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Motilium

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

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Description

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Generic Motilium works by blocking the action of a chemical messenger in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea and vomiting, as well as increasing the movement or contractions of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.

Motilium is also known as Domperidone, Dombax, Vivadone, Motinorm, Costi.

Generic name of Generic Motilium is Domperidone.

Brand name of Generic Motilium is Motilium.

Dosage

The usual dose in adults is one tablet three to four times a day, best taken 15 to 30 minutes before meals or food, and if necessary at bedtime.

Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks.

You should not take more than a total of eight tablets in a single day.

Generic Motilium can be taken for up to 6 months.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Motilium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Motilium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are allergic to Generic Motilium components.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Motilium can harm your baby.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you have a tumour of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma; an increase in stomach or bowel contractions can harm you. For example, if you have had bleeding, a blockage or puncture in your gastrointestinal tract.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient such as ketoconazole, fluconazole or voriconazole which is used to treat fungal infections.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking an antibiotic containing the active ingredient erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient amiodarone, which is used to treat fast heart rate.

Do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

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Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been evaluated in 17 acromegalic patients following acute administration of two dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists, i.e. sulpiride (SULP) and domperidone (DOM). Six patients had persistent hyperprolactinemia. In 8 normoprolactinemic patients, i.m. injection of 100 mg SULP elicited only a slight rise iN plasma PRL, which was strikingly lower than that SULP induced in control subjects. Likewise, an i.v. bolus injection of DOM (4 mg) was barely effective to raise plasma PRL in the 11 normoprolactinemic and the 6 hyperprolactinemic patients. DOM was instead capable of inducing a clear-cut rise in plasma PRL in normoprolactinemic controls and in a group of subjects with puerperal hyperprolactinemia. Neither drug affected GH secretion in acromegalic patients. It is proposed that a defective tuberoinfundibular DA function or, alternatively, a diminished PRL reserve due to a decrease pituitary lactotroph mass may be responsible for the blunted PRL responsiveness of acromegalics. However, standing the paucity of present knowledge on the pituitary PRL secretory pool in acromegalics, neither hypothesis seems capable to account satisfactory for the reported results.

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This work comparatively studies the effects of dihydroergocristine, timolol and pilocarpine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in conscious rabbits. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation tonometry and the pupil diameter by a photographic technique. In anesthetized rabbits, changes in tonographic facility of aqueous humor outflow and rate of aqueous humor formation were evaluated. Dihydroergocristine reduced the intraocular pressure more than timolol and much more than pilocarpine. The ocular hypotensive effect of dihydroergocristine was accomplished by a great reduction in aqueous humor formation, which surpasses the decrease in aqueous humor outflow, while timolol mainly reduced aqueous humor formation and pilocarpine increased aqueous humor outflow. Pupil diameter remained unchanged on dihydroergocristine, whereas timolol induced a slight mydriasis and pilocarpine provoked a clear myosis. Effects of dihydroergocristine might result in blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors in ciliary body, although available data about pretreatment with either metoclopramide or domperidone suggest that dopamine DA2-receptors might participate in ocular hypotensive effect of ergot derivatives.

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Before the black box warning, 69.8% of patients received metoclopramide for gastroparesis, compared with 23.7% after the warning. Gastroenterologists prescribed domperidone more often after than before the warning. Metoclopramide prescriptions decreased after 2008. Adverse event reporting increased after the warning. Only 3.6% of all FAERS reports but 70% of TD reports were filed by lawyers, suggesting a distortion in signal. Forty-seven legal opinions were identified, 33 from 2009-2010.

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Central administration of amylin (2.2 microg/rat, i.c.v.) reduces (from a minimum of 67% to 83%) indomethacin (Indo, 20 mg Kg(-1), orally) induced ulcers in rats. The anti-ulcer effect of the peptide is not removed by the administration of prokinetic drugs like domperidone or neostigmine but it is reduced by 35% in rats treated with capsaicin or with the CGRP antagonist, CGRP(8-37). These data indicate that amylin gastroprotection involves capsaicin-sensitive nerve fiber leading to CGRP-dependent gastric vasodilatory effect. Additional mechanisms could involve noradrenergic alpha(2) receptors as the peptide gastroprotective activity is reduced from 67% to 20% by the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine.

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1. The present study investigated the in vitro effect of dopamine on platelet responses in healthy subjects. 2. Dopamine concentrations over 5 mumol/L induced a primary aggregating response and a slight release of alpha-granule proteins, beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor-4 in all subjects. In 25% of investigated subjects a delayed secondary aggregation was observed with dopamine concentrations over 100 mumol/L. 3. Low dopamine concentrations (5-7.5 nmol/L) increased the platelet sensitivity to other aggregating agents (adenosine diphosphate, collagen and sodium arachidonate). The effect of subaggregating concentrations of serotonin was potentiated by dopamine. 4. The effect of dopamine on platelet responses was prevented by low concentrations of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (phentolamine and yohimbine); antagonists of dopamine receptors (haloperidol and domperidone) were able to decrease the extent of the dopamine-induced secondary aggregating wave in the responders, but they failed to prevent the primary aggregation and the effects on platelet response to other aggregating agents. 5. The present data demonstrated that the effects of dopamine on human platelets are mainly mediated by interactions with alpha-adrenoceptors.

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The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties such as chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 min indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action.

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To observe the effect of pungent dispersion bitter purgation method (PDBPM) on the esophageal mucosal intercellular space of reflux esophagitis (RE) model rats.

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To further evaluate the functional significance of dopamine (DA) receptors in different vasculature, in this study we compared the effects of D1- and D2-receptor agonists on canine coronary and renal arteries by measuring adenylate cyclase (AC) activity as a biomedical index of DA receptor function. It was found that both the selective D1-receptor agonist, fenoldopam, and the D2-receptor agonist, propyl-butyl-dopamine (PBDA), induced a dose-related increases in cAMP formation in coronary and renal arteries; however, the magnitude of increase in the renal artery was remarkably greater than that in the coronary artery. The stimulatory effect on AC activity of fenoldopam was significantly more potent than that of PBDA. The selective D1-receptor antagonist, SCH23390, blocked fenoldopam- and PBDA-induced cAMP production, while the selective D2-receptor antagonist, domperidone, was without effect on the increase of cAMP elicited by PBDA. After beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol, fenoldopam still increased the cAMP level significantly but to a much lesser degree. The existence of postsynaptic D2-receptor associated with inhibition of cAMP formation could not be demonstrated in this study. These data suggest the presence of D1-receptors associated with stimulation of AC activity in both renal and coronary arteries. However, there are much fewer receptor sites in the coronary artery than in the renal artery, suggesting less physiological importance of such receptors in the coronary artery than in the renal artery.

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This experiment deepened our understanding of insufficient gastrointestinal dynamics, confirmed that QZWT treating gastrointestinal disorders was through multicomponent, multitarget ways. These results fully reflect the multiple targets synergy characteristics of TCM.

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The acute effects of oral metoclopramide (40 mg/day) and domperidone (80 mg/day) on esophageal motor activity and acid reflux were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 20 patients with erosive reflux esophagitis. Esophageal motor function was assessed by standard manometry with wet swallows, and reflux events were evaluated by ambulatory 24-hr pH-monitoring. Both drugs caused a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure lasting at least 120 min. However, neither esophageal body motility, duration of esophageal exposure to acid, nor esophageal clearance were effected by drug administration in comparison to placebo. Side effects were reported in two patients who received metoclopramide, while no adverse effects occurred after domperidone intake. In conclusion, the so-called motility agents metoclopramide and domperidone have few acute effects on esophageal motility in patients with erosive reflux esophagitis.

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Cisapride is a substituted benzamide compound that stimulates motor activity in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract by enhancing the release of acetylcholine from the enteric nervous system. Cisapride is administered orally in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes and chronic constipation. In gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in both adults and children, cisapride provides symptomatic improvement and mucosal healing. Long term treatment with cisapride is effective in the prevention of relapse of oesophagitis. Cisapride improves gastric emptying rates and improves symptoms in patients with gastroparesis of various origins. Unlike domperidone and metoclopramide, long term administration of cisapride seems to result in persistently enhanced gastric emptying. Cisapride is also effective in improving symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. In comparative studies in patients with functional dyspepsia, cisapride was at least as effective as metoclopramide, domperidone, clebopride, ranitidine and cimetidine. Cisapride increases stool frequency and reduces laxative consumption in patients with idiopathic constipation. Severe cases of slow transit constipation seem refractory to cisapride. Clinical studies also indicate that cisapride might be effective in the treatment of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, postoperative ileus, peptic ulcer and irritable bowel syndrome. Further clinical studies are warranted to define the role of cisapride in these conditions. The dosage of cisapride ranges from 5mg 3 times daily to 20mg twice daily. Cisapride is generally well tolerated, both during short and long term treatment. In children, cisapride is also well tolerated in doses of 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg, 3 to 4 times daily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Secretoneurin (SN), a 33-34 amino acid neuropeptide is derived from endoproteolysis of secretogranin II (SgII), a member protein of the chromogranin family. SN is widely distributed in various tissues of vertebrates especially in pituitary and hypothalamus, and is a potential new hormone. In vivo, i.p. injection of SN increased luteinizing hormone (LH) release in goldfish pretreated with the dopamine antagonist domperidone. In 6-h static incubation of goldfish pituitary fragments, 10 and 100 nM but not 1 nM concentrations of goldfish SN had a direct stimulatory effect to increase LH release by 2.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, 500 nM SN induced a 2.6-fold increase in LHbeta subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in pituitary fragments, regardless of whether LHbeta mRNA levels were expressed relative to 18S ribosomal RNA or beta-actin mRNA. We suggest that the stimulatory actions of SN on LH release may be a part of a paracrine or autocrine feedback loop in the pituitary.

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The study population comprised 4,838,146 individuals aged <18 years, who contributed an overall 25,575,132 person-years of follow-up. Within this population, we identified 1,015 potential cases of ALI. Overall, 20 positive drug-ALI associations were detected. The associations between ALI and domperidone, flunisolide and human insulin were considered as potentially new signals. Citalopram and cetirizine have been previously described as hepatotoxic in adults but not in children, while all remaining associations were already known in both adults and children.

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In the Bennett's wallaby prolactin is thought to maintain lactational and seasonal quiescence and is essential for early lactation. However, plasma prolactin concentrations determined in daily or weekly samples at these times are unchanged. In the present study, female Bennett's wallabies were blood sampled at 2-hr intervals over a 24-hr period during seasonal quiescence on either natural or artificial photoperiods to determine whether a diurnal rise of prolactin occurs at this time. Prolactin concentrations did not exhibit a diurnal change. Further experiments were aimed at determining whether there was an increase in the prolactin response to a dopamine antagonist or TRH during the transition to seasonal quiescence. Nonlactating and lactating female Bennett's wallabies were treated with saline, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg of the dopamine antagonist domperidone and 100 micrograms TRH in October, December, February, and April. In both groups there was a significant elevation in plasma prolactin concentration in response to domperidone with an increasing response at each successive month. In early (October and December) and peak (April) lactation the prolactin response was greater in lactating animals. There was no significant prolactin response to TRH in lactating animals. In nonlactating wallabies, the prolactin response to TRH was increased in February. At peak lactation (April), the response to 1 mg domperidone was blocked when the dose was administered 2 hr after temporary removal of pouch young (RPY). With either larger doses (20 mg) or a 1-mg dose injected 8 hr after RPY, a significant prolactin response was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Complications associated with the use of antiparkinsonian drugs make PD management more difficult given the need for antidopaminergic therapy, which worsens motor functioning in patients with PD. For psychosis, clozapine is the only atypical antipsychotic that has proven effective without worsening motor function in PD patients. However, its use requires the monitoring of agranulocytosis. Newer atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine have been claimed to be safe in terms of motor functioning, but evidence about their effectiveness is not compelling. The emergency treatment of psychosis in PD would require parenteral administration, only available for olanzapine and ziprasidone. However, no randomized controlled trials have been conducted to establish the efficacy and safety in this setting. For nausea and vomiting, very little domperidone crosses the blood-brain barrier. As a result, the risk of developing extrapyramidal adverse effects is minimal. Metoclopramide blocks central dopamine receptors and worsens motor parkinsonian symptoms. Chlorpromazine, the first-line treatment of intractable hiccups, is contraindicated in PD. Baclofen could be considered as a first-line alternative.

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We have reported that nicotine and the specific α7AChR agonist ameliorate indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions in mice by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). Dopamine D₂-receptor antagonists, such as domperidone and metoclopramide, enhance the release of ACh from vagal efferent nerves. The present study examined the effects of domperidone and metoclopramide on indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration in mice, focusing on the α7AChR. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.) and sacrificed 24 h later. Domperidone (0.1-10 mg/kg) and metoclopramide (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) were administered i.p. twice, at 0.5 h before and 8 h after indomethacin treatment, while methyllycaconitine (a selective antagonist of α7nAChR, 30 mg/kg) was administered twice, at 0.5 h before each domperidone treatment. Indomethacin caused severe hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, mostly to the jejunum and ileum, with a concomitant increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Domperidone suppressed the severity of lesions and the increase in MPO activity at low doses (0.1-3 mg/kg), but not at a high dose (10 mg/kg). Similar effects were also observed by metoclopramide. The protective effects of domperidone and metoclopramide were totally abolished by prior administration of methyllycaconitine. Indomethacin treatment markedly enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase and chemokine mRNA expression in the small intestine, but these responses were all significantly attenuated by either domperidone or metoclopramide. These findings suggest that dopamine D₂-receptor antagonists ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration through the activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways mediated by α7nAChR.

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We have investigated the effects of dopamine on the response of the mouse isolated vas deferens to electrical stimulation and, contrary to previous investigators, have found that there are specific dopamine receptors present in this tissue. A range of dopamine antagonists have been examined vs the effects of dopamine and the Ke values obtained indicate that the receptor present is of the DA2 subtype. Domperidone, spiperone and haloperidol possess a very high affinity for the receptor, whereas the selective DA1-antagonist SCH 23390 has only low affinity. Bromocriptine was found to possess both alpha 2- and dopamine agonist activity in this preparation and it is also possible to demonstrate dopamine agonist activity of noradrenaline. In the presence of alpha 2-antagonists, the mouse vas deferens is an extremely simple preparation suitable for the rapid screening of compounds for DA2-agonist or antagonist activity.

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The short-term effects of fluphenazine on plasma HVA concentrations were compared with the effects of fluphenazine and concurrent administration of debrisoquin, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor which does not cross the blood brain barrier and is used to enhance the CNS contribution to circulating plasma HVA concentrations. Fluphenazine significantly increased plasma HVA with or without debrisoquin 24 hours following the initiation of treatment. Domperidone, a butyrophenone dopamine antagonist which acts only in the peripheral nervous system, failed to alter plasma HVA concentrations. These data suggest that the acute effects of neuroleptic drugs on plasma HVA concentrations are dependent upon interaction with CNS dopaminergic systems and provide additional support for the use of plasma HVA as a reflection of CNS dopamine system activity in clinical studies.

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To study the efficacy and safety of combined therapy of compound azintamid and domperidone in functional dyspepsia.

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Slices of the rabbit caudate nucleus were preincubated with 3H-dopamine or 3H-choline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. DiPr-5,6-ADTN reduced the stimulation-evoked overflow of tritium over the same concentration range, independently of whether slices had been preincubated with 3H-dopamine or 3H-choline, and the same was true for apomorphine, NPA and pergolide. Three other putative dopamine receptor agonists, namely 3-PPP, DPI and SKF 38393, failed to decrease the evoked overflow of tritium. Each of six antagonists--(-)-sulpiride, (+)-sulpiride, CGP 11109 A, cis-flupentixol, domperidone and corynanthine--increased the evoked overflow over the same concentration range in experiments with 3H-dopamine and in those with 3H-choline. For each of these antagonists except cis-flupentixol, and also for chlorpromazine, haloperidol and rauwolscine, the pA2 values against apomorphine obtained in 3H-dopamine and in 3H-choline experiments were closely similar. The antagonist effect of cis-flupentixol against apomorphine was not purely competitive. (-)-Sulpiride was a more potent antagonist than (+)-sulpiride, and cis-flupentixol was more potent than trans-flupentixol. This study supplements a previous one in which (+/-)-sulpiride, metoclopramide and molindone were used as antagonists. It is a functional in vitro approach to receptor characterization, as opposed to radioligand binding studies or in vivo investigations. The results show that a large number of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists are unable to distinguish between the presynaptic, release-inhibiting dopamine autoreceptors and those postsynaptic dopamine receptors which, when activated, depress the release of acetylcholine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Prokinetic agents are effective not only for disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but also for those external to the GI tract such as the central nervous system, and the respiratory, urologic, and metabolic organs. This article reviews the effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the GI tract. Studies were identified by computerized and manual searches of the available literature. A Medline search was performed (1975-July, 2008) using the following medical subject headings: prokinetic agent, metoclopramide, domperidone, trimebutine, cisapride, itopride, mosapride, tegaserod, and human. The identified diseases for which prokinetic agents may be effective are various: bronchial asthma, chronic cough, hiccup, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, acute migraine, Parkinson's disease, anorexia nervosa, Tourette's disorder, urologic sequelae of spinal cord injury and of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, laryngeal dysfunction and so on. These agents are also useful for prevention of aspiration pneumonia during anesthesia, and in tube-fed patients. Prokinetic agents should be a valuable addition to our currently limited pharmacological armamentarium not only for functional bowel disease, but also for diseases external to the GI tract.

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Drug-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization may trigger malignant ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsade de pointes. The duration of QT interval, QT corrected for heart rate (QTc), JT interval, QT dispersion (QTd), QT variability index, and transmular dispersion of repolarization (TDR) are ECG markers of torsadogenicity. All volatiles, especially isoflurane and desflurane, have been found to prolong QTc and QTcd, while sevoflurane has probably no effects on TDR. Among i.v. anaesthetics, propofol seems superior due to its minimal effects on QTc and TDR; moreover, a decrease in QTc and QTcd has been demonstrated in many studies. Regarding opioids, fentanyl, alfentanil, and remifentanil produce no effects on QTc, while sufentanil, at high doses, may induce QT prolongation. Succinylcholine, but not the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, produces QTc prolongation which can be attenuated by opioids and β-blockers. Reversal of neuromuscular block with anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations has been associated with significant QTc prolongation, while such an effect has not been demonstrated for sugammadex, even at high doses. Local anaesthetics have probably no intrinsic action on duration of repolarization; nevertheless, an extensive subarachnoid sympathetic block may increase the duration of QTc. On the contrary, thoracic epidural anaesthesia has been associated with a decrease in both QTc and TDR. Among adjuvants, midazolam seems to have no effect on QTc and TDR, while commonly used antiemetics, such as droperidol, domperidone, and most 5-HT3 antagonists, produce significant QT prolongation. The effects of anaesthetic drugs and techniques on electrocardiographic torsadogenic markers should be considered in the perioperative management of patients with preexisting repolarization abnormalities.

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Larrain A; Kapur VK; Gooley TA; Pope CE. Pharmacological treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with a combination of pseudoephedrine and domperidone.

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Consecutive patients (n = 240) with chronic cough were recruited and randomly assigned to receive modified (modified group) or primary (primary group) sequential three-step empirical therapy. The primary end-point was the overall rate of control of chronic cough. Secondary end-points were the rate of control of chronic cough at each step of therapy, the duration of treatment required, changes in cough symptom score, health-related quality of life and possible adverse effects.

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The actions of dopamine, apomorphine and serotonin on the membrane potential of cultured astrocytes from rat spinal cord and striatum were examined. All three compounds caused a hyperpolarization of the majority of astrocytes tested. A small number of cells was depolarized and on a relatively large number of cells the amines had no effect. The dopamine antagonists cis-flupenthixol and domperidone reversibly blocked the effects of dopamine whereas the action of serotonin was antagonized by ketanserin. It is therefore concluded that the effect of both amines are due to activation of specific dopamine and serotonin receptors, respectively. Our electrophysiological data together with autoradiographic binding studies provide evidence that astrocytes possess receptors for dopamine and serotonin in addition to adrenoceptors and histamine receptors.

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Two different electronic databases (PubMed und Embase) were used to identify studies. Furthermore, a hand search for related articles was performed. No restriction was made concerning study types. Studies with patients undergoing chemotherapy radiation therapy or suffering from postoperative nausea, pediatric studies and studies published neither in English nor in German were excluded.

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For AD patients with higher FSSG scores at baseline, domperidone was effective in preventing rivastigmine-related gastrointestinal disturbances.

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In a single-blind trial of therapy in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, domperidone prevented nausea and vomiting induced by bromocriptine without diminishing beneficial central effects. Combination of the two drugs permitted rapid increase in bromocriptine dosage from 22.5 mg per day to 148 mg per day, with 71% mean clinical improvement over baseline score; continuing efficacy of the regimen was evident for a mean follow-up of 2 months.

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Domperidone is a highly water insoluble drug exhibiting poor dissolution pattern. The purpose of this work was to increase the dissolution rate of Domperidone by formation of solid dispersion with different water soluble carriers. Binary systems of Domperidone were prepared with polyvinyl pyrrolidone k-30 (PVP), poloxamer 188 (P188) and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) at different weight ratios using the solvent evaporation method, physical mixtures of the same systems were also used. The effect of the method of preparation was also investigated by preparing some selected formulations using melting method. As P188 is known to inhibit CYP3A4 enzyme which is responsible for hepatic metabolism of many drugs including Domperidone, the effect of incorporation of PVP or PEG 6000 as ternary component to P188 solid dispersion on dissolution rate was also investigated. Formulations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Drug content uniformity and dissolution rate were studied. Solid dispersions showed a better dissolution compared to the pure drug and physical mixtures, with PVP showing the highest dissolution efficiency. As indicated from DSC data, Domperidone was in the amorphous form, which confirmed the better dissolution rate of solid dispersions. Some ternary P188 combinations showed a better enhancement in drug dissolution compared to the optimized P188 binary system. This would present a potential of increasing oral bioavailability of Domperidone by increasing its dissolution rate and by inhibiting its pre-systemic metabolism by the presence of P188.

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Determinar si existe evidencia de prolongación del intervalo QTc y efectos proarrítmicos asociados al uso de domperidona oral en infantes.

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motilium dosage adults 2016-04-09

Most corals undergo spawning after a particular moon phase, but how moon-related spawning is endogenously regulated in corals remains unknown. The objective buy motilium of the present study was to evaluate whether dopamine (DA) affects spawning in Acropora tenuis. When pieces of four A. tenuis colonies were reared under a natural photoperiod and water temperature, spawning was observed after the predicted moon phase. After exposure to water containing DA at 0.1 μM, pieces of the same colonies only released 5 to 10 bundles. Co-treatment with DA and pimozide (D1 and D2 receptors antagonist), but not domperidone (D2 receptor antagonist), induced mass release of bundles from the colonies. A cross-experiment revealed high fertilization rates between the control colonies (95%) and between the control and DA-treated colonies (90%), suggesting that gametes developed normally in coral tissue. Therefore, DA appears to have an inhibitory effect on the spawning of A. tenuis.

motilium generic 2017-11-10

Catecholestrogen (CE) binding to guinea-pig hypothalamic membranes was assessed by using [3H]2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) as a ligand. Binding was maximal at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, and after 10 min incubations. A high affinity binding site with dissociation constant (KD) = 0.20 +/- 0.02 nM and site concentration (Bmax) = 38 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein, and a low affinity binding site with KD = 235 +/- 10 nM and Bmax = 4.2 +/- 1.0 pmol/mg protein (n = 7) were detected. The order of affinity (Ki, microM) for displacement of 10 nM [3H]2-OHE1 from hypothalamic binding sites was 2-OHE1 (0.8), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) (1.0), epinephrine (5.9 buy motilium ), norepinephrine (NE) (7.7), dopamine (270), estradiol, estrone, propranolol, phentolamine, domperidone (greater than 10 000). NE inhibition of 2-OHE1 binding was non-competitive, Only 0.5 mM 2-OHE2 depressed in a non-competitive way the hypothalamic beta-adrenoceptor binding (measured by using [3H]dihydroalprenolol) without affecting alpha-adrenoceptor binding (measured by using [3H]dihydroergocryptine). Both 2-OHE2 and 2-OHE1 impaired NE-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in hypothalamic membranes with EC50 of about 5 and 10 microM, respectively. CE decreased [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid binding by hypothalamic membranes with Ki = 8 microM (2-OHE2) and 50 microM (2-OHE1). The binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the same membrane preparation was not affected by CE. These results support the existence of significant CE binding and effects in guinea-pig hypothalamic membranes.

motilium dosage form 2015-08-02

Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high-affinity state, and dopamine exerts its effects via the more functionally relevant high-affinity D2 buy motilium receptor (D2 High). We report here that cocaine self-administration experience produces a large (approximately 150%) increase in the proportion of D2 High receptors in the striatum with no change in the total number of D2 receptors, and this effect is evident both 3 and 30 days after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration. Changes in D2 High receptors would not be evident with the probes used in human (and non-human primate) imaging studies. We suggest, therefore, that cocaine addicts and animals previously treated with cocaine may be hyper-responsive to dopaminergic drugs in part because an increase in D2 High receptors results in dopamine supersensitivity. This may also help explain why stimuli that increase dopamine neurotransmission, including drugs themselves, are so effective in producing relapse in individuals with a history of exposure to cocaine.

motilium pediatric dose 2015-09-28

Two different electronic databases (PubMed und Embase) were used to identify studies. Furthermore, a hand search for related articles was performed. No restriction was made concerning study types. Studies with patients undergoing chemotherapy radiation therapy or suffering from postoperative nausea, pediatric studies and studies published neither in English buy motilium nor in German were excluded.

motilium 10mg dosage 2016-05-13

Levels of estradiol-17 beta (E2), testosterone (T), 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), and 17 alpha,20 beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20 beta-S) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in blood plasma of striped bass undergoing final oocyte maturation (FOM). Females were captured just prior to, or in the early stages of, FOM and induced to complete maturation and ovulation with injected human buy motilium chorionic gonadotropin, synthetic salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa; [D-Arg6-Pro9 NEt]-sGnRH), sGnRHa plus the dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone (DOM), or OVAPRIM, a commercial preparation of sGnRHa + DOM. Their plasma levels of immunoreactive DHP and 20 beta-S were significantly greater at ovulation relative to the time of hormone injection, whereas the plasma levels of E2 and T were greatest at injection and decreased by ovulation and 24 hr thereafter. Plasma levels of 20 beta-S, but not DHP, were sustained at high levels after ovulation. Fish injected only with DOM did not undergo FOM, its associated changes in plasma steroid levels, or ovulation. In females captured at various natural stages of FOM, plasma levels of 20 beta-S and DHP were low during germinal vesicle migration (GVM), peaked coincident with germinal vesicle breakdown, and then decreased near the time of ovulation. Plasma levels of E2 and T were greatest during GVM and decreased as DHP and 20 beta-S levels increased. Analyses of conjugated versus free plasma steroids showed 64-79% of the various hormones to be in the free fraction. RIA of plasma fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC showed that half of the 20 beta-S immunoreactivity coeluted with 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha,17,20 beta,21-tetrol, a putative 20 beta-S metabolite with 99.7% cross-reactivity in the 20 beta-S RIA. These results indicate that striped bass follow the typical profile of changing plasma steroid levels seen in other teleosts during FOM, with a clear shift from C18 and C19 steroids to C21 steroids. They suggest that both DHP and 20 beta-S, both potent inducers of striped bass FOM in vitro, may play a role in regulating FOM in this species.

motilium 10mg dose 2017-07-30

Standard bowel cleansing for colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) requires a liquid diet and bowel laxatives for at least 2 days, which is a major drawback of this procedure and affects tolerance buy motilium and acceptability.

motilium online pharmacy 2016-05-20

Deux bases de données (MEDLINE [1946 à août 2015] et EMBASE [1980 à août 2015]) ont été interrogées en utilisant les mots clés et les Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) suivants : « domperidone » (dompéridone), « arrhythmias, cardiac » (arythmies cardiaques), « death, sudden, cardiac » (mort, subite, cardiaque), « electrocardiography » (électrocardiographie), « heart diseases » (cardiopathies), « long QT syndrome » (syndrome du QT long), « tachycardia, ventricular » (tachycardie, ventriculaire), « torsades de pointes » (torsades de pointes) et « ventricular fibrillation » (fibrillation ventriculaire). La recherche se limitait aux études publiées en anglais et effectuées chez buy motilium l’humain de moins de 18 ans.

motilium overdose 2015-11-19

The i.v. administration of the dopamine D-2 receptor agonist quinpirole induced a rapid increase in blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Heart rate showed little change. The pressor response to quinpirole was similar in SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) at doses of 0.03 to 0.3 mg/kg but, at 1 mg/kg, quinpirole induced a greater increase in blood pressure in SHR than in WKY. In contrast, although both strains showed a decreased locomotor activity after administration of 0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg of quinpirole, only in WKY was activity enhanced by 0.25 to 1.25 mg/kg of quinpirole. The i.v. administration of the dopamine agonists apomorphine, N-propylnorapomorphine and (R)-(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine, but not the putative presynaptic D-2 agonist (S)-(-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N- propylpiperidine, induced pressor responses in SHR comparable to those after quinpirole administration. The pressor effect of quinpirole was enhanced by pretreatment with the peripheral D-2 antagonist domperidone, but blocked by the centrally acting dopamine antagonists haloperidol or sulpiride. In SHR, which were pretreated centrally with pertussis toxin buy motilium , quinpirole induced a significantly smaller increase in blood pressure than in control SHR. Pretreatment centrally with 6-hydroxydopamine had no effect on the pressor action of quinpirole in SHR. Thirty minutes after i.v. administration of quinpirole, an additional injection of quinpirole did not significantly change blood pressure. Increasing the interval between two subsequent injections of quinpirole showed that this desensitization slowly reversed, but only after 24 hr had the pressor response to quinpirole fully recovered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

medicine motilium m 2016-11-20

Sixty patients with GERD were divided into equal groups according to performed therapy: standard drug treatment or its combination with psychotherapeutic methods. The investigators estimated the degree of esophageal mucosal damage by esophagogastroduodenoscopy, esophageal acidity by 24-hour pH monitoring, and the magnitude buy motilium of clinical manifestations by the Likert scale and assessed QL by the SF-36 questionnaire. The psychoemotional health component was analyzed using the clinical questionnaire for the identification and evaluation of neurotic states (CQIENS), the Leonhard-Shmichek characterological questionnaire, and the individual typological questionnaire.

motilium dosage breastfeeding 2017-02-04

The hypothesis that instability of cardiorespiratory control may depend on the response and sensitivity of carotid body chemoreceptors to arterial blood gases was studied in anesthetized cats under three different experimental conditions. 1) Following administration of the peripheral dopamine receptor blocker [domperidone (0.6-0.8 mg X kg-1, iv)], carotid chemoreceptor activity and its sensitivity to CO2 during hypoxia increased, leading to cardiorespiratory oscillations at low arterial PO2 in four of eight cats. Inhalation of 100% O2 promptly decreased chemoreceptor activity and eliminated the oscillations. Inhalation of CO2 stimulated the chemoreceptor activity and ventilation but buy motilium did not eliminate the oscillations. Bilateral section of carotid sinus nerves abolished the cardiorespiratory oscillations. The implication is that the dopaminergic system in the carotid body keeps chemoreceptor responses to blood gas stimuli suppressed and hence cardiorespiratory oscillations damped. 2) Hypotension and circulatory delay induced by the partial occlusion of venous return led to cardiorespiratory oscillations at low but not at high arterial PO2. 3) A few cats developed cardiorespiratory oscillations without any particular experimental intervention. These oscillations were independent of arterial PO2 and chemoreceptor activity. Thus it is reasonable to conclude that the peripheral chemoreflex can play a critical role in developing cardiorespiratory oscillations in certain instances.

motilium review 2016-01-24

Antipsychotic drugs comprise a wide range of structurally diverse compounds and are considered to be antagonists at dopamine D2 buy motilium receptors. High-resolution kinetic analyses of their antagonist properties was performed by monitoring dynamic dopamine (DA)-antagonist interactions at the recombinant human dopamine D(2short) receptor. Time-dependent Ca2+ responses were measured following activation of a chimeric G(alphaq/o) protein in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. DA (10 microM) induced a rapid, high-magnitude Ca2+ response (T(max) = 13.2 +/- 0.7 s) followed by a low-magnitude phase, which continued throughout the recorded time period (15 min). Of a large series of putative DA antagonists, (+)-UH 232 and bromerguride demonstrated positive, DA-like intrinsic activity at the presumably unoccupied, DA-free receptor; the other antagonists being silent. Antagonists differed in terms of their abilities to prevent the high-magnitude Ca2+ phase in the antagonist-bound receptor state, and to reverse the low-magnitude Ca2+ phase in the DA-bound state. The benzamide derivatives tropapride and nemonapride fully antagonized both the high- and low-magnitude Ca2+ response. Haloperidol, risperidone, and S 14066 also antagonized both responses but with a maximal effect of only 62 to 79%. Although preventing the high-magnitude response (85-95%), the further putative antagonists (+)-butaclamol (6%), bromerguride (27%), and domperidone (41%) reversed the low-magnitude response only weakly and partially. These Ca2+ data indicate that putative DA antagonists act differently, in particular, at the DA-bound D(2short) receptor.

motilium cost 2016-09-01

The effects of short-term 5-day and long-term 30-day hyperprolactinemia induced by domperidone (1 buy motilium .7 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or ectopic pituitary graft on the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenan were evaluated in male rats. Both models of hyperprolactinemia effectively increased serum prolactin (PRL) levels.

motilium drug dosage 2015-01-05

Dopamine has been widely used in humans in the management of cardiocirculatory shock, and its inhibitory effect on ventilation has received particular attention in clinical situations more prevalent in the elderly. Dopamine has been extensively studied at the carotid body in adult animals but little is known in aged animals. We investigated the ventilatory responses caused by dopamine in 3 and 24 months old rats.Cumulative intracarotid bolus injections of dopamine were performed in anaesthetised and vagotomised rats, in the absence and in the presence of i.v. infusions of domperidone (23.5-1175 nmol Kg(-1) min(-1)). Airflow (V), tidal volume (V(T)), respiratory rate (f), arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and respiratory minute volume (V(E)) calculated. Basal values of V(E) were lower in 24 months rats (322.9+/-18.8 mL Kg(-1) min(-1)) than in 3 months old rats (442.5+/-24.2 mL Kg(-1) min(-1)), mainly due to reductions in V(T). The dose-dependent decreases caused by dopamine (3-100 nmol) in V(T), f and V(E), were totally prevented by section of the carotid sinus nerve and were not modified by ageing. The maximal % antagonism of the inhibitory effect of dopamine on V(E) caused by domperidone was similar in both 3 (74.6+/-2.7) and 24 (70.7+/-0.8) months old rats. Domperidone alone, increased basal V(E) by 59.6+/-16.6 mL min(-1) Kg(-1), and by 11.8+/-1.2 mL min(-1) Kg(-1), respectively in 3 and 24 months old rats (p<0.01).The inhibitory basal tonus caused by dopamine in ventilation was reduced in aged rats, although the buy motilium decrease in V(E) caused by its exogenous administration remained unchanged.

motilium m dosage 2017-11-03

Seventeen of 23 patients noted disappearance of snoring and apneic episodes. Another 2 patients reported improvement in snoring and no apneic episodes. All but one patient had a decrease in Epworth scores (mean decrease 9.4 (95% CI, 6.8-12.1, p < 0.0001). Mean oxygen saturation (2.5; 95% Cl, 0.66-4.41, p = 0.008), percent time with oxygen saturation < 90% (14.8; 95% CI, 24.4 to 5.2, p = 0.003), and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (18.2; 95% CI, 27.3 to 9.1, p < 0.0001) improved significantly. No adverse effects of treatment were buy motilium noted.

motilium 80 mg 2017-04-19

Parkinsonism is underlain by dopamine (DA) deficiency in the mid-brain, a neurotransmitter innately involved with respiratory regulation. However, the state of respiration in parkinsonism is an unsettled issue. In this study we seek to determine ventilation and its responses to hypoxia in a reserpine--alpha-methyl-tyrosine model of parkinsonism in the rat. We also attempted to differentiate between the role of discrete brain and carotid body DA stores in the modulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). To this end we used domperidone, a peripheral D2 receptor antagonist, and levodopa, a central D2 receptor agonist. The HVRs to acute 12% and 8% hypoxia were studied in a whole body plethysmograph in the same rats before and after the induction of parkinsonic symptoms in conscious rats. We found that resting ventilation and the HVR were distinctly reduced in parkinsonism. The reduction was particularly evident in the peak hypoxic hyperpneic augmentation. Domperidone, which enhanced ventilation in the control Generic Viagra healthy condition, failed to reverse the reduced parkinsonic HVR. In contrast, levodopa, which did not appreciably affected ventilation in the healthy condition, caused the parkinsonic HVR to return to and above the baseline healthy level. The findings demonstrate the predominance of a lack of the central DA stimulatory element and minimize the role of carotid body DA in the ventilatory impediment of parkinsonism. In conclusion, the study provides the pathophysiological savvy concerning the respiratory insufficiency of parkinsonism, a sequela which carries a risk of chronically impaired blood oxygenation, which may drive the disease worsening.

motilium tablets uses 2016-11-02

Neonatal gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is primarily due to a transient motility disorder and characterized by a prevalence of weakly acid refluxes. Drug management, where necessary, must set out to reduce the number of refluxes besides correct their acidity. Prokinetics could be of assistance in this respect, Famvir Tab though the evidence in favor of their efficacy and safety is still far from sufficient. In this randomized controlled study, the action of domperidone, a prokinetic antidopaminergic drug with little effect on the central nervous system, was evaluated in newborns with symptomatic GER.

motilium maximum dose 2016-07-05

To assess the steady-state pharmacokinetic and QT(c) effects of domperidone and Aggrenox Medication Generic ketoconazole, given alone and together.

motilium purchase online 2016-02-14

We have explored temporal changes in the magnitude of dopamine (DA) interaction (DA tone) at the anterior pituitary lactotrophs related to both the nocturnal and diurnal prolactin (PRL) surges on day 8 of pregnancy, by utilizing a competitive DA D2 antagonist, domperidone (DOM). After withdrawal of blood from pregnant rats on day 7 Voltaren 65 Mg in order to demonstrate the presence of a PRL surge, experimental rats received DOM (100 micrograms/kg i.v. or i.a.) at various times on day 8. Blood samples were taken immediately before and following injection of DOM at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. The peak PRL response to DOM occurred 15 min after injection. Comparisons were made between circulating PRL levels immediately prior to and at several times following DOM administration for the various times of the day, and represented as incremental increases in PRL following DOM. During times on day 8 when PRL levels were normally low (24:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 16:00 h), pregnant rats exhibited a substantial PRL response to DOM. However, during the nocturnal PRL surge (02:00, 04:00 h) the peak PRL response to DOM was significantly lower. In sharp contrast, the PRL response to DOM administered during the diurnal PRL surge (18:00 h) was significantly higher than all other times of the day tested. In a dose-response study in which 10, 100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg DOM was administered at the two critical times when the response to DOM differed greatly, 02:00 and 18:00 h, there was a significantly reduced PRL response to DOM at 02:00 h compared to 18:00 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

motilium drug uses 2015-11-16

PRL and TSH were measured basally and at 30 and 60 minutes following domperidone (10 mg i.v.) and gadolinium-enhanced pituitary MRI Cymbalta Reviews was performed in all patients.

motilium dose ped 2016-11-15

Dopamine receptor modulation of noradrenaline release from renal sympathetic nerves was investigated. Human kidney slices were incubated with 3H-noradrenaline, placed into superfusion chambers between two platinum electrodes and field-stimulated at 5 Hz. The slices accumulated radioactivity. Pretreatment of the kidney slices with 6-hydroxy-dopamine (1.2 mM) prior to the 3H-noradrenaline incubation reduced the accumulation of radioactivity. The stimulation induced (S-I) outflow of radioactivity was mainly composed of intact 3H-noradrenaline. The sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM), 6-hydroxy-dopamine pretreatment and omission of calcium from the superfusion solution abolished S-I outflow of radioactivity. The DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam (SKF Glucotrol Generic Name 82526; 0.01 and 0.1 microM) did not alter but fenoldopam (1 microM) increased S-I outflow of radioactivity. However, in the presence of either the non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (1 microM) or the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 microM) fenoldopam (1 microM) had no effect. The DA2-receptor agonist quinpirole (LY 171555; 1 microM) inhibited S-I outflow of radioactivity, an effect blocked by the selective DA2-receptor antagonists S(-)-sulpiride (10 microM) and domperidone (0.3 microM) but unaltered either by the DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 microM) or by phentolamine (1 microM). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist UK 14304 (0.1 microM) inhibited S-I outflow of radioactivity, and this effect was blocked by phentolamine (1 microM) and idazoxan (1 microM) but unaltered by S(-)-sulpiride (10 microM). Phentolamine and idazoxan, in contrast to S(-)-sulpiride, domperidone and SCH 23390, enhanced S-I outflow of radioactivity by themselves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

motilium 500 mg 2016-06-23

A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of domperidone in plasma was developed, using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The samples were rendered basic with 1 M Na2CO3 and the domperidone extracted using tert.-butyl methyl ether, followed by back-extraction into formic acid (2% in water). Chromatography was performed on a Phenomenex Luna C8 (2), 5 microm, 150x2 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.02% formic acid (300:700, v/v), delivered at 0.2 ml/min. Detection was performed using an Applied Biosystems Sciex API 2000 mass spectrometer set at unit resolution in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. TurbolonSpray ionisation was used for ion production. The mean recovery of domperidone was +/- 100%, with a lower limit of quantification set at 0.189 ng/ml. This assay method makes use of the increased sensitivity and Zyrtec Pill selectivity of tandem mass spectrometric detection resulting in a rapid (extraction and chromatography) and sensitive method for the determination of domperidone in human plasma, which is more sensitive than previously described methods.

buy motilium usa 2015-06-24

Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a potentially fatal form of ventricular arrhythmia that occurs under conditions where cardiac repolarization is delayed (as indicated by prolonged QT intervals from electrocardiographic recordings). A likely mechanism for QT prolongation and TdP is blockade of the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), which is encoded by HERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene). The gastroprokinetic agent cisapride is a potent blocker of HERG currents and serious cardiac arrhythmias and deaths from TdP and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in patients taking cisapride. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the gastroprokinetic agents domperidone and metoclopramide on HERG channels transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Both domperidone and metoclopramide concentration-dependently blocked HERG currents, and the following values were calculated for IC(50) (the concentrations causing half-maximal inhibition) and n (the Hill coefficient): 57.0 nmol/l and 0.99 for domperidone, 5.4 micromol/l and 0.95 for metoclopramide. The observation that the extent of block of HERG currents by domperidone increased at more positive membrane potentials whereas block Sinemet Drug Class of HERG currents by metoclopramide displayed a smaller degree of voltage dependency seems to indicate that domperidone and metoclopramide have distinct binding sites on HERG channels. In conclusion, the potency for block of HERG currents is about 100-fold lower for metoclopramide when compared to domperidone.