduction in HMG CoA reductase activity was observed with SD of ATR compared with the plain drug. An ex vivo absorption study was carried out using modified apparatus developed in our laboratory. The in vitro drug release and in vivo and ex vivo studies clearly demonstrated the potential of hydrophilic NG in enhancing the solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of ATR.
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Treatment methods in the last century involved the use of substances such as sulphur, mercury, hellebore, arsenic, nicotine and others, applied in various ways. The advent of dips in 1843 signalled an advance. However, the biology of the mite, Psoroptes ovis, the epidemiology of sheep scab and the lack of persistence of the acaricides necessitated repeated laborious treatments to ensure success. In 1947 this changed with the use of organo chlorines (OCs) which had up to 3 months residual activity. The use of OCs led to the eradication of psoroptic mange of sheep in USA. Organo phosphates (OPs) were introduced in the late fifties and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) in the early seventies. In 1985, due to sheep tissue residues, lindane (OC) was withdrawn from the market and this greatly reduced the capacity for effective sheep scab control. Before the arrival of the endectocidal avermectin, ivermectin in 1978 and its successful use as an acaricide in 1992, control of psoroptic mange was limited to plunge dipping. In 1994 moxidectin, a milbemycin, was found to be effective and to have the added benefit of at least 4 weeks persistent activity. Another avermectin doramectin was shown, in 1995, to successfully treat scab and recently an ivermectin bolus has been introduced which has a 100 days' activity and is fully therapeutic and prophylactic. Strict attention to detail in the use of injectable products is essential in order to achieve satisfactory results. Work is progressing on the use insect growth regulators (IGRs) and also on naturally occurring substances such as linalool, neem and lavender oil. At the CVRL Dublin, promising results have been achieved with neem and some IGRs. Other areas of interest are allemones, synergists, microclimate manipulation, sheep breed resistance and vaccines. Successful control depends on epidemiological knowledge, accurate diagnostic techniques, intimate knowledge of the mite's life cycle, its behaviour on and off the host, its macro and molecular biology, the nature of the pathogenesis of the disease, sheep husbandry practices, nutritional and environmental factors; also farmer awareness and attitudes. The variable responses of sheep to the mite, the unpredictable incubation period, course, manifestations and outcome make this an intriguing and perplexing disease. Ways to overcome these problems and to achieve possible eradication are discussed.
Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention for their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. However, the antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of neem limonoids have not been tested in animal tumour models. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relative chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by analyzing the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21(waf1), cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), NF-kappaB, inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB), p53, Fas, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, survivin, caspases-3, -6, -8 and -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide mediate their antiproliferative effects by downregulating proteins involved in cell cycle progression and transduce apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.
The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory.
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Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6) and a tumor cell line (HeLa). The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy.
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Assessment of antibacterial as well as antiherpes virus activity of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride (SQDG), a glycolipid, isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica has been described. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and herpes simplex virus. SQDG showed significant inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and two isolates of Shigella dysenteriae with MIC values 32 μg ml(-1) , while three isolates of Salm. typhi, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were inhibited at 64 μg ml(-1) and have shown zone diameter ranging from 6.2 to 12.3 mm. The growth kinetics study of SQDG on Salm. typhi and Sh. dysenteriae revealed that the growths were completely inhibited at their MIC values within 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, SQDG inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 with the EC50 of 9.1 and 8.5 μg ml(-1) , compared with acyclovir (2.2 and 2.8 μg ml(-1) against HSV-1 and HSV-2). The selectivity index (SI) was found to be 12.4 against HSV-1 and 13.41 with HSV-2. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of HSV-infected and SQDG-treated macrophages using ELISA kit revealed that SQDG significantly downregulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6.
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Results indicate that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Neem leaf were effective in inducing apoptosis in leukemia and colon cancer cells, following destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in cancer cells treated with NLEs, indicating that oxidative stress may play a role in the mechanism of cell death. Additionally, in vivo results showed that aqueous NLE (delivered orally) was well tolerated and inhibited tumour growth of human xenografts in mice.
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The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Aflatoxin production in fungal mycelia grown for 96 h in culture media containing 50% neem leaf and seed extracts was inhibited by approximately 90 and approximately 65% respectively. Under similar conditions, culture media amended with 1.56% of leaf or seed extract caused approximately 23 and approximately 7% inhibition respectively. Mycelial samples exposed to selected concentrations of the plant extract (1.56 or 50% v/v) collected and processed for morphological studies. Semi-thin longitudinal and cross sections prepared from control (untreated) and treated mycelia (1.56% v/v) revealed that alterations are limited to the vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm. Nevertheless, exposure to high concentration i.e., 50% v/v of the extract resulted in vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm and vesicle deformation causing attenuation of cell wall at variable intervals. Herniation of the cytoplasmic contents that was protruding from the mycelium was associated with deformation of the mycelium. Some mycelia showed a cleft between the cell wall and cytoplasm. Association of aflatoxin production with morphological changes suggest that probably integrity of the cell barriers particularly cell wall is critical in regulation of aflatoxin production and excretion.
Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) are used in the developing world for many purposes including management of agricultural insect pests. The effects of different neem extracts (aqueous (NSKEaq), ethanol (NSKEeth) and hexane (NSKEhex)) on mortality, survival and weight of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) third and fourth nymphal instars were investigated. When fed rice plants treated with neem derivatives in bioassays, the survival of BPH nymphs is affected. Comparisons were made with the pure neem limonoid, azadirachtin (AZA) to ascertain its role as a compound responsible for these effects. AZA was most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% nymphal mortality at 0.5 ppm and higher concentrations. When higher concentrations were applied, the effects appeared shortly after treatment and mortality was higher. Many insects died after remaining inactive for several days or during prolonged moulting. At lower concentrations, if moulting was achieved, disturbed growth and abnormalities were then likely to occur in the moulting process. Nymphs that were chronically exposed to neem extract showed a reduction in weight (45-60%). The results clearly indicate the simple NSKE (aqueous, ethanolic or both), containing low concentrations of AZA, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of BPH.
Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal at an azadirachtin concentration of 650ppm or 125ppm, with Neguvon or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650ppm. At the lower test concentration (125ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders.