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Kemadrin

Generic Kemadrin is a synthetic antispasmodic compound of relatively low toxicity. In Parkinson's disease, the deficiency of dopamine causes overactivity of acetylcholine. This causes some of the symptoms of the disease. Generic Kemadrin works by blocking the receptors that acetylcholine acts on.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sinemet, Requip

 

Also known as:  Procyclidine.

Description

Generic Kemadrin is used to treat parkinsonism and extrapyramidal dysfunction caused by tranquilizer therapy.

In Parkinson's disease, the deficiency of dopamine causes overactivity of acetylcholine. This causes some of the symptoms of the disease. Generic Kemadrin works by blocking the receptors that acetylcholine acts on. This reduces the activity of the acetylcholine and helps restore the balance of acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. In this way, Generic Kemadrin helps to control some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Generic name of Generic Kemadrin is Procyclidine.

Brand name of Generic Kemadrin is Kemadrin.

Dosage

Take Generic Kemardin tablets orally.

Take Generic Kemadrin with or without food.

Do not drink alcohol during Generic Kemadrin usage.

Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert while using Generic Kemadrin.

The dosage and the kind of medicine depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Kemadrin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Kemadrin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Kemadrin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Kemadrin if you are allergic to Generic Kemadrin components.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Kemadrin if you have closed angle glaucoma, have obstruction of the stomach or intestines, have urinary retention.

Generic Kemardin is not recommended for children.

Be careful if you are elderly aged person.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you have decreased kidney function, have decreased liver function; have the risk of glaucoma.

Be careful with Generic Kemadrin if you take amantadine; antihistamines, eg. brompheniramine, chlorphenamine; antispasmodics, eg. hyoscine; antipsychotics, eg. chlorpromazine, clozapine; certain antisickness medicines, eg. promethazine, prochlorperazine, meclozine, cyclizine; certain medicines for abnormal heartbeats (antiarrhythmics), eg. disopyramide, propafenone; MAOI antidepressants, eg. Phenelzine; medicines for urinary incontinence, eg. oxybutynin, flavoxate, tolterodine, propiverine, trospium; memantine; muscle relaxants, eg baclofen; nefopam; other anticholinergics, eg. trihexyphenidyl, orphenadrine; tricyclic or related antidepressants, eg. amitriptyline, maprotiline.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Kemadrin taking suddenly.

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High dose intravenous therapy with the anticholinergic drug, procyclidine hydrochloride, temporarily diminished the muscle rigidity and reversed most of the autonomic features in a patient with NMS occurring after a single intramuscular dose of the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide. Paradoxically, however, the heart rate decreased and bowel movements increased with this atropine-like drug.

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We report a case of abdominal pain with rigidity, mimicking an acute abdomen, caused by metoclopramide, a common anti-emetic drug. Extrapyramidal symptoms are commonly reported side-effects of this medication. They generally include involuntary movements of limbs, torticollis, oculogyric crisis, rhythmic protrusion of tongue, trismus, or dystonic reactions resembling tetanus, etc. Abdominal rigidity due to this medication, resembling an acute abdomen, has not been reported previously. This case report illustrates the importance of considering medication side-effects when evaluating a patient with abdominal pain and rigidity.

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A double-blind, cross-over trial of the effectiveness of piribedil, procyclidine and placebo in the control of parkinsonism induced by fluphenazine decanoate was conducted in sixteen cases of chronic schizophrenia. Procyclidine was shown to be more effective and piribedil less effective than the placebo. Piribedil produced a number of unpleasant effects, including headache, vomiting and malaise.

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The rapid onset of toxic signs following nerve agent intoxication and the apprehension that current therapy (atropine, oxime, diazepam) may not prevent brain damage, requires supportive pretreatment. Since the current pretreatment drug pyridostigmine fails in protecting brain-AChE, more effective pretreatment is necessary. A main focus of present-day pretreatment research is on bioscavengers, another is on centrally active reversible AChE-inhibitors combined with drugs showing anti-cholinergic, anti-glutamatergic, neuroprotective and non-sedating GABA-ergic activity. Strategies aimed at improving efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment will briefly be discussed. Galantamine, given as a pretreatment or stand-alone therapy, emerged as one of the best medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. Other preclinical studies demonstrated effective pretreatment consisting of physostigmine combined with procyclidine, scopolamine or bupropion (all single injections), against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. A long sign-free pretreatment with physostigmine (Alzet pump), combined with single injection of procyclidine just before soman poisoning, enhanced the efficacy of a post-poisoning therapy consisting of 3 autoinjector equivalents of HI-6, atropine and diazepam, considerably.

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To determine whether the use or the withdrawal of anticholinergic drugs (benzhexol or benztropine or biperiden or orphenadrine or procyclidine or scopolamine or trihexylphenidyl) were clinically effective for the treatment of people with both neuroleptic-induced TD and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses.

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Didepil seems to be an effective antiepileptic agent in maximal generalized seizures as well as in temporal lobe seizures.

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A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the triple regimen) has previously been shown to work as a universal therapy against soman poisoning in rats, since it has capacities to function as both prophylactic and therapeutic measure. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the triple regimen may have antidotal efficacy against intoxication by other classical nerve agents than soman. The treatment was given 1 and 5 min after exposure to a supralethal dose of nerve agents, and the results showed that the triple regimen successfully prevented or terminated seizures and preserved the lives of rats exposed to 5×LD50 of soman, sarin, cyclosarin, or VX, but solely 3×LD50 of tabun was managed by this regimen. To meet the particular antidotal requirements of tabun, the triple regimen was reinforced with obidoxime and was made to a quadruple regimen that effectively treated rats intoxicated by 5×LD50 of tabun. The rats recovered very well and the majority gained pre-exposure body weight within 7 days. Neuropathology was seen in all groups regardless of whether the rats seized or not. The most extensive damage was produced by sarin and cyclosarin. Differentiation between the nerve agents' potency to cause lesions was probably seen because the efficacious treatments ensured survival of supralethal poisoning. A combination of 2 oximes and 2 anticonvulsants may be a prerequisite to counteract effectively high levels of poisoning by any classical nerve agent.

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Atropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had no significant effect on 24-h water consumption on day 1 of treatment; on subsequent days the rats showed a significant increase. Procyclidine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had a similar effect, except that the increase in daily water consumption began on the third day of treatment. Methylatropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) markedly depressed water consumption on day 1; from the second day on no significant effects on 24-h water consumption were seen. The results suggest that the dipsogenic actions of cholinergic blocking agents on 24-h water consumption involve central rather than purely peripheral actions.

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Excitatory amino acid antagonists possess anticonvulsant properties in many experimental models of epilepsy and were shown to potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Combined treatments of valproate with either D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonists), which provided a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, produced no side-effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Valproate alone at its ED50 against maximal electroshock, induced severe adverse effects. The NMDA antagonists, D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, memantine, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl also potentiated the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics but these treatments were associated with considerable side-effects. The non-NMDA receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline and 1-(amino-phenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine, also enhanced the anticonvulsive action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock, and these combinations generally resulted in no adverse effects. The potential clinical importance of some combinations of common antiepileptics with excitatory amino acid antagonists is postulated.

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In a series of 36 patients with acute schizophrenia flupenthixol dosage was blindly adjusted to give a fixed level of sedation. Patients were than randomly allocated to procyclidine or placebo. The patients receiving procyclidine experienced more positive schizophrenic symptoms and less severe extrapyramidal features by comparison with placebo patients. Blood levels of prolactin and flupenthixol estimated by radioimmunoassay were not significantly changed by the addition of procyclidine. Flupenthixol dosage and levels and prolactin levels were significantly related. There was no significant association between clinical and laboratory measures, with the exception that a curvilinear (inverted U) relationship was demonstrated between flupenthixol levels and antipsychotic and extrapyramidal effects. This relationship may be due to the fact that, in a study of this design, patients resistant to the effects of neuroleptic medication are likely to be given the highest doses. The findings support earlier claims that anticholinergic medication has adverse effects on schizophrenic symptoms.

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Microinfusion of anticonvulsants into the perirhinal cortex through 1 guide cannula in each hemisphere only invades a small area of this seizure controlling site in rats exposed to soman. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether infusions made through 2 cannulas in each perirhinal cortex may produce more efficacious anticonvulsant action against soman intoxication than the use of 1 cannula only in rats infused with the ionotropic antagonists procyclidine and caramiphen or the metabotropic glutamate modulators DCG-IV and MPEP. The results showed that the mere presence of indwelling double cannulas caused proconvulsant effect in response to subsequent systemic administration of soman. Both the control and caramiphen groups with double cannulas had significantly shorter latencies to seizure onset than the corresponding groups with single cannula. Procyclidine resulted in anticonvulsant efficacy, even in rats with double cannulas. In rats that received twin infusions of DCG-IV or MPEP, the anticonvulsant impact was very high, inasmuch as a majority of the rats in each group was protected against seizure activity. Drugs possessing powerful anticonvulsant potency can apparently counteract the proconvulsant effect of double cannulas, and some can even gain enhanced anticonvulsant capacity when invading a larger area of the perirhinal cortex. Perirhinal EEG recordings (electrodes in indwelling cannulas) in a separate set of rats not exposed to soman or drugs showed no differences in basal electrical activity (total power 0.5-25Hz or the theta band 4-12Hz) between groups with single or double cannulas. The intrinsic excitability and synaptic connectivity of the perirhinal cortex may be associated with the proconvulsant impact observed in rats with double cannulas when exposed to soman.

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The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating A. castellanii with various concentrations of drugs in the growth medium for 48 h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal effects, amoebae were incubated with drugs in phosphate-buffered saline for 24 h, and viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the eight drugs tested, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed potent amoebicidal effects, as no viable trophozoites were observed (>95% kill rate), while amiodarone, procyclidine, digoxin, and apomorphine exhibited up to 50% amoebicidal effects. In contrast, haloperidol did not affect viability, but all the drugs tested inhibited A. castellanii growth. Importantly, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed compelling cysticidal effects. The cysticidal effects were irreversible, as cysts treated with the aforementioned drugs did not reemerge as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. Except for apomorphine and haloperidol, all the tested drugs blocked trophozoite differentiation into cysts in encystation assays. Given the limited availability of effective drugs to treat amoebal infections, the clinically available drugs tested in this study represent potential agents for managing keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. and possibly against other meningoencephalitis-causing amoebae, such as Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri.

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A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the physostigmine regimen) has been based on the serendipitous discovery that it exerts powerful antidotal effects against high levels of soman poisoning if it is administered 1 min after exposure. A medical therapy with corresponding efficacy, but without the time limitation of the latter regimen, has been developed through studies of microinfusions of anticonvulsants into seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats. From these studies procyclidine emerged as the most potent anticonvulsant, and its potency was further enhanced when being combined with the antiepileptic levetiracetam during systemic administration. In the present study, the capacity of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the procyclidine regimen) was tested against that of the physostigmine regimen. The results showed that both regimens were very effective against supralethal doses of soman (3, 4, 5 × LD₅₀) when given 1 and 5 min after intoxication. When the treatments were administered 10 and 14 or 20 and 24 min after soman exposure, only the procyclidine regimen was able to terminate seizures and preserve lives. When used as prophylactic therapies, both regimens protected equally well against seizures, but only the procyclidine regimen provided neuroprotection. The procyclidine regimen has apparently capacities to serve as a universal therapy against soman intoxication in rats.

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A systematic review of the treatment options available for stuttering priapism is presented combined with our own experience in managing this condition over a period of 25 years.

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Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies.

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Fifty-one healthy volunteers were given haloperidol 5 mg in two consecutive pharmacokinetic studies.

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A patient underwent an emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia for an antepartum haemorrhage. Following delivery of a live infant, cyclizine was administered in accordance with departmental anti-emetic protocol. On awakening she was confused, slow to articulate and had slurred speech. A computed tomography (CT) scan, which was performed to exclude an intracranial event, was normal. Her symptoms were suggestive of a lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia as seen with dopamine antagonists. A presumptive diagnosis of a dystonic reaction to cyclizine was made. She received two doses of procyclidine before her symptoms completely resolved. Cyclizine has had a resurgence in popularity owing to the recent withdrawal of droperidol and anaesthetists should be aware that, although extremely rare, dystonic reactions may occur with this agent.

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The study presented here shows that GC-MS with ion trap detection can be used for screening post mortem blood. The method described was used to simultaneously screen for unknowns, identify basic drugs present and semi-quantitate 14 drugs commonly encountered in coroner's toxicology (i.e. was used to determine whether the drugs were present in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic or greater than therapeutic amounts). The equipment used included a Varian Saturn 2000 GC-MS operating in full scan mode, a CP-3800 GC, a CP-8400 autosampler and Saturn GC-MS workstation Version 5.5 software. Post mortem blood samples were extracted using a standard liquid-liquid procedure; diethylether followed by back extraction into 0.1 M HCl. Standard curves for the 14 drugs which were semi-quantitated (amitriptyline, citalopram, clozapine, cocaine, cyclizine, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dothiepin, methadone, mirtazapine, procyclidine, sertraline, tramadol, venlafaxine) were prepared covering the concentration range 0-1.0 ug/mL. The procedure is in routine use for coroners toxicology; semi-quantitation has been used (i) to speed-up the through put of cases where drugs are an incidental finding and (ii) for cases where the amount of sample submitted for analysis was too small to allow for screening, identification and quantitation on separate sample volumes.

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A pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase (e.g., soman) intoxication should prevent lethality and convulsions (CNV) at 2 LD50s and be behavioral-decrement-free when given alone. Behavioral-deficit-free pretreatment regimens (PRGs) for guinea pigs consisted of Physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and adjunct. Adjuncts [mg/kg, im] tested were akineton [0.25], aprophen [8], trihexyphenidyl [2], atropine [16], azaprophen [5], benactyzine [1.25], cogentin [4], dextromethorphan [7.5], ethopropazine [12], kemadrin [1], memantine [5], promethazine [5], scopolamine [0.08] and vontrol [2]. PRGs were given 30 min before soman (60 micrograms/kg, sc; 2 LD50s) or other OP agents. Animals were then observed and graded for signs of intoxication, including CNV at 7 time points and at 24 hr. Physostigmine alone reduced the incidence of CNV and lethality induced by 2 LD50s of soman by 42 and 60%, respectively. All of the PRGs tested abolished lethality and 12 shortened recovery time to 2 hr or less. Also, PRGs including azaprophen or atropine prevented CNV. When selected PRGs were tested against intoxication by sarin, tabun or VX, the efficacy was generally superior to that for soman. The data show that several PRGs are effective against soman intoxication in guinea pigs.

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A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

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The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way. Other animal studies have examined the potential of drugs like physostigmine, galantamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl, and procyclidine, but they all produce marked behavioral impairment at doses sufficient to contribute to protection against a convulsant dose of soman. Attempts have also been made to develop a combination of drugs capable of assuring full protection (prophylaxis) against nerve agents. However, common to all combinations is that they at anticonvulsant doses cause behavioral deficits. Therefore, the use of limited pretreatment doses may be performed without marked side effects followed by post-exposure therapy with a combination of drugs.

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The antidotal, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of physostigmine (PhS) and procyclidine (PC), the combinational prophylactics for organophosphate poisoning, were evaluated. For the investigation of dose-response relationship in rats and guinea pigs, various doses (0-6 mg/kg) of PC in combination with a fixed dose (0.1 mg/kg) of PhS were pretreated subcutaneously 30 min prior to subcutaneous poisoning with soman. Procyclidine in combination with PhS exhibited remarkable synergistic effects in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 1.92-5.07 folds of protection ratio in rats and 3.00-4.70 folds in guinea pigs. On the other hand, a low effect (1.65 fold) was achieved with the traditional antidotes atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus 2-pralidoxime (30 mg/kg) treated immediately after soman poisoning, compared with a marked protection (5.50 fold) with atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus HI-6 (125 mg/kg) in unpretreated rats. Noteworthy, the combinational prophylactics greatly potentiated the effect of atropine plus 2-pralidoxime to 6.13 or 12.27 folds and that of atropine plus HI-6 to 12.00 or 21.50 folds with 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of PC, respectively. A high dose (100 μg/kg, 1.3×LD(50)) of soman induced severe epileptiform seizures in rats pretreated with HI-6 (125 mg/kg), resulting in brain injuries in discrete brain regions under histopathological examination in 24 h. Interestingly, such seizures and excitotoxic brain injuries were fully prevented by pretreatment with PhS (0.1 mg/kg) and PC (1 mg/kg). Taken together, it is proposed that the prophylactics composed of PhS and PC could be a promising regimen for the prevention of lethality, seizures and brain injuries induced by soman poisoning.

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Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic known for its efficacy in refractory schizophrenia. However, according to different epidemiological studies clozapine can induce neutropenia in less than 3% of patients and may represent a major problem for the management of treatment-resistant patients not responding to conventional or other atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a few case of neutropenia have been reported following the addition of other medications to clozapine, notably paroxetine, risperidone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In our report we present the case of Mr A., a 40-year-old Caucasian patient with a 20-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. After numerous trials with conventional antipsychotics, partial remission of psychotic symptoms was obtained with clozapine. Over the past eight years during his treatment with clozapine, the patient presented 2 episodes of neutropenia. The first episode came five years after starting clozapine and was attributed to the addition 6 weeks earlier of haloperidol (2 mg/day) to clozapine (250 mg/day) and divalproex (1,500 mg/day). Recently, one week after the addition of risperidone (2 mg/day) to clozapine (550 mg/day), leukocytes count dropped from 12 100/mm(3) to 5 700/mm(3) and neutrophils from 7 400/mm(3) to 900/mm(3). The patient was also taking haloperidol (4 mg/day), methotrimeprazine (35 mg/day), procyclidine (5 mg/day) and valproic acid (1,500 mg/day). Twelve days after discontinuation of risperidone, leukocytes and neutrophils count increased to 11,100/mm(3) and 6,300/mm(3) respectively while the treatment with clozapine was continued. The first eighteen weeks of treatment represent the period where the risk of neutropenia is the highest. In our patient neutropenia occurred 5 and 7 years after starting clozapine. It is proposed that the two neutropenic episode were precipitated by adding respectively haloperidol and risperidone to clozapine. Also, divalproex can potentially cause a decrease in white blood cell count and may have contributed to the two neutropenic episode. It is suggested that drug interactions may be responsible for neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that clozapine should not necessarily be discontinued in the presence of neutropenia. Also we propose that hematological surveillance should be done on a weekly basis for 4 to 6 weeks following the addition of psychotropic drugs known for their potential to cause neutropenia when associated with clozapine. Therefore polypharmacy may contribute to cause neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that discontinuation of an antipsychotic should be done before introducing another one.

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Since the degree of tachypnoea, tachycardia, and bowel hypotonia closely paralleled the severity of the muscle rigidity, it is suggested that these autonomic features of NMS result from sustained muscle contraction rather than a direct effect of neuroleptic drugs on the central nervous system.

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Vomiting is one of the most distressing adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. Metoclopramide by continuous infusion (400 micrograms/kg/h after a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg) is a novel administration method for optimizing efficacy. A two-year-old boy developed urinary retention on three occasions, once accompanied by priapism and slurred speech, while receiving a continuous infusion. This was reversed by procyclidine, suggesting that it may have been a dystonic reaction.

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These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical screw electrodes. Electrocorticograms were displayed continually and recorded on a computerized electroencephalographic system. Pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1), i.m.) was injected as a pretreatment to inhibit red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by 30-40%. Thirty minutes after pyridostigmine, 2 x LD50 (56 microg x kg(-1)) of soman was injected s.c., followed 1 min later by i.m. treatment with atropine (2 mg x kg(-1)) + 2-PAM (25 mg x kg(-1)). Electrographic seizures occurred in all animals. Anticonvulsant treatment combinations were administered i.m. at 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Treatment consisted of diazepam or midazolam plus one of the above-mentioned anticholinergic drugs. All doses of the treatment compounds exhibited little or no antiseizure efficacy when given individually. The combination of a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug was effective in terminating soman-induced seizure, whether given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. The results suggest a strong synergistic effect of combining benzodiazepines with centrally active anticholinergic drugs and support the concept of using an adjunct to supplement diazepam for the treatment of nerve-agent-induced seizures.

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Platelet-rich plasma from healthy controls was pre-treated with neuroleptics of the phenothiazine, butyrophenone or benzamide variety before aggregation with one of the following agonist agents: ADP, adrenaline, 5-HT, collagen, platelet activating factor or ristocetin. All compounds effective as antipsychotics, except sulpiride, depressed aggregation. Unmedicated schizophrenics showed aggregation responses indistinguishable from healthy controls. However, within days of treatment with either trifluoroperazine or haloperidol responses became abnormal in acutely psychotic patients. Increased responses to 5-HT and depressed responses to platelet activating factor were detected. After 4 weeks of treatment responses tended to return to normal. Aggregation responses were normal in those patients on long-term depot neuroleptics.

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Although numerous medical treatment options have been reported, the majority are through small trials or anecdotal reports.

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Priapism is a urological emergency which is commonly classified into low-flow and high-flow priapism. Immediate intervention is required for low-flow cases as the development of ischaemia ultimately leads to long-term erectile dysfunction. Stuttering or recurrent priapism is less well understood. This subtype is characterised by short-lived painful erections and is commonly encountered in patients with sickle cell disease.

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In a fatal case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a muscle sample taken within 1 h of death showed acute myopathic features with absence of muscle glycogen and neutral lipid. These features suggest that hyperpyrexia in this syndrome may be caused by heat production from uncoupled phosphorylation in muscle and imply that the primary biochemical abnormality responsible for this uncontrolled heat production might be muscular rather than hypothalamic.

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kemadrin generic name 2016-01-16

The combined effects of physostigmine and procyclidine (antagonizing muscarinic, nicotinic, and NMDA receptors) were tested against various doses of soman. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with procyclidine doses of 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg effectively prevented the development of convulsions and hippocampally monitored seizures when the doses of soman were 1.3, 1.6, or 2 x LD50, respectively. Results from [(3)H]MK-801-binding experiments showed that procyclidine inhibits the phencyclidine site at the NMDA receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and procyclidine in a dose of 1 mg/kg did not prevent convulsions or seizures when the soman dose was 1.6 x LD50. Subsequent treatment with scopolamine in doses of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg immediately after (3 min) seizure onset showed that only the highest dose produced a reliable termination. When scopolamine (1 buy kemadrin mg/kg) was given later (10 min) after onset of seizures, no effect was obtained. The sustained seizures were subsequently treated with diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and finally terminated 25 min after onset. In rats given inadequate prophylaxis, both modified convulsions and seizures were seen. It is suggested that moderate doses of prophylactics should be preferred to avoid adverse effects on cognitive functions because insufficient prophylaxis can be compensated for by adjunct treatment.

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Since the degree of tachypnoea, tachycardia, and bowel hypotonia closely paralleled the severity of the muscle rigidity, it is buy kemadrin suggested that these autonomic features of NMS result from sustained muscle contraction rather than a direct effect of neuroleptic drugs on the central nervous system.

buy kemadrin 2016-12-02

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal and generalised dystonia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library buy kemadrin , and other important databases up to September 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

kemadrin dose 2015-06-04

Nasal absorption of procyclidine, a synthetic anticholinergic compound, was investigated in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs. The dosing solution was prepared by dissolving 14C-procyclidine in 50% ethanolic saline. The dosing solution was administered intravenously and intranasally to rats at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg (i.e., 60 microl/kg in the form of a 1% w/v solution), and intravenously, orally buy kemadrin and intranasally to dogs at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.e., 6 microl/kg in the form of a 5% w/v solution). Blood samples were taken from an artery of the animals through the catheter for periods of 1200 (for rats) and 1,440 min (for dogs), and the radioactivity in the samples was determined by liquid scintillation counting. The nasal bioavailability of procyclidine in rats and dogs, based on the radioactivity, was calculated to be 81.1 and 98.6%, respectively. In both rats and dogs, the plasma profiles of procyclidine following nasal administration were very close to those following intravenous administration, leading to nearly superimposable profiles between the two protocols. In dogs, nasal administration resulted in significantly higher plasma concentrations during the first 30 min period compared to oral administration, suggesting the superiority of the nasal route over the oral route in terms of a prompt expression of the pharmacological effect of the drug. The results obtained in this study indicate that procyclidine is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed via the nasal route. In conclusion, nasal administration represents a viable alternative to intravenous administration in the case of procyclidine.

kemadrin medication 2015-01-22

This is a study of 10 men presenting with priapism and a further 25 men with impotence following priapism. Recurrent episodes of prolonged erection were a common finding and the priapism was present in most men on waking. Abnormal nocturnal tumescence was observed in one patient. The role buy kemadrin of medical and surgical treatment was assessed.

kemadrin tablet 2015-03-19

After pretreatment of adult male Wistar rats with phenobarbital, a well-known cytochrome P-450 inductor, the liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content increased significantly compared to that of control rats. At the buy kemadrin same time the amount of procyclidine, metabolized by the 9000 g supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate fortified with a NADPH generating system, increased significantly as well. However when related to the liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, the amount of metabolized procyclidine does not differ anymore between phenobarbital treated and control rats. Therefore phenobarbital induces the in vitro metabolism of procyclidine.

kemadrin storage 2015-01-08

Atropine, pirenzepine, and himbacine prevent form-deprivation myopia (FDM buy kemadrin ) when administered intravitreously. The mechanisms and sites of action of these drugs against myopia are not clear. To shed further light on whether this mechanism is muscarinic, several other muscarinic antagonists were tested.

kemadrin tablet cost 2016-11-04

Neuroleptic medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many acutely psychotic patients being treated with neuroleptic medication also buy kemadrin receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects.

kemadrin 5mg tab 2017-09-12

This study assessed misuse of anticholinergic drugs in a population of 50 patients with serious mental illness who were buy kemadrin assertively managed by a community-based outreach team in Sydney, Australia. One-third of the subjects reported having misused anticholinergics over the previous month. All anticholinergics were misused, and trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol) was misused most frequently. Most subjects misused at least one other drug as well. On direct questioning, the reason given most frequently was "to get high"; on indirect questioning, reasons were related more to peer participation and feelings of futility. Marginalized patients living in the community are vulnerable to the misuse of anticholinergic drugs.

kemadrin 5 mg 2017-09-26

Two cases are described of chronic schizophrenic patients maintained on buy kemadrin depot neuroleptics, who developed severe extrapyramidal symptoms following a period of heavy betel nut consumption. A mechanism for this effect is proposed based on the pharmacological antagonism of the anticholinergic agent, procyclidine, by the active alkaloid ingredient of the betel, arecoline.

kemadrin tablets 2015-10-14

PPI buy kemadrin of the human acoustic startle response is modulated by procyclidine. The use of anticholinergics needs to be considered in PPI studies in schizophrenia.

kemadrin reviews 2016-10-04

The anticholinergic antiparkinsonian drugs biperiden, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, methixene, and procyclidine were compared with atropine and pirenzepine, as well as with orphenadrine, amantadine and some standard antidepressives and neuroleptics in their ability to inhibit the binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to the muscarinic receptors in rat brain cortical tissue. Most of the antiparkinsonian drugs studied were potent inhibitors of (-)3H-QNB binding, when compared to atropine (IC50-value = 0.22 microM), the IC50-values ranging from 0.0084 microM (biperiden) to 0.07 microM (procyclidine). Orphenadrine had a low and amantadine no evident affinity for muscarinic receptors. With the exception of pirenzepine and biperiden the inhibition curves were steep and parallel, giving linear Hill plots with coefficients close to unity. The binding profile of atropine, pirenzepine, and biperiden was further studied in heart and lung tissues, atropine showing only small divergences in its binding to the different tissues, but biperiden and pirenzepine having five to ten times lower affinity in the peripheral tissues than in the brain. The results confirm the high affinity of most of the antiparkinsonian drugs for brain muscarinic receptors. The Requip Brand Name dissociation constants agree with the average clinical doses of the drugs. It must be remembered, however, that the binding data may represent multiple events at receptor sites because most of the drugs used are mixtures of stereoisomers. Thus further studies using individual enantiomers are needed to compare more directly binding data between the compounds.

kemadrin overdose 2016-12-31

A simple, sensitive and precise gas-chromatographic method for simultaneous extraction, derivatization and determination of methsuximide, ethosuximide, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and primidone in the Famvir Pills presence of other drugs has been described. The method is especially useful for drug monitoring in patients on multiple anticonvulsant therapy while also on combination therapy with psychotropic drugs. It overcomes the analytical interferences between mephenytoin and phenobarbital; methsuximide and primidone; kemadrin and primidone; cholesterol and primidone; prolixin, haldol and other drugs; encountered in other methods using underivatized, trimethylsilylated or methylated drugs. As little as 0.5 microgram/ml of a drug can be determined and if needed the method can be scaled down to 0.3 ml plasma. The method yielded recoveries of 97-103% with standard deviations of 0.7-1.8. For a constant check of the precision, an internal quality control using daily analysis of a sample from a frozen plasma pool supplemented with known concentrations of the anticonvulsants was used. The method is suitable for use in routine clinical laboratory.

kemadrin dosage 2015-11-15

In study Elavil Normal Dosage 1, baseline IL-6 (P= 0.003) and IL-8 levels (P= 0.001) were higher in IBS than in controls. Pyridostigmine stimulated the release of IL-6 and GH, but not IL-8 or IL-10; these responses were significantly augmented in IBS patients relative to controls. The IL-6 level following pyridostigmine administration correlated significantly with the symptom score (P < 0.01). In study 2, IL-6 rose following pyridostigmine in IBS but not depression and procyclidine blocked the rise. The GH response was abolished by procyclidine in all three groups.

kemadrin generic 2016-02-19

Analogs of the potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol (P4), based on substitutions in the palmitoyl group were made by means of a stereo-selective synthetic method in order to elucidate the role of the hydrophobic portion in both the inhibitory action toward the enzyme and the biological effects. While P4 strongly inhibited GlcCer synthase with an IC(50) of 0.5 microM in vitro, it also inhibited cell growth by 50% at the concentration of 7 microM. The shorter N-acyl chain analogs including decanoyl, octanoyl, and hexanoyl groups showed similar IC(50) values for GlcCer synthase (around 2 microM) but the hexanoyl analog exhibited only a slight inhibitory effect on cell growth, showing the dissociation between GlcCer depletion and cell growth. Several Tofranil Brand compounds which exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the hexanoyl analog of P4 were subsequently designed. We found that D-threo-1-phenyl-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-pr opanol (PBPP) was a most potent inhibitor, showing an IC50 of 0.3 microM. In cultured cells, PBPP was able to deplete glycosphingolipids without affecting cell growth or the ceramide level.

dose of kemadrin 2016-08-11

1. A variety of atropine-like drugs effective in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes have been investigated with regard to their interaction with Lipitor 200 Mg dopamine-containing neurones in rat brain.2. Under some conditions benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, atropine and ethopropazine significantly antagonized the chlorpromazine-induced increase in subcortical concentrations of homovanillic acid.3. Most of the atropine-like drugs investigated also decreased the turnover of dopamine in the subcortex as measured by following the disappearance of dopamine after administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine.4. These findings are suggestive that an imbalance between a dopaminergic and cholinergic system might be closely linked to the pathogenesis of extra-pyramidal movement disorders.

kemadrin medicine 2017-11-11

All autopsy samples received at the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology during the years 1986-1996 which contained anticholinergic antiparkinsonian drugs were reviewed. Of a total of 69 cases, orphenadrine was present in 57 (83%), biperiden in 8 (12%), procyclidine in 3 (4%), and trihexyphenidyl/benzhexol in 1 (1%) of Tegretol Reviews Seizures the subjects. The measured concentrations were assessed in light of previously published data. Of 21 cases where causality between drug ingestion and death was classified as either highly probable (18/21) or possible (3/21), all subjects tested positive for orphenadrine. In the autopsy samples from these patients, orphenadrine concentrations in the 4.5-600 mumol/l range (mean 62.5 mumol/l, SD 126.5 mumol/l) were determined. Because of a low national autopsy rate, there is reason to believe that the actual numbers of drug-related deaths in this period may have been significantly higher. It is concluded that orphenadrine is responsible for a disproportionally high number of overdose deaths.

kemadrin injection dose 2016-05-18

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living protist pathogen that can cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Given the lack of effective available drugs against B. mandrillaris encephalitis with a mortality rate of more than 90%, here we screened drugs, targeting vital cellular receptors and biochemical pathways, that are already in approved clinical use for their potential clinical usefulness. Amoebicidal assays were performed by incubating B. mandrillaris with drugs (3 × 10(5) cells/0.5 mL/well) in phosphate buffered saline for 24 h and viability was determined using Trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. To determine whether effects are reversible, B. mandrillaris were pre-exposed to drugs for 24 h, washed twice, and incubated with human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood Prograf Tacrolimus Cost -brain barrier as food source, for up to 48 h. Of the ten drugs tested, amlodipine, apomorphine, demethoxycurcumin, haloperidol, loperamide, prochlorperazine, procyclidine, and resveratrol showed potent amoebicidal effects, while amiodarone and digoxin exhibited minimal effectiveness. When pre-treated with these drugs, no viable trophozoites re-emerged, suggesting that drugs destroyed parasite irreversibly. Based on the in vitro assay, amlodipine, apomorphine, demethoxycurcumin, haloperidol, loperamide, prochlorperazine, procyclidine, and resveratrol are potential antimicrobials for further testing against B. mandrillaris encephalitis. These findings may provide novel strategies for therapy but further research is needed to determine clinical usefulness of aforementioned drugs against granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by B. mandrillaris, and other free-living amoebae, such as Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri.

kemadrin maximum dose 2016-12-01

Two case reports and data from literature on the subject Elavil Mg are used by the authors to describe characteristics of pathogenetic importance of neuroleptic induced stupor (NIS). The origin of NIS is outlined briefly and some fundamental clinical and experimental facts are presented, all of which stress the importance of the acute blockade of postsynaptic DA-ergic receptors. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the possible relationship and similarity between NIS and catatonic stupor, and on the theoretical possibilities which this offers.

kemadrin alcohol 2015-09-09

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic known for its efficacy in refractory schizophrenia. However, according to different epidemiological studies clozapine can induce neutropenia in less than 3% of patients and may represent a major problem for the management of treatment-resistant patients not responding to conventional or other atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a few case of neutropenia have been reported following the addition of other medications to clozapine, notably paroxetine, risperidone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In our report we present the case of Mr A., a 40-year-old Caucasian patient with a 20-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. After numerous trials with conventional antipsychotics, partial remission of psychotic symptoms was obtained with clozapine. Over the past eight years during his treatment with clozapine, the patient presented 2 episodes of neutropenia. The first episode came five years after starting clozapine and was attributed to the addition 6 weeks earlier of haloperidol (2 mg/day) to clozapine (250 mg/day) and divalproex (1,500 mg/day). Recently, one week after the addition of risperidone (2 mg/day) to clozapine (550 mg/day), leukocytes count dropped from 12 100/mm(3) to 5 700/mm(3) and neutrophils from 7 400/mm(3) to 900/mm(3). The patient was also taking haloperidol (4 mg/day), methotrimeprazine (35 mg/day), procyclidine (5 mg/day) and valproic acid (1,500 mg/day). Twelve days after discontinuation of risperidone, leukocytes and neutrophils count increased to 11,100/mm(3) and 6,300/mm(3) respectively while the treatment with clozapine was continued. The first eighteen weeks of treatment represent the period where the risk of neutropenia is the highest. In our patient neutropenia occurred 5 and 7 years after starting clozapine. It is proposed that the two neutropenic episode were precipitated by adding respectively haloperidol and risperidone to clozapine. Also, divalproex can potentially cause a decrease in white blood cell count and may have contributed to the two neutropenic episode. It is suggested that drug interactions may be responsible for neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that clozapine should not necessarily be discontinued in the presence of neutropenia. Also we propose that hematological surveillance should be done on a weekly basis for 4 to 6 weeks following the addition of psychotropic drugs known for their potential to cause neutropenia when associated with clozapine. Therefore polypharmacy may contribute to cause neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that discontinuation of an antipsychotic should be done before introducing another one.

kemadrin tablets 5mg 2016-12-07

High dose intravenous therapy with the anticholinergic drug, procyclidine hydrochloride, temporarily diminished the muscle rigidity and reversed most of the autonomic features in a patient with NMS occurring after a single intramuscular dose of the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide. Paradoxically, however, the heart rate decreased and bowel movements increased with this atropine-like drug.

kemadrin tab 5mg 2015-11-16

A systematic review of the treatment options available for stuttering priapism is presented combined with our own experience in managing this condition over a period of 25 years.

kemadrin generic name 2015-12-02

improvement was observed in cases of grand mal as well as temporal lobe seizures in 70% of patients, EEG improvement was found in 50% of patients. Side effects including oral dryness, accomodation disturbances developed in 17 patients but were usually slight and transient, in only 4 cases they were sufficiently severe as to justify reduction of dosage. Improvement of mood and contact with surroundings was noted in 60% of cases.

kemadrin drug 2017-08-02

A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the triple regimen) has previously been shown to work as a universal therapy against soman poisoning in rats, since it has capacities to function as both prophylactic and therapeutic measure. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the triple regimen may have antidotal efficacy against intoxication by other classical nerve agents than soman. The treatment was given 1 and 5 min after exposure to a supralethal dose of nerve agents, and the results showed that the triple regimen successfully prevented or terminated seizures and preserved the lives of rats exposed to 5×LD50 of soman, sarin, cyclosarin, or VX, but solely 3×LD50 of tabun was managed by this regimen. To meet the particular antidotal requirements of tabun, the triple regimen was reinforced with obidoxime and was made to a quadruple regimen that effectively treated rats intoxicated by 5×LD50 of tabun. The rats recovered very well and the majority gained pre-exposure body weight within 7 days. Neuropathology was seen in all groups regardless of whether the rats seized or not. The most extensive damage was produced by sarin and cyclosarin. Differentiation between the nerve agents' potency to cause lesions was probably seen because the efficacious treatments ensured survival of supralethal poisoning. A combination of 2 oximes and 2 anticonvulsants may be a prerequisite to counteract effectively high levels of poisoning by any classical nerve agent.

kemadrin drug classification 2017-01-22

Excitatory amino acid antagonists possess anticonvulsant properties in many experimental models of epilepsy and were shown to potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Combined treatments of valproate with either D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonists), which provided a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, produced no side-effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Valproate alone at its ED50 against maximal electroshock, induced severe adverse effects. The NMDA antagonists, D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, memantine, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl also potentiated the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics but these treatments were associated with considerable side-effects. The non-NMDA receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline and 1-(amino-phenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine, also enhanced the anticonvulsive action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock, and these combinations generally resulted in no adverse effects. The potential clinical importance of some combinations of common antiepileptics with excitatory amino acid antagonists is postulated.

buy kemadrin 2015-08-08

In an attempt to obtain more selective antagonists acting at muscarinic M2-receptors, analogues of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP methobromide) have been synthesized. These were tested, along with silabenzhexol, procyclidine, sila-procyclidine and AFDX-116, in dose-ratio experiments with guinea-pig isolated atria at 30 degrees C and ileum at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The agonist was carbachol and the selectivity was assessed from the difference between log K for receptors in ileum and log K for receptors in atria. The selectivity was not related to the affinity and some weakly active compounds retained appreciable selectivity but no compound had greater selectivity than 4-DAMP methobromide or pentamethylene bis-(4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidinium) bromide. Structure-activity relations are discussed. There seem to be steric limits to affinity but there are no obvious indications of the structural features associated with selectivity. It is suggested that more selective drugs may be obtained by introducing groups which may reduce affinity.

kemadrin dose 2016-05-27

A preliminary evaluation of pipothiazine palmitate by injection was carried out in 25 schizophrenic patients to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug, probable dosage schedules and intervals between doses, and to observ any undesirable side-effects. A good overall response was obtained in 64% of the patients. The authors suggest that the optimum maintenance dosage is between 50 and 100 mg. given at 4-weekly intervals. Although extra-pyramidal side-effects were high, only 1 patient had to be withdrawn on this account; the symptoms being well-controlled in mostly by procyclidine. Other adverse side-effects were negligible and there was no evidence of adverse biological effects. It is concluded that pipthiazine palmitate has considerable potential in the treatment of schizophrenia and a longer-term study is being conducted.

kemadrin medication 2016-06-28

A transdermal patch system containing procyclidine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist possessing anticholinergic action, and physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, was developed, and its prophylactic efficacy against soman intoxication was investigated. Male rhesus monkeys were shaved on the dorsal area, attached with a matrix-type patch with various sizes (2×2 to 7×7 cm) for 24 or 72 h, and challenged with 2×LD₅₀ doses (13μg/kg) of soman. The smallest patch size for the protection against lethality induced by soman intoxication was 3×3cm, resulting in blood procyclidine concentration of 10.8 ng/ml, blood physostigmine concentration of 0.54 ng/ml, which are much lower concentrations than maximum sign-free doses, and blood cholinesterase inhibition of 42%. The drug concentrations and enzyme inhibition rate corresponding to a diverging point of survivability were presumably estimated to be around 7 ng/ml for procyclidine, 0.35 ng/ml for physostigmine, and 37% of enzyme inhibition. Separately, in combination with the patch treatment, the post treatment consisting of atropine (0.5 mg/kg) plus 1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium (HI-6, 50 mg/kg) exerted protection against 5×LD₅₀ challenge of soman, which means the posttreatment remarkably augmented the efficacy of the patch. Additionally, it was found that brain injuries induced by soman toxicity were effectively prevented by the patch treatment according to histopathological examinations. These results suggest that the patch system could be an effective alternative for diazepam, an anticonvulsant, and the current pyridostigmine pretreatment, and especially in combination with atropine plus HI-6, could be a choice for quality survival from nerve-agent poisoning.

kemadrin tablet 2015-11-07

The hypothesis has recently been advanced that increased activity of central dopaminergic mechanisms underlies the symptomatology of the schizophrenias. The evidence that dopaminergic transmission in the corpus striatum is impaired in Parkinson's disease suggests that observations on the relationship between Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia may illuminate the patholophysiology of the latter disease. Four cases are reported in which an illness with schizophrenic features developed in the setting of longstanding Parkinson's disease; attention is drawn to earlier reports of schizophrenic illnesses occurring as postencephalitic sequelae in the presence of a parkinsonian syndrome. These observations appear to conflict with the view that increased dopamine release in the striatum is necessary for the expression of schizophrenic psychopathology, but do not exclude the possibility that increased transmission may occur at other dopaminergic sites in the brain, for example the nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium or cerebral cortex. Similarly the dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of the therapeutic effects of neuroleptic drugs cannot be maintained with respect to an action in the striatum in view of the differences between the actions of thioridazine and chlorpromazine in this structure, but may be tenable for actions at extra-straital sites.