1 Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the 133xenon inhalation method in 33 newly-diagnosed hypertensive patients prior to commencing therapy. 2 Blood pressure was treated by using a varying sequence of four different drugs, namely labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and sotalol, each of which is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, but with differing additional properties. 3 CBF measurements were repeated when blood pressure was controlled. No significant change in CBF was found with any of the four drugs, in contrast to the fall which has been reported when drugs of this type are administered acutely.
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Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), promoting vasoconstriction, smooth muscle proliferation, and inflammation.
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Perioperative β-blockade remains a subject of debate. In this review, recent literature and current guidelines for perioperative β-blockade in vascular surgery patients are discussed.
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Anxiety is common after acute myocardial infarction and increases the number of complications and the length of stay in the hospital. Anxiety-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system is hypothesized to be an underlying cause of increased complication rates. Little is known about whether use of β-blockers eliminates the effects of anxiety on complication rate and length of stay.
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The objective of this study, was to examine the influence of critical formulation and processing variables as described in the AAPS/FDA Workshop II report on scale-up of oral extended-release dosage forms, using a hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel K100LV). A face-centered central composite design (26 runs+3 center points) was selected and the variables studied were: filler ratio (lactose:dicalcium phosphate (50:50)), polymer level (15/32.5/50%), magnesium stearate level (1/1.5/2%), lubricant blend time (2/6/10 min) and compression force (400/600/800 kg). Granulations (1.5 kg, 3000 units) were manufactured using a fluid-bed process, lubricated and tablets (100 mg metoprolol tartrate) were compressed on an instrumented Manesty D3B rotary tablet press. Dissolution tests were performed using USP apparatus 2, at 50 rpm in 900 ml phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). Responses studied included percent drug released at Q1 (1 h), Q4, Q6, Q12. Analysis of variance indicated that change in polymer level was the most significant factor affecting drug release. Increase in dicalcium phosphate level and compression force were found to affect the percent released at the later dissolution time points. Some interaction effects between the variables studied were also found to be statistically significant. The drug release mechanism was predominantly found to be Fickian diffusion controlled (n=0.46-0.59). Response surface plots and regression models were developed which adequately described the experimental space. Three formulations having slow-, medium- and fast-releasing dissolution profiles were identified for a future bioavailability/bioequivalency study. The results of this study provided the framework for further work involving both in vivo studies and scale-up.
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During daytime activity and during orthostatic and mental stress, both heart rate and the ratio between the low and high frequency spectral components of the heart rate variability were significantly lower with atenolol. Conversely, there was no difference between treatments in baroreflex sensitivity and resting plasma catecholamines. Exercise duration and peak oxygen consumption did not differ between treatments, but the heart rate during submaximal and peak exercise was significantly lower with atenolol.
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The normal expression of Ca2+-handling protein is critical for efficient myocardial function. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that beta-blocker treatment may attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling and cardiac contractile dysfunction in the failing heart, which may be associated with alterations of Ca2+-handling protein
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The efficacy of intravenous metoprolol in preventing symptoms during a repeat tilt test was compared with the outcome of chronic oral treatment in 21 patients (14 female, 7 male), age 8 to 20 years (mean 13 +/- 3) with unexplained syncope (> or = 1 episode) and a positive response to tilt testing. A positive response was defined as the development of either syncope or presyncope. During the initial tilt test, a positive response occurred during baseline (14 patients) or isoproterenol (0.03 to 0.1 microgram/kg/min) infusion (7 patients) with a cardioinhibitory (1 patient), vasodepressor (5 patients) or mixed (15 patients) pattern. Metoprolol (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. During the repeat tilt test, response was negative in 18 patients, including 11 of 14 patients with a positive response in the baseline and 7 of 7 patients with a positive response during isoproterenol infusion. Metoprolol (0.8 to 2.8 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to 15 patients for an average of 10 months. Symptoms were absent (7 patients) or improved (2 patients); metoprolol was discontinued because of adverse effects (3 patients) or recurrence of symptoms (3 patients). In 7 of 12 patients with a negative response and 2 of 3 patients with a positive response after intravenous metoprolol, oral administration of metoprolol prevented or improved symptoms without adverse effects. Many young patients (60%) with recurrent syncope obtained symptomatic improvement from chronic oral metoprolol treatment without adverse effects; repeat tilt testing after intravenous metoprolol did not appear to offer any additional information than would have been obtained from a trial of chronic oral treatment.
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We sought to assess the effects of combined oral positive inotropic and beta-blocker therapy in patients with severe heart failure.
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We did a prospective, randomised trial in 6614 patients aged 70-84 years with hypertension (blood pressure > or = 180 mm Hg systolic, > or = 105 mm Hg diastolic, or both). Patients were randomly assigned conventional antihypertensive drugs (atenolol 50 mg, metoprolol 100 mg, pindolol 5 mg, or hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus amiloride 2.5 mg daily) or newer drugs (enalapril 10 mg or lisinopril 10 mg, or felodipine 2.5 mg or isradipine 2-5 mg daily). We assessed fatal stroke, fatal myocardial infarction, and other fatal cardiovascular disease. Analysis was by intention to treat.
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Sonography showed oligy-/anhydramnion with enlarged echogenic kidneys of both fetuses. Having ruled out premature rupture of the membranes the reduced amount of amniotic fluid was interpreted as a consequence of the antihypertensive medication.
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A 67-year-old male with major depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia presented with new-onset gynecomastia and breast tenderness. Mammography revealed bilateral gynecomastia (fibroglandular tissue posterior to the nipples bilaterally) without suspicious mass, calcification, or other abnormalities. These new symptoms developed after sertraline was added to his stable medication regimen (duloxetine, alprazolam, rosuvastatin, metoprolol, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, metformin, and sitagliptin). These symptoms were dose-dependent, with gynecomastia and breast tenderness more severe as sertraline was titrated from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day and then to 75 mg/day. When sertraline was discontinued, gynecomastia and breast tenderness rapidly resolved.
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felodipine plus irbesartan or metoprolol for 24 weeks equally reduced blood pressure and the former regimen is superior to the latter on sexual function improvement in this patient cohort.
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A method for the simultaneous determination of the beta-blockers atenolol, sotalol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, propranolol and carvedilol, the calcium-channel antagonists diltiazem, amlodipine and verapamil, the angiotensin-II antagonists losartan, irbesartan, valsartan and telmisartan, and the antiarrhythmic drug flecainide, in whole blood samples from forensic autopsies was developed. Sample clean-up was achieved by precipitation and solid phase extraction (SPE) with a mixed-mode column. Quantification was performed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS). The method has been developed and robustness tested by systematically searching for satisfactory conditions using experimental designs including factorial and response surface designs. With the exception of amlodipine, the concentration limit of quantification (cLOQ) covered low therapeutic concentration levels for all the compounds. Within assay precisions and accuracies (bias) were 3.4-21% RSD and from -24 to 21% for the concentration range 1.00-5.00 microM, respectively. Between assay precisions were 4.4-28% RSD for the concentration range from 0.1 to 5 microM and recoveries varied from 9 to 103%. The method is used for determination of cardiovascular drugs in post-mortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases.
Two groups of MI patients matched for clinical characteristics were identified on the basis of the results. The first group was composed of patients with decreased S as a response to vertical tilt at the beginning of the study. The patients with increased S during vertical tilt before treatment with the highest tolerated beta-blocker dose were attributed to the second group. The response to vertical tilt in the first group of patients was postulated to indicate the need to increase beta-blocker dose, and in turn, the response in the second group to indicate an already adequate beta-blocker dose.
Carvedilol treatment in experimental myocarditis leads to reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs, which contributes to reduced matrix degradation and ultimately to improved structural integrity of the heart. Besides the antiadrenergic potential, carvedilol is beneficial due to a wide range of biological activities (antiinflammatory, antifibrotic, antioxidative and immunomodulatory).
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In a double-blind, parallel-group multicentre study in general practice, lisinopril (10-20 mg once daily) was compared with metoprolol (100-200 mg once daily) in 360 patients whose diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was in the range 91-115 mmHg despite diuretic treatment. Following a three week run-in period during which the diuretic was withdrawn, monotherapy with either lisinopril or metoprolol was given for two months with dose doubled after one month if DBP remained greater than 90 mmHg. Quality of life was assessed using established and validated questionnaires at the time of cessation of diuretic treatment and again after two months's active treatment. Both metoprolol and lisinopril achieved statistically significant BP reduction relative to baseline (P less than 0.001). Significantly fewer adverse events were experienced on lisinopril and metoprolol than on diuretic treatment. Frequency of withdrawals due to adverse events were statistically significantly lower on lisinopril than metoprolol P = 0.01. Before treatment approximately 35% of the patients had quality of life problems measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), which was reduced to 17% on lisinopril and 23% on metoprolol. Thus both metoprolol and lisinopril were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension with lisinopril being better tolerated. From patients' self-assessments of quality of life, lisinopril was found to be superior to metoprolol in some aspects of emotional, cognitive and social functioning.
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Measurement of gut mucosal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry is highly reproducible. Eating, smoking, body size, sex, ovulatory status, and menstrual phase influence blood flow. Changes in mucosal blood flow induced by autonomically active drugs and nerve stimulation confirm the role of the mucosal microcirculation as a measure of extrinsic nerve activity.
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The four pivotal beta-blocker trials in heart failure (HF) had different inclusion criteria, making comparison difficult without patient stratifying. The aim of this study was to compare, in similar patients, the effects of bisoprolol, metoprolol controlled release/extended release (CR/XL), carvedilol and nebivolol on (i) total mortality, (ii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes (time to first event), (iii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization because of HF and (iv) tolerability, defined as discontinuation of randomized treatment.
The effect on ovulation of intraventricular infusions of noradrenaline, adrenaline and various pharmacological agents acting on the adrenergic receptor subtypes were investigated in cyclic female rats on the day of pro-oestrus. The inhibitory effects on ovulation of the different infusions were monitored by administering the drugs before 11.00 h (several hours before the critical period for the ovulatory LH surge). In experiments designed to show how the drugs under investigation might stimulate ovulation, pentobarbitone sodium (35 mg/kg) was given at 14.30 h; this anaesthetic inhibits ovulation and its effects can be overcome by substances that advance the preovulatory LH surge. Noradrenaline (an alpha-agonist) stimulated ovulation when administered on the morning of pro-oestrus to rats injected with pentobarbitone early in the afternoon of the same day. Phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine (non-selective alpha-antagonists) and clonidine (a selective alpha 2-agonist) all inhibited ovulation when infused on the morning of pro-oestrus. Yohimbine (a moderately selective alpha 2-antagonist) neither stimulated nor inhibited ovulation. Both isoprenaline (a non-selective beta-agonist) and fenoterol (a selective beta 2-agonist) stimulated ovulation in pentobarbitone-treated rats when administered on the morning of pro-oestrus and fenoterol was also able to overcome the pentobarbitone block when infused later in the afternoon. Propranolol (a non-selective beta-antagonist) and metoprolol (a selective beta 1-antagonist) were stimulatory only when administered in the afternoon. Adrenaline (both an alpha- and beta-agonist), prenalterol (a selective beta 1-agonist), atenolol (a selective beta 1-antagonist) and ICI 118,551 (a selective beta 2-antagonist) neither stimulated nor inhibited ovulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)