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Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.


Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.


If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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On the 9th day of the 4th spray the larval count in the plot treated with 3% E. agallocha formulation drastically came down to 0.23 larva/plant, compared to 1.63 in the ethanol control plot and 1.60 in the unsprayed plot. Blocks sprayed with 3% E. agallocha formulation yielded 35.8 quintals/hectare (q/ha) of healthy pods compared to Ekalux® (pod yield: 60.7 q/ha), 3% Vijay Neem® (60.22 q/ha), yield plot (6 q/ha) and ethanol control (7 q/ha). In C. cajan, 1% E. agallocha, 3% Nimbecidine® and 0.07% indoxacarb were equally potent in reducing the larval population of H. armigera and the non-target pest Spilosoma obliqua to 0%, from the 9th day (3rd spray). Indoxacarb plot recorded the maximum yield of 16.1 q/ha with 2.4% pod damage. Plots sprayed with 1% E. agallocha yielded 14.7 q/ha with 2.32% pod damage. The effect of 3% Nimbecidine® spray (14.35 q/ha) was comparable to E. agallocha formulation. Unsprayed and ethanol control plots yielded 12.41 and 11.2 q/ha of pods with an average pod damage of 4.7%.

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The database search (up to 10 August 2010) identified 1 new trial, in addition to the 9 included in the original systematic review, and 11 further trials were included after a hand-search and reference check. Of these 21 trials, 11 were excluded and 10 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. Thirteen dichotomous datasets of primary outcomes and 4 datasets with secondary outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall results of the computed datasets suggest that GIC has a higher caries-preventive effect than amalgam for restorations in permanent teeth. No difference was found for restorations in the primary dentition.

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The main aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of different operating parameters like adsorbent dose, initial Cr(6+) concentration and pH on the removal of Cr(6+) from aqueous solution using neem bark powder (NBP). A series of batch experiments were performed to find out the adsorption isotherms and kinetic behaviour of Cr(6+) in the aqueous solution. The adsorption process was examined with three independent variables viz. NBP dosage, initial Cr(6+) concentrations and pH. Seventeen batch experiments designed by Box-Behnken using response surface methodology were carried out, and the adsorption efficiency was modelled using polynomial equation as the function of the independent variables. Based on the uptake capacity and economic use of adsorbent, the independent variables were optimized by two procedures. The desirability of first and second optimization procedures were found to be 1.00 and 0.84, respectively, which shows that the estimated function may well represent the experimental model. The kinetic study indicated that the rate of adsorption confirms to the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thermodynamics study indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The surface texture changes in NBP were obtained from FT-IR analysis. The optimized result obtained from RAMP plots revealed that the NBP was supposed to be an effective and economically feasible adsorbent for the removal of Cr(6+) from an aqueous system.

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Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.

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Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats.

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Herbal mouthrinse was found to be a potent plaque inhibitor, though less effective than Chlorhexidine Gluconate. However, it can serve as a good alternative for the patients with special needs as in case of diabetics, xerostomics, and so on.

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A total of 80 extracted non-carious human teeth were kept in seven disinfectant media-10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, neem extract and normal saline. Ten samples were placed in each disinfectant individually for a period of 7 days, at room temperature. In all, 10 teeth were treated with microwave irradiation at 650 W for 3 min. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of tryptic soy broth at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Semiquantitative analysis of all the samples was done in Clade agar at 37°C for 48 h.

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Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids.

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The LD50 of crude neem extract (N-4) and (N-9) was found to be 4.80% and 0.47%, respectively. The range of mortality was found to be increasing (at 95% confidence limit) with increase in concentration of solution.

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To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus).

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FIR induced 55 and suppressed 10 genes, while SDR induced 49 and suppressed 5 genes. Of these, 46 and 4 genes were commonly up/down-regulated after FIR and SDR. NLE inhibited IR-induced NAIP, BIRC6, BIRC8, NOL3 and enhanced BAK1, BAX, BCL10, CASP1, CASP10 CARD8 and CRADD. Furthermore, NLE conferred FIR- and SDR-induced cell death.

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Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU) was enumerated using a digital colony counter.

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The crystal structures, synthesis procedure, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic properties of a new squaraine SqINH·H2O and its anhydrous arrangement are described. This squaraine is obtained through an acid-base reaction using squaric acid (H2Sq) and isoniazid (INH) as precursors. Both squaraines crystallize in the monoclinic system, but in different space groups: the hydrated and anhydrous arrangement crystallizes in the P2₁ and P2₁/c space group, respectively. The crystallographic data strongly suggest that the structures present an expressive increase in their electronic delocalization all over the molecular structure of both compounds, when compared with the reagents. The bond distances for both structures present an average value intermediate between a single and double character (1.463(3) Å for SqINH·H2O and 1.4959(3) Å for SqINH). The vibrational and electronic data also corroborate with this proposal, since the band shifts indicate that the conjugation over the system is increased, as indicated by the blue shift observed for the carbonyl stretching bands for both compounds. The presence of the water molecule is responsible for a decrease in fluorescence emission, as determined by the emission spectra recorded for both compounds.

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The metal site in the title compound [MnCl(2)(C(12)H(12)N(2))(2)]·2.5H(2)O has a distorted octa-hedral geometry, coordinated by four N atoms of two 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine ligands and two Cl atoms. Two and a half water molecules of hydration per complex unit are observed in the crystal structure. The compounds extend along the c axis with O-H⋯Cl, O-H⋯O, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.70 (2) Å] contributing substanti-ally to the crystal packing. The Mn and one of the water O atoms, the latter being half-occupied, are located on special positions, in this case a rotation axis of order 2.

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Azadirachtin, crude neem oil (NO), and clarified neem oil extract (CNO) were combined with copper to inhibit the growth of the soft-rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. A synergistic interaction was observed between CNO and a low dose of copper on nutrient media (two-factor anova with triplicate replication: P < 0·05). Interaction was confirmed on lab-scale collagen-lignin-anthracite briquettes by measuring their unconfined compressive (UC) strength. The effective collagen strength of the briquettes was enhanced by applying CNO to their surface prior to inoculation: the room temperature UC strength of the briquettes was 28 ± 4·6% greater when CNO (0·4 mg cm(-2) ) was surface-applied, and was 43 ± 3·0% greater when CNO plus copper (0·14 μg cm(-2) ) were surface-applied.

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Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated.

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This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

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Aquaneem, an emulsified product prepared from the neem (A. indica) kernel was tested against four pathogenic bacteria of fish (i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli and Myxobacteria spp.) to test its efficacy as an antibacterial agent. Growth inhibitory property of the product at 10, 15 and 20 ppm has been noticed and recorded. The percentage reduction of bacterial cell population was noted to be maximum on 9th day at 20 ppm concentration (i.e. 70.14%, 74.15% and 61.75% for A. hydrophila, P. fluorescens and E. coli respectively) with the only exception of myxobacteria which showed maximum reduction percentage (63.90%) on 15th day. Among all the bacteria tested A. hydrophila, P. fluorescens and Myxobacteria spp. exhibited maximum sensitivity to Aquaneem in terms of percentage reduction of bacterial cell population in comparison to E. coli.

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This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes 'Itália.' Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females]×five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25±2°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin (+3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations≥50 ppm azadirachtin (+14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.

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Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.

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The objective of this investigation was to improve the solubility of the poorly water soluble drug atorvastatin (ATR), using solid dispersion (SD) techniques, with Neem Gum (NG) as a hydrophilic carrier. The effects of the polymer concentration and method of preparation on the solubility and dissolution rate were studied. The results showed that the solubility of ATR increases with increasing NG concentration. However, dissolution rate of ATR from its SD was dependent on the method used to prepare SD. An in vitro drug release study revealed that the solvent evaporation technique is a more convenient and effective method of preparing SD than kneading method. The SD was characterized using DSC, SEM, and XRD study. An in vivo study was performed in which the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibition activity was measured. A significant reduction in HMG CoA reductase activity was observed with SD of ATR compared with the plain drug. An ex vivo absorption study was carried out using modified apparatus developed in our laboratory. The in vitro drug release and in vivo and ex vivo studies clearly demonstrated the potential of hydrophilic NG in enhancing the solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of ATR.

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Treatment methods in the last century involved the use of substances such as sulphur, mercury, hellebore, arsenic, nicotine and others, applied in various ways. The advent of dips in 1843 signalled an advance. However, the biology of the mite, Psoroptes ovis, the epidemiology of sheep scab and the lack of persistence of the acaricides necessitated repeated laborious treatments to ensure success. In 1947 this changed with the use of organo chlorines (OCs) which had up to 3 months residual activity. The use of OCs led to the eradication of psoroptic mange of sheep in USA. Organo phosphates (OPs) were introduced in the late fifties and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) in the early seventies. In 1985, due to sheep tissue residues, lindane (OC) was withdrawn from the market and this greatly reduced the capacity for effective sheep scab control. Before the arrival of the endectocidal avermectin, ivermectin in 1978 and its successful use as an acaricide in 1992, control of psoroptic mange was limited to plunge dipping. In 1994 moxidectin, a milbemycin, was found to be effective and to have the added benefit of at least 4 weeks persistent activity. Another avermectin doramectin was shown, in 1995, to successfully treat scab and recently an ivermectin bolus has been introduced which has a 100 days' activity and is fully therapeutic and prophylactic. Strict attention to detail in the use of injectable products is essential in order to achieve satisfactory results. Work is progressing on the use insect growth regulators (IGRs) and also on naturally occurring substances such as linalool, neem and lavender oil. At the CVRL Dublin, promising results have been achieved with neem and some IGRs. Other areas of interest are allemones, synergists, microclimate manipulation, sheep breed resistance and vaccines. Successful control depends on epidemiological knowledge, accurate diagnostic techniques, intimate knowledge of the mite's life cycle, its behaviour on and off the host, its macro and molecular biology, the nature of the pathogenesis of the disease, sheep husbandry practices, nutritional and environmental factors; also farmer awareness and attitudes. The variable responses of sheep to the mite, the unpredictable incubation period, course, manifestations and outcome make this an intriguing and perplexing disease. Ways to overcome these problems and to achieve possible eradication are discussed.

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Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention for their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. However, the antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of neem limonoids have not been tested in animal tumour models. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relative chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by analyzing the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21(waf1), cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), NF-kappaB, inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB), p53, Fas, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, survivin, caspases-3, -6, -8 and -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide mediate their antiproliferative effects by downregulating proteins involved in cell cycle progression and transduce apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

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The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory.

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Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6) and a tumor cell line (HeLa). The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy.

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Assessment of antibacterial as well as antiherpes virus activity of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride (SQDG), a glycolipid, isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica has been described. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and herpes simplex virus. SQDG showed significant inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and two isolates of Shigella dysenteriae with MIC values 32 μg ml(-1) , while three isolates of Salm. typhi, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae were inhibited at 64 μg ml(-1) and have shown zone diameter ranging from 6.2 to 12.3 mm. The growth kinetics study of SQDG on Salm. typhi and Sh. dysenteriae revealed that the growths were completely inhibited at their MIC values within 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, SQDG inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 with the EC50 of 9.1 and 8.5 μg ml(-1) , compared with acyclovir (2.2 and 2.8 μg ml(-1) against HSV-1 and HSV-2). The selectivity index (SI) was found to be 12.4 against HSV-1 and 13.41 with HSV-2. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of HSV-infected and SQDG-treated macrophages using ELISA kit revealed that SQDG significantly downregulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6.

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Results indicate that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Neem leaf were effective in inducing apoptosis in leukemia and colon cancer cells, following destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in cancer cells treated with NLEs, indicating that oxidative stress may play a role in the mechanism of cell death. Additionally, in vivo results showed that aqueous NLE (delivered orally) was well tolerated and inhibited tumour growth of human xenografts in mice.

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The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Aflatoxin production in fungal mycelia grown for 96 h in culture media containing 50% neem leaf and seed extracts was inhibited by approximately 90 and approximately 65% respectively. Under similar conditions, culture media amended with 1.56% of leaf or seed extract caused approximately 23 and approximately 7% inhibition respectively. Mycelial samples exposed to selected concentrations of the plant extract (1.56 or 50% v/v) collected and processed for morphological studies. Semi-thin longitudinal and cross sections prepared from control (untreated) and treated mycelia (1.56% v/v) revealed that alterations are limited to the vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm. Nevertheless, exposure to high concentration i.e., 50% v/v of the extract resulted in vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm and vesicle deformation causing attenuation of cell wall at variable intervals. Herniation of the cytoplasmic contents that was protruding from the mycelium was associated with deformation of the mycelium. Some mycelia showed a cleft between the cell wall and cytoplasm. Association of aflatoxin production with morphological changes suggest that probably integrity of the cell barriers particularly cell wall is critical in regulation of aflatoxin production and excretion.

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Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) are used in the developing world for many purposes including management of agricultural insect pests. The effects of different neem extracts (aqueous (NSKEaq), ethanol (NSKEeth) and hexane (NSKEhex)) on mortality, survival and weight of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) third and fourth nymphal instars were investigated. When fed rice plants treated with neem derivatives in bioassays, the survival of BPH nymphs is affected. Comparisons were made with the pure neem limonoid, azadirachtin (AZA) to ascertain its role as a compound responsible for these effects. AZA was most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% nymphal mortality at 0.5 ppm and higher concentrations. When higher concentrations were applied, the effects appeared shortly after treatment and mortality was higher. Many insects died after remaining inactive for several days or during prolonged moulting. At lower concentrations, if moulting was achieved, disturbed growth and abnormalities were then likely to occur in the moulting process. Nymphs that were chronically exposed to neem extract showed a reduction in weight (45-60%). The results clearly indicate the simple NSKE (aqueous, ethanolic or both), containing low concentrations of AZA, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of BPH.

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Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal at an azadirachtin concentration of 650ppm or 125ppm, with Neguvon or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650ppm. At the lower test concentration (125ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders.

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dabur neem tablets 2015-05-29

In An. coluzzii, the ingestion of NA in bloodmeals offered by membrane feeding resulted in (i) primary antifeedancy; (ii) decreased longevity; and (iii) reduced response to host odours. In G. palpalis gambiensis, NA caused (i) a knock-down effect; (ii) decreased or increased longevity depending buy neem on the dose; and (iii) reduced response to host stimuli. In both cases, NA did not affect the anthropophilic rate of activated insects. Overall, the most significant effects were observed with NA treated bloodmeals at a dose of 2000 μg/ml for mosquitoes and 50 μg/ml for tsetse flies. Although no mortality in mice was observed after 14 days of follow-up at oral doses of 3.8, 5.6, 8.4 and 12.7 g/kg, behavioural alterations were noticed at doses above 8 g/kg.

neem pills 2016-03-02

Innovative/efficient finishing systems for imparting multi-functional properties to cotton/polyester and viscose/polyester blends were developed. Factors affecting the extent of functionalization including type and concentration of the nano-hybrid, i.e. silver nanoparticles/polyvinyl pyrolidone hybrid (Ag-NP's/PVP) or zinc oxide nanoparticles/hyperbranched polyamide-amine hybrid (ZnO-NP's/HBPAA), concentration of Basic Blue 9, or chitosan and sequence of treatment using citric acid as cross-linker were reported. Loading of β-CD, with its hydrophobic cavities, onto the cross-linked substrates and subsequent treatment with Neem-oil, Lavender-oil or 4-hydroxybenzophenone was also studied. The obtained products exhibit a remarkable easy care, antibacterial and/or UV-blocking functional properties. The improvement in the imparted properties and durability to wash is governed by type and amount of loaded active ingredients. Mode of interactions was buy neem suggested, and surface modifications together with composition of selected samples were also confirmed by SEM images and EDX spectra.

neem toothpaste review 2016-02-03

To develop a self-administered buy neem , orally delivered method for abrogation of early pregnancy.

dabur neem tablet 2017-09-14

Several deep Greenland ice cores have been retrieved, however, capturing the Eemian period has been problematic due to stratigraphic disturbances in the ice. The new Greenland deep ice core from the NEEM site (77.45 °N, 51.06 °W, 2450 m.a.s.l) recovered a relatively complete Eemian record. Here we discuss the cosmogenic (10)Be isotope record from this core. The results show Eemian average (10)Be concentrations about 0.7 times lower than in the Holocene which suggests a warmer climate and approximately 65-90% higher precipitation in Northern Greenland compared to today. Effects buy neem of shorter solar variations on (10)Be concentration are smoothed out due to coarse time resolution, but occurrence of a solar maximum at 115.26-115.36 kyr BP is proposed. Relatively high (10)Be concentrations are found in the basal ice sections of the core which may originate from the glacial-interglacial transition and relate to a geomagnetic excursion about 200 kyr BP.

neem tablets 2017-07-21

The biological activity of 6beta-hydroxygedunin isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. was assessed using the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), and Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), alone and in combination with other limonoids, gedunin, salannin, nimbinene, and azadirachtin. The compound exhibited growth inhibitory activity in artificial diet bioassays, with 24.2 and 21.5 ppm, respectively, inhibiting growth by 50%. This efficacy was higher in comparison to gedunin (EC(50) = 50.8 and 40.4 ppm), salannin (EC(50) = 74.5 and 72.0 ppm), and buy neem nimbinene (EC(50) = 391.4 and 404.5 ppm). Azadirachtin, however, remained the most active neem allelochemical against both insect species. Nutritional assays clearly demonstrated that, though relative consumption and growth rates of fourth instar larvae were reduced, gedunin-type compounds induced physiological toxicity, evident by reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) in feeding experiments. Salannin and nimbinene, on the contrary, induced concentration-dependent feeding deterrence only. In feeding experiments, combinations of the compounds revealed that when azadirachtin was present in a mixture, EC(50) values did not deviate from the individual efficacy of azadirachtin (0.26 and 0.21 ppm, respectively) against H. armigera and S. litura larvae. However, a combination without azadirachtin did show a potentiation effect with potent EC(50) values among structurally different molecules, i.e., when salannin or nimbinene was combined with 6beta-hydroxygedunin or gedunin rather than structurally similar salannin + nimbinene or 6beta-hydroxygedunin + gedunin. Obviously, azadirachtin being the most active compound in neem is not synergized or influenced by any other limonoid, but other non-azadirachtin limonoids were more potent in specific combinations vis-à-vis the structural chemistry of the compound. It is obvious from the present study that potentiation among non-azadirachtin limonoids having explicitly two different modes of action, such as feeding deterrence and physiological toxicity, may be playing a significant role in the potentiation effect.

neem capsules 2017-06-12

The study was a parallel in vitro comparative experimental trial conducted among 75 randomly selected boys aged between 18 years and 21 years. The subjects were divided into five groups, namely, Group I, Group II, Group III, Group IV, and Group V. They were provided with a new set of precoded toothbrushes and nonfluoridated tooth pastes. After 14 days of tooth brushing, the toothbrushes were immersed in antimicrobial solution for 12 h [Group I--distilled water (control), Group II--3% neem, Group III--garlic of concentration 4.15 mg/mL, Group IV--green tea of concentration 40 mg/mL, and Group V--0.2% chlorhexidine] and then subjected to microbial analysis to check the presence of Streptococcus mutans. The t-test and analysis buy neem of variance (ANOVA) were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.

neem dosage 2016-06-02

A compound (AIPLAI (Azadirachta indica PLA(2) inhibitor)) purified from the methanolic leaf extract of A. indica (Neem) inhibits the cobra and Russell's viper venoms (RVVs) phospholipase A(2) enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of catalytic and tested pharmacological properties of cobra venom (Naja naja and Naja kaouthia) PLA(2) enzymes by AIPLAI is significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the inhibition of PLA(2) enzymes of crude RVV (Daboia buy neem russelli) when tested under the same condition. Kinetic study reveals that in in vitro condition, AIPLAI inhibits the purified N. kaouthia PLA(2) enzymes in a non-competitive manner. The AIPLAI is quite stable at room temperature. The present study shows that AIPLAI holds good promise for the development of novel anti-snake venom drug in future.

neem juice buy 2017-02-10

Neem containing toothpaste can be buy neem used as an adjunct for maintenance of oral hygiene.

neem 475 mg 2016-07-20

Residual toxicities of registered and selected experimental pesticides used on citrus against Agistemus industani Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were compared. buy neem Pesticides considered highly toxic to A. industani were: abamectin 0.15 EC at 731 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, pyridaben 75 WP at 469 g/ha, ethion 4 EC at 7.01 l/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, propargite 6.55 EC at 3.51 l/ha, chlorfenapyr 2 SC at 1.46 l/ha applied alone or in combination with FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, sulphur 80 DF at 16.81 kg/ha. dicofol 4EC at 7.01 l/ha, fenbutatin oxide 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 1.68 kg/ha + ferbam 76 GF at 5.60 kg/ha, ferbam 76 GF at 11.21 kg/ha, neem oil 90 EC at 46.8 l/ha, and copper hydroxide DF (40% metallic copper) at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha. Pesticides that were moderately to slightly toxic included: copper sulphate 98% at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, fenbuconazole 2 F at 280 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil applied alone at 46.8 l/ha or 23.41/ha, and diflubenzuron 25 WP at 1.40 kg/ha. Pesticides that were non-toxic included: fenbuconazole 2 F at 585 ml/ha, malathion 57 EC at 5.85 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, carbaryl 80 S at 3.36 kg/ha. chlorpyrifos 4 EC at 4.68 l/ha, and formetanate 92 SP at 1.12 kg/ha. Understanding the toxic effects of field weathered pesticides against key predacious mite species is important for effective IPM. The results of this study provide a comparison of direct and indirect toxic effects of various pesticides to A. industani under field conditions.

neem 950 mg 2016-03-13

The results form baseline data on the susceptibility status of three medically important mosquito vectors of diseases to commonly used insecticides in the field at present emphasise buy neem the importance of carrying out more effective and planned vector control measures.

neem gel 2015-02-18

Both buy neem neem seed oil and azadirachtin impaired intrauterine development and altered antioxidant/oxidative status during pregnancy.

neem reviews 2017-04-22

In 12 semi-field trials conducted within cages, weekly applications of 0.0001 or 0.0005% neem in a bait formulation effectively reduced fruit infestation. However, addition of 0.000125-0.001% pyrethrins did not improve the efficacy of the neem formulations, and when used alone pyrethrins were less effective than neem alone. Two years of field trials were also conducted within orchards wherein an insecticidal barrier of treated trees excluded immigration of fertile R. cerasi from elsewhere. In blocks treated with 0.0005% neem in a bait formulation, we observed 94 buy neem % (2011) or 86% (2012) reduction of fruit infestation over control blocks.

neem capsule benefits 2016-12-07

The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. Lipitor 90 Mg moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures.

neem leaf capsules 2016-01-06

The test group of dental operators (n = 9) was trained in ART The control group (n = 11) was not, and did not apply ART The Short Form of the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-SF) and Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were used to assess patient anxiety after ART (test group) and after traditional restorations (control group). The restoration/extraction ratio calculated for primary (children) and permanent dentitions (adults) per operator was based on 12-month treatment statistics. Dental anxiety assessments were analysed using ANOVA. Differences were compared using the t-test and corrected for confounding factors (ANCOVA). The Pearson correlation Luvox Reviews Depression coefficient was used to measure the correlation between dental anxiety levels and restoration/extraction ratios.

dabur neem capsules 2015-01-29

We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, the extent of hepatic lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used Cymbalta Generic 2012 as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. In DMBA-treated mice, the increases in micronuclei and lipid peroxides were accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced DMBA-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status.

neem tab 2016-03-17

We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf fractions based on in vitro antioxidant assays, and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) Retrovir Tablets carcinogenesis. In addition we also identified the major constituents in neem leaf fractions by HPLC. Analysis of the free radical scavenging activities and reducing potential of crude ethanolic extract (CEE), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of neem leaf revealed a concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant potential that was in the order EAF>MF>CEE. Administration of neem leaf fractions reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas at a lower concentration compared to the crude extract. Chemoprevention by neem leaf fractions was associated with modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, lipid and protein oxidation, upregulation of antioxidant defences, inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. However, EAF was more effective than MF in terms of antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects, and expression of CYP isoforms. The greater efficacy of EAF may be due to higher content of constituent phytochemicals as revealed by HPLC analysis. The results of the present study suggest that the antioxidant properties of neem leaf fractions may be responsible for modulating key hallmark capabilities of cancer cells such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the HBP carcinogenesis model.

neem with alcohol 2017-08-15

A natural, plant-derived insecticide, neem, is being evaluated as an alternative insect pest control product for forestry in Canada. As part of the process to investigate the environmental safety of neem-based insecticides, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to assess the effects of neem on natural zooplankton communities. Replicate (n=5), shallow (<1 m) forest pond enclosures were treated with Neemix 4.5, at concentrations of 0.035 (the expected environmental concentration), 0.18, 0.70, and Naprosyn Pill 1.75 mg/l active ingredient, azadirachtin. Zooplankton communities were quantitatively sampled over a 4-month experimental period in treated and control enclosures, and water samples were collected to track azadirachtin concentrations. Concentrations in water declined linearly with estimated DT(50) values of 25-29 days. Trends in abundance over time among populations of cladocerans, copepods, and rotifers were found to differ significantly among treatments. At the two highest test concentrations, adverse effects were obvious with significant reductions in several cladoceran species, and near elimination of the three major copepod species present. More subtle effects at the two lowest test concentrations were determined by comparing the community structure of enclosures across treatment levels and over time through an analytical process based on the multivariate statistical software, PRIMER. Significant effects on community structure were detected at both of these lower concentrations, including the expected environmental concentration of 0.035 mg/l azadirachtin. Differential responses among species (some increases, some decreases) caused detectable disruptions in community structure among zooplankton of treated enclosures. Perturbations to zooplankton communities were sufficient to cause measurable differences in system-level metabolism (midday dissolved oxygen concentrations) at all but the lowest test concentration.

dabur neem tablets 2016-11-10

Groups A-C animals showed normal Cerebellar histoarchitecture and average weight gain of 2.1% (group A), 1.4% (group B), 0.7% (group C) and 1.4% (group D) respectively. When the average weight gain by the treated animals was compared Detrol Generic Tolterodine to the average weight gain by the control animals, it was statistically not significant (P>0.06).

neem pills 2017-07-22

We have demonstrated augmentation of the CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) and CD8+CD56_ T-cell-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity by neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP). These NK and T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with a state of immunosuppression. NLGP induces TCRalphabeta-associated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reaction to kill oral cancer (KB) cells. This CTL reaction is assisted by NLGP-mediated up-regulation of CD28 on T cells and HLA-ABC, CD80/86 on monocytes. CTL-mediated killing of KB cells and NK-cell-mediated killing of K562 (erythroleukemic) cells are associated with activation of these cells by NLGP. This activation is evidenced by increased expression of early activation marker CD69 with altered expression of CD45RO/CD45RA. NLGP is a strong inducer of IFNgamma from both T and NK cells; however, IFNgamma regulates the T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity only without affecting NK-cell-mediated one. Reason of this differential regulation may lie within up-regulated expression of IFNgamma-receptor on T-cell surface, not on NK cells. This NLGP-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on up-regulated perforin/granzyme B expression in killer cells, which is again IFNgamma dependent in T cells and independent in NK cells. Although, FasL expression is increased by NLGP, it may not be truly linked with the cytotoxic functions, as brefeldin A could not block such NLGP-mediated cytotoxicity, like, concanamycin A, a perforin inhibitor. On the basis Hytrin Tab 2mg of these results, we conclude that NLGP might be effective to recover the suppressed cytotoxic functions of NK and T cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

neem toothpaste review 2016-10-24

Both azadirachtin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith have been used to control the whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, but with only moderate effectiveness. Azadirachtin is a botanical insecticide derived from the neem tree, and P. fumosoroseus is an entomopathogenic fungus. To test whether these two agents might be more effective for whitefly control if used together, different rates of each were combined in laboratory bioassays in factorial treatment. Both tank mixes and separate sprays were tested. Up to 90% nymphal mortality was obtained when both the fungus and azadirachtin were combined, a significant increase over the 70%, or less, mortality obtained when only one agent was used; however, the combined effects were less than additive. Azadirachtin had moderately inhibitory effects on growth and Viagra Dose germination of P. firmosoroseus, which may explain this antagonism.

dabur neem tablet 2016-07-06

The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Aflatoxin production in fungal mycelia grown for 96 h in culture media containing 50% neem leaf and seed extracts was inhibited by approximately 90 and Motilium Buy Online approximately 65% respectively. Under similar conditions, culture media amended with 1.56% of leaf or seed extract caused approximately 23 and approximately 7% inhibition respectively. Mycelial samples exposed to selected concentrations of the plant extract (1.56 or 50% v/v) collected and processed for morphological studies. Semi-thin longitudinal and cross sections prepared from control (untreated) and treated mycelia (1.56% v/v) revealed that alterations are limited to the vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm. Nevertheless, exposure to high concentration i.e., 50% v/v of the extract resulted in vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm and vesicle deformation causing attenuation of cell wall at variable intervals. Herniation of the cytoplasmic contents that was protruding from the mycelium was associated with deformation of the mycelium. Some mycelia showed a cleft between the cell wall and cytoplasm. Association of aflatoxin production with morphological changes suggest that probably integrity of the cell barriers particularly cell wall is critical in regulation of aflatoxin production and excretion.

neem tablets 2015-02-22

We have previously reported that neem limonoids (neem) induce multiple cancer cell death pathways. Here we dissect the underlying mechanisms of neem-induced apoptotic cell death in cancer. We observed that neem-induced caspase activation does not require Bax/Bak channel-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, permeability transition pore, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Neem enhanced mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biomass. While oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex-I activity was decreased, the Priligy Daily Dosage activities of other OXPHOS complexes including Complex-II and -IV were unaltered. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were associated with an increase in mitochondrial biomass and apoptosis upon neem exposure. Complex-I deficiency due to the loss of Ndufa1-encoded MWFE protein inhibited neem-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, but cell death induction was enhanced. Complex II-deficiency due to the loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) robustly decreased caspase activation, apoptosis, and cell death. Additionally, the ablation of Complexes-I, -III, -IV, and -V together did not inhibit caspase activation. Together, we demonstrate that neem limonoids target OXPHOS system to induce cancer cell death, which does not require upregulation or activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

neem capsules 2016-04-12

The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45 ml/L for nymph and 4.42 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18 ml/L for nymph and 5.63 ml/L for adult in Neema Periactin 12 Mg treatment) and LC(90) (8.72 ml/L for nymph and 11.1 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84 ml/L for nymph and 13.07 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema took more than 48 h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens.

neem dosage 2015-04-02

The in vitro effect Famvir Drug Information of neem oil was studied on the development of mouse two-cell embryos and trophectodermal cell attachment and proliferation.

neem juice buy 2017-08-20

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest of various cultivated plants in Pakistan. Recent reports show that the parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a good biocontrol agent of the pest. Compatibleness is important in any IPM programme, and the insecticide used must have little or no effects on the biological control agent. This study investigated the compatibility of neem treatments and a commercial insecticide, imidacloprid on A. bambawalei. Bioassays were laid out in Neurontin 300mg Capsules a completely randomized design (CRD) under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the adult stage of the parasitoid was more susceptible to the commercial insecticide imidacloprid than the concealed pupal stage. Moreover, on the basis of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) toxicity categories of the commercial insecticide, imidacloprid was moderately toxic throughout the study period (Ex >80%) while neem was slightly toxic after 24 h of use (Ex <80%). Results also suggest that A. bambawalei release should be delayed for at least 1 week after neem treatments. Because imidacloprid destroys A. bambawalei, it might cause resurgence of P. solenopsis; thus, farmers should avoid integrating the insecticide in the control of P. solenopsis.

neem 475 mg 2016-11-10

We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptotic activity exerted by nimbolide were studied on the estrogen dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effect of nimbolide was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis induction by nimbolide treatment was determined by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, cleavage of PARP and AO/EtBr dual staining. The modulation of apoptotic proteins (intrinsic pathway: Bax, bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, XIAP-1 and caspase-3, 9; extrinsic pathway: TRAIL, FasL, FADDR and Caspase-8) were studied by western blot and real time PCR analysis. Treatment with nimbolide resulted in dose and time-dependent inhibition of growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The occurrence of apoptosis in these cells was indicated by JC-1 staining, modulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling molecules expression and further apoptosis was confirmed by AO/EtBr dual staining. These events were associated with: increased levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Fas-L, TRAIL, FADDR, cytochrome c and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and XIAP-1. Nimbolide induces the cleavage of pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-3 and PARP. The above data suggest that nimbolide induces apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. With evidence of above data it is suggested that nimbolide exhibit anticancer effect through its apoptosis-inducing property. Thus, nimbolide raises new hope for its use in anticancer therapy.