Lopid is an effective medication which helps to fight with high levels of serum triglycerides. Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Gemfibrozil.
Lopid target is to fight against high levels of serum triglycerides.
Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Generic name of Lopid is Gemfibrozil.
Brand name of Lopid is Lopid.
Take Lopid tablets orally.
Take Lopid twice a day with water at the same time.
Do not crush or chew it.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
If you overdose Lopid and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lopid overdosage: arthralgia, muscle pain, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light and humidity. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Lopid are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Lopid if you are allergic to Lopid components.
Do not take Lopid if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
Be careful with Lopid if you are taking cholesterol-lowering medications (statins) such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); and repaglinide (Prandin), anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin).
Be careful with Lopid if you suffer from or have a history of kidney, liver, gallbladder disease.
Do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
lopid 800 mg
High global consumption rates have led to the occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. The use of chlorine to disinfect wastewater prior to release into the environment may convert PhACs into uncharacterized chlorinated by-products. In this investigation, chlorination of a common pharmaceutical, the antihyperlipidemic agent gemfibrozil, was documented. Gemfibrozil (2,2-dimethyl-5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)pentanoic acid) was reacted with sodium hypochlorite and product formation was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The incorporation of one, two or three chlorine atoms into the aromatic region of gemfibrozil was demonstrated using negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Further analysis using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy identified the reaction products as 4'-ClGem (5-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid) 4',6'-diClGem (5-(4,6-dichloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid), and 3',4',6'-triClGem (5-(3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid), products consistent with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. The rapid reaction of gemfibrozil with free chlorine at pH conditions relevant to water treatment indicates that a mixture of chlorinated gemfibrozils is likely to be found in wastewater disinfected with chlorine.
lopid 25 mg
Fenofibrate (100 microM) produced potent inhibition (48%) of VSMC proliferation at a concentration equivalent to that of its circulating metabolite fenofibric acid, but none of the other drugs produced any significant effect on growth. VSMC derived from graft stenoses were equally sensitive to inhibition as saphenous vein derived controls, in contrast to our previous work which reported that graft stenosis derived VSMC were resistant to growth inhibition by the physiological inhibitor heparin. The antiproliferative effect of fenofibrate was independent of inhibition of cellular cholesterol synthesis or toxicity. Fenofibrate inhibited VSMC growth induced by 15% fetal calf serum, PDGF, and basic fibroblast growth factor to a similar degree, indicating that it is not a specific PDGF antagonist.
lopid and alcohol
During the past decade, prescriptions for fibrates (particularly fenofibrate) increased in the United States, while prescriptions for fibrates in Canada remained stable.
lopid 80 mg
Both drugs significantly reduced total cholesterol, calculated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and fibrinogen (P<0.01 for all calculations, except P<0.05 for fibrinogen with gemfibrozil therapy) and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.01). Neither drug affected Lp(a) lipoprotein, whereas uric acid was reduced only by fenofibrate (P<0.01). The percentage decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was greater with fenofibrate than with gemfibrozil (-22% versus -15%, P<0.02; and -27% versus -16%, P<0.02, respectively). In contrast, reductions in levels of triglycerides (-54% versus -46.5%), apolipoprotein B, and fibrinogen, as well as the increase in HDL (+9% for both drugs), showed no significant difference between treatments. Separate analysis of patients with type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia showed essentially the same plasma lipid changes as for the overall group, but with greater modifications in triglyceride and HDL concentrations.
lopid medication dosage
The major effect of the fibrates on triglycerides is to promote triglyceride-rich lipoprotein catabolism through increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Fibrates also enhance lipolysis of plasma triglycerides by a means different from that of caloric restriction. Their effect on very low-density lipoprotein metabolism also differs from that of nicotinic acid. The effect of fibrate therapy upon low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations depends upon the patients' overall lipoprotein status. The responsible mechanisms are not understood. In hypertriglyceridemic patients, fibrates often reverse abnormal changes in low-density lipoprotein composition; low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity is reduced and small dense low-density lipoproteins are eliminated, apparently secondary to reduced levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicate that fibrates do not enhance low-density lipoprotein formation rates, thus contradicting the idea that fibrate therapy causes increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels via increased conversion of very low-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein. Though enhanced low-density lipoprotein catabolism in hypertriglyceridemia could occur via several mechanisms, the responsible factors are largely reversed by fibrate therapy. In non-hypertriglyceridemic patients, fibrates may actually enhance the fractional clearance of low-density lipoprotein and thus reduce low-density lipoprotein levels. Fibrate therapy reverses the typical high-density lipoprotein pattern of hypertriglyceridemic patients, producing more high-density lipoprotein2a and less high-density lipoprotein2b. Such treatment also increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients without definite hypertriglyceridemia. Synthesis rates of apolipoproteins AI and AII may be affected by fibrates. The fibrates' major effects on sterol metabolism are interference with cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and increased cholesterol secretion into bile. Although bile saturation increases in most patients, in only a relatively small percentage do gallstones actually develop; super-saturated bile is not sufficient to induce gallstone formation in most patients. Available data strongly imply that fibrates mobilized cholesterol out of tissue pools, perhaps by altering tissue cell membranes to allow cholesterol release from the cell surfaces.
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), Type 1 or 2, with plasma lipid levels exceeding target values (LDL-cholesterol <2.6 mmol/l, triglycerides < 1.7 mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol > 0.9 mmol/l for men and > 1.1 mmol/l for women) were eligible. After 6-12 weeks of diet and glycaemic control, lipid-lowering medication (simvastatin/gemfibrozil/acipimox) was prescribed in steps of incremental dosages and combinations for 30 weeks.
lopid dose administration
A total of 1356 subjects with total cholesterol levels >or=239 mg/dL were randomly treated for 5 years (1988-1993) with 1 of these lipid-lowering regimens: low-fat diet, cholestyramine, gemfibrozil, or simvastatin. Participants were divided at baseline into 4 quartiles according to systolic BP level and examined for the percent change in systolic and diastolic BP during the 5 years of treatment.
lopid 500 mg
Itraconazole, gemfibrozil and their combination markedly raise the plasma concentrations of loperamide. Although not seen in the psychomotor tests used, an increased risk of adverse effects should be considered during concomitant use of loperamide with itraconazole, gemfibrozil and especially their combination.
lopid missed dose
Randomized, placebo-controlled, 2.5-year trial comparing patients receiving usual care with patients receiving stepped-care drug therapy.
lopid 300 mg
Despite the large number of pharmaceutically active compounds found in natural environments little is known about their transport behavior in groundwater, which is complicated by their wide range of physical and chemical properties. The transport behavior of five widely used and often detected pharmaceutical compounds and one lifestyle drug has therefore been investigated, using a set of three column experiments. The investigated compounds were the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the lifestyle drug caffeine, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the lipid regulator gemfibrozil, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories ibuprofen and naproxen. The columns were filled with three different types of sand. The substrates consisted of artificially prepared iron-coated sand, artificially prepared organic carbon sand (with 5% leaf compost), and natural aquifer sand from Long Point, Ontario (Canada). The experiments were conducted simultaneously under the same hydraulic conditions and with the same input solution of about 1μg·L(-1) of each compound. The transport behavior of the organic compounds differed significantly between both the different columns and the different compounds. A strong correlation was observed between the retardation factors for carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and ibuprofen and the organic carbon content of the substrate. While the retardation increased with increasing organic carbon content, no direct relationship was observed between the organic carbon content and the removal of these compounds. In contrast, the retardation factors for sulfamethoxazole and naproxen showed no correlation with the organic carbon content but these compounds were significantly removed in the presence of organic matter. The influence of the Fe(3+) surfaces in the iron-coated sand was less significant than expected, with all compounds except for sulfamethoxazole having retardation factors <1.8. Caffeine was so strongly removed during transport through those substrates containing organic carbon that no reliable retardation factor could be determined.
Nonenzymatic modification of proteins by acyl glucuronides is well documented; however, little is known about their potential to damage DNA. We have previously reported that clofibric acid undergoes glucuronidation-dependent bioactivation to DNA-damaging species in cultured mouse hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying such DNA damage, and to screen chemically diverse carboxylic acid drugs for their DNA-damaging potential in glucuronidation proficient murine hepatocytes. Cells were incubated with each aglycone for 18 h, followed by assessment of compound cytotoxicity using the MTT assay and evaluation of DNA damage using the Comet assay. Relative cytotoxic potencies were ketoprofen > diclofenac, benoxaprofen, nafenopin > gemfibrozil, probenecid > bezafibrate > clofibric acid. At a noncytotoxic (0.1 mM) concentration, only benoxaprofen, nafenopin, clofibric acid, and probenecid significantly increased Comet moments (P < 0.05 Kruskal-Wallis). Clofibric acid and probenecid exhibited the greatest DNA-damaging potency, producing significant DNA damage at 0.01 mM concentrations. The two drugs produced maximal increases in Comet moment of 4.51 x and 2.57 x control, respectively. The glucuronidation inhibitor borneol (1 mM) abolished the induction of DNA damage by 0.5 mM concentrations of clofibric acid and probenecid. In an in vitro cell-free system, clofibric acid glucuronide was 10 x more potent than glucuronic acid in causing DNA strand-nicking, although both compounds showed similar rates of autoxidation to generate hydroxyl radicals. In cultured hepatocytes, the glycation inhibitor, aminoguanidine, and the iron chelator, desferrioxamine mesylate, inhibited DNA damage by clofibric acid, whereas the free radical scavengers Trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene, and the superoxide dismutase mimetic bis-3,5-diisopropylsalicylate had no effect. In conclusion, clinically relevant concentrations of two structurally unrelated carboxylic acids, probenecid and clofibric acid, induced DNA damage in isolated hepatocytes via glucuronidation- dependent pathways. These findings suggest acyl glucuronides are able to access and damage nuclear DNA via iron-catalyzed glycation/glycoxidative processes.
lopid 60 mg
This study demonstrates suboptimal treatment with statins in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors.
lopid maximum dose
1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol was -11.4% among those whose apparent capsule consumption was greater than or equal to 90% of the scheduled dosage, -11.2% among those who had greater than or equal to 90% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -11.4% among those with good compliance according to both digoxin marker measurements. In contrast the mean serum cholesterol change was only -0.02% if the mean daily capsule count was less than 50%, -1.7% with fewer than 50% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -1.1% if the result was poor in both digoxin marker measurements. 3. Combining the different method findings revealed that the cholesterol changes tended to be small in those groups who had poor compliance classification measured by any of the methods, even if the other results showed good compliance.
lopid 600 dosage
We hypothesized that M1, a metabolite of gemfibrozil, may have antioxidant properties because of its hydroxylated phenol ring, 5-(4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-phenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl pentanoic acid. The susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidative modification was investigated by a method using 2,2-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile [MeO-AMVN]) or Cu2+ as previously reported. Conjugated dienes (CDs), lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were measured to evaluate the degree of LDL oxidation. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL), which is used for cytotoxicity studies, was prepared by the dialysis method using Cu2+ as the oxidation inducer. Cytotoxicity induced by OxLDL was studied in J774 macrophages by colorimetric assay using 3-[4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay). The oxidative modification of LDL was inhibited by M1 in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant effect of M1 on LDL oxidation was diminished by dialysis of the LDL incubated with M1 against phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), suggesting that M1 is hydrophilic rather than lipophilic. M1 diminished the cytotoxicity induced by OxLDL, although it was milder versus probucol. These data suggest that this gemfibrozil metabolite has an antioxidant effect on LDL, and thus M1 may contribute to the antiatherogenic effects of gemfibrozil.
lopid 200 mg
Compared with those in the CRF group, the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in the treatment groups were significantly lower with substantially elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LPL gene expression. No significant differences were noted between different dose groups of Shenshuai Yangzhen.
lopid 20 mg
We evaluated in a double-blind randomized trial with a double-dummy design in 28 patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day) versus Omacor (4 g/day), a drug containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on lipid and lipoprotein levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction profile and LDL oxidizability. Both Omacor and gemfibrozil therapy resulted in a similar significant decrease in serum triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol concentrations and an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The increase in LDL cholesterol was due to a significant increase in cholesterol content of the relatively buoyant LDL subfractions LDL1, LDL2 and LDL3, whereas the relative contribution of the dense LDL subfractions LDL4 and LDL5 to total LDL tended to decrease. So, both therapies resulted in a more buoyant LDL subfraction profile, reflected by a significant increase of the value of parameter K (+10.3% on Omacor vs. +26.5% on gemfibrozil therapy, gemfibrozil vs Omacor P>0.05). Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of LDL was measured by continuous monitoring of conjugated dienes. After 12 weeks of Omacor treatment LDL appeared more prone to oxidative modification in vitro than LDL after gemfibrozil treatment, as measured by the significantly decreased lag time, preceding the onset of the lipid peroxidation. In both groups the rate of oxidation did not change with therapy. The amount of dienes formed during oxidation increased significantly on Omacor treatment, but not on gemfibrozil treatment. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher after Omacor and lower after gemfibrozil treatment, although not significantly. We conclude that both Omacor and gemfibrozil have favorable effects on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and the LDL subfraction profile. However, Omacor increased the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, whereas gemfibrozil did not affect the resistance of LDL to oxidative modification in vitro. The clinical relevance of these changes remains to be established in the light of other postulated favorable effects of n-3 fatty acids on the course of cardiovascular disease.
lopid 10 mg
Rosuvastatin has greater efficacy in lowering LDL cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations than the other statins. It has been shown to enable more patients to reach their LDL cholesterol goals than other statins and to do so with an acceptable safety profile.
lopid max dose
Physicians' views of the effectiveness of lipid lowering drugs and the decision to prescribe such drugs is affected by the predominant use of reduction of relative risk in trial reports and advertisements.
lopid tablets 600
Following a 6-week washout, 32 patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia received rosuvastatin 10 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg, and pravastatin 40 mg, each for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover design. Patients subsequently entered an 18-week open-label phase in which the rosuvastatin dosage could be increased from 20 mg to a maximum of 40 mg at 6 weekly intervals to reach National Cholesterol Education Program goals for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and optimal triglyceride (TG). Fibrates (except gemfibrozil) could be added if patients were not at goal on rosuvastatin 40 mg. The primary efficacy variable was percent change from baseline in non-HDL-C during the double-blind phase. The prespecified efficacy criterion was for the 95% confidence interval (CI) of non-HDL-C to lie entirely below -25% for any rosuvastatin dose.
Electrokinetic cross membrane extraction of acidic drugs was demonstrated for the first time. The acidic drugs were extracted from an alkaline aqueous donor solution (300 microl), through a thin supported liquid membrane of 1-heptanol sustained in the pores of the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into an aqueous alkaline acceptor solution (30 microl) present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber by the application of a d.c. electrical potential. The negative electrode was placed in the donor solution, and the positive electrode was placed in the acceptor solution. Optimal extractions were accomplished with 1-heptanol as the supported liquid membrane, with 50 V as the driving force, and with pH 12.0 in both the donor and acceptor solutions, respectively (NaOH). Equilibrium extraction conditions were obtained after 5 min of operation with the whole assembly agitated at 1200 rpm. Eleven different acidic drugs were extracted with recovery values between 8 and 100%, and initial data supported that electrokinetic cross membrane extraction provided repeatable data and linear response between original donor concentration and final acceptor concentration of the acidic model compounds.
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Peripheral lymph lipoproteins were studied in four hyperlipidaemic men before and after 6 weeks of treatment with gemfibrozil, a drug which is known to increase the fractional catabolic rate of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) by raising lipoprotein lipase activity in peripheral tissues. Decreases in plasma triglycerides of 18-60% (mean, 45%) were accompanied by increases in lymph apolipoprotein (apo) A-I concentration of 30-108% (mean, 66%; P < 0.01), and in lymph cholesterol concentration of 35-100% (mean, 59%; P < 0.05). The additional lymph cholesterol was distributed over a broad range of lipoprotein particle sizes. Effects on plasma apo A-I concentration (mean, +7%) and plasma total cholesterol concentration (-7%) were not statistically significant. No changes were observed in four untreated control subjects. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that lipolysis of VLDL at the blood-endothelium interface increases the transfer of apo A-I from plasma to interstitial fluids, and thereby promotes cholesterol efflux from cells.
lopid usual dosage
Drug induced myopathy has been reported with the use of fibric acid derivatives, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and nicotinic acid. Over the last three decades, hypolipemiants like fibric acid derivatives and statins have been increasingly recognised as causes of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure especially during combination therapy and in the presence of underlying renal impairment. We report two cases of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with underlying coronary artery disease and pre-existing renal impairment. Both patients developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute renal failure soon after their hyperlipidaemia treatment was changed from gemfibrozil to bezafibrate. There were no intercurrent illnesses or co-administration of other lipid lowering drugs in both patients. Even though both drugs belong to the same fibric acid derivatives group, these patients developed the complication only after a switchover of therapy.
lopid 160 mg
Gemfibrozil reduces plasma triglycerides and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adults and also reduces the incidence of cardiovascular endpoints in adults. Its efficacy in improving lipid abnormalities has not been evaluated in children.
lopid generic equivalent
Gemfibrozil significantly reduced triglycerides by 44% and increased HDL-cholesterol by 31% without significant change in LDL cholesterol. Before treatment, patients had increased F1 + 2, fibrinogen and IL6, but similar PAI1 compared with the controls, consistent with a hypercoagulable and persistent inflammatory state. Following treatment, F1 + 2 decreased to within the normal range and this reduction correlated with the decrease in triglycerides and inversely with the increase in HDL-cholesterol. A non-significant decrease in fibrinogen was inversely correlated with a significant increase in albumin. However, Lp(a) and PAI1 activity significantly increased whilst insulin and IL6 were unchanged.
lopid 40 mg
Fenofibrate, bezafibrate, and gemfibrozil reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 22% (P =.009), 14% (P =.042), and 11% (not significant), respectively. Plasma triglyceride levels decreased significantly (24%-36%; P <.05), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels rose nonsignificantly after treatment with the 3 fibrates. Except for a 35% increase of apolipoprotein A-I mRNA after fenofibrate administration (P <.05), none of the individual fibrates induced significant changes in the mRNAs tested, although as a group they increased the mRNA for liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I by 40%(P =.08; marginally significant).
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