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High dose intravenous therapy with the anticholinergic drug, procyclidine hydrochloride, temporarily diminished the muscle rigidity and reversed most of the autonomic features in a patient with NMS occurring after a single intramuscular dose of the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide. Paradoxically, however, the heart rate decreased and bowel movements increased with this atropine-like drug.
We report a case of abdominal pain with rigidity, mimicking an acute abdomen, caused by metoclopramide, a common anti-emetic drug. Extrapyramidal symptoms are commonly reported side-effects of this medication. They generally include involuntary movements of limbs, torticollis, oculogyric crisis, rhythmic protrusion of tongue, trismus, or dystonic reactions resembling tetanus, etc. Abdominal rigidity due to this medication, resembling an acute abdomen, has not been reported previously. This case report illustrates the importance of considering medication side-effects when evaluating a patient with abdominal pain and rigidity.
A double-blind, cross-over trial of the effectiveness of piribedil, procyclidine and placebo in the control of parkinsonism induced by fluphenazine decanoate was conducted in sixteen cases of chronic schizophrenia. Procyclidine was shown to be more effective and piribedil less effective than the placebo. Piribedil produced a number of unpleasant effects, including headache, vomiting and malaise.
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The rapid onset of toxic signs following nerve agent intoxication and the apprehension that current therapy (atropine, oxime, diazepam) may not prevent brain damage, requires supportive pretreatment. Since the current pretreatment drug pyridostigmine fails in protecting brain-AChE, more effective pretreatment is necessary. A main focus of present-day pretreatment research is on bioscavengers, another is on centrally active reversible AChE-inhibitors combined with drugs showing anti-cholinergic, anti-glutamatergic, neuroprotective and non-sedating GABA-ergic activity. Strategies aimed at improving efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment will briefly be discussed. Galantamine, given as a pretreatment or stand-alone therapy, emerged as one of the best medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. Other preclinical studies demonstrated effective pretreatment consisting of physostigmine combined with procyclidine, scopolamine or bupropion (all single injections), against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. A long sign-free pretreatment with physostigmine (Alzet pump), combined with single injection of procyclidine just before soman poisoning, enhanced the efficacy of a post-poisoning therapy consisting of 3 autoinjector equivalents of HI-6, atropine and diazepam, considerably.
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To determine whether the use or the withdrawal of anticholinergic drugs (benzhexol or benztropine or biperiden or orphenadrine or procyclidine or scopolamine or trihexylphenidyl) were clinically effective for the treatment of people with both neuroleptic-induced TD and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses.
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Didepil seems to be an effective antiepileptic agent in maximal generalized seizures as well as in temporal lobe seizures.
A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the triple regimen) has previously been shown to work as a universal therapy against soman poisoning in rats, since it has capacities to function as both prophylactic and therapeutic measure. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the triple regimen may have antidotal efficacy against intoxication by other classical nerve agents than soman. The treatment was given 1 and 5 min after exposure to a supralethal dose of nerve agents, and the results showed that the triple regimen successfully prevented or terminated seizures and preserved the lives of rats exposed to 5×LD50 of soman, sarin, cyclosarin, or VX, but solely 3×LD50 of tabun was managed by this regimen. To meet the particular antidotal requirements of tabun, the triple regimen was reinforced with obidoxime and was made to a quadruple regimen that effectively treated rats intoxicated by 5×LD50 of tabun. The rats recovered very well and the majority gained pre-exposure body weight within 7 days. Neuropathology was seen in all groups regardless of whether the rats seized or not. The most extensive damage was produced by sarin and cyclosarin. Differentiation between the nerve agents' potency to cause lesions was probably seen because the efficacious treatments ensured survival of supralethal poisoning. A combination of 2 oximes and 2 anticonvulsants may be a prerequisite to counteract effectively high levels of poisoning by any classical nerve agent.
Atropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had no significant effect on 24-h water consumption on day 1 of treatment; on subsequent days the rats showed a significant increase. Procyclidine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) had a similar effect, except that the increase in daily water consumption began on the third day of treatment. Methylatropine (5 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily) markedly depressed water consumption on day 1; from the second day on no significant effects on 24-h water consumption were seen. The results suggest that the dipsogenic actions of cholinergic blocking agents on 24-h water consumption involve central rather than purely peripheral actions.
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Excitatory amino acid antagonists possess anticonvulsant properties in many experimental models of epilepsy and were shown to potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Combined treatments of valproate with either D,L-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonists), which provided a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, produced no side-effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Valproate alone at its ED50 against maximal electroshock, induced severe adverse effects. The NMDA antagonists, D-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid, memantine, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl also potentiated the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics but these treatments were associated with considerable side-effects. The non-NMDA receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline and 1-(amino-phenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine, also enhanced the anticonvulsive action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock, and these combinations generally resulted in no adverse effects. The potential clinical importance of some combinations of common antiepileptics with excitatory amino acid antagonists is postulated.
In a series of 36 patients with acute schizophrenia flupenthixol dosage was blindly adjusted to give a fixed level of sedation. Patients were than randomly allocated to procyclidine or placebo. The patients receiving procyclidine experienced more positive schizophrenic symptoms and less severe extrapyramidal features by comparison with placebo patients. Blood levels of prolactin and flupenthixol estimated by radioimmunoassay were not significantly changed by the addition of procyclidine. Flupenthixol dosage and levels and prolactin levels were significantly related. There was no significant association between clinical and laboratory measures, with the exception that a curvilinear (inverted U) relationship was demonstrated between flupenthixol levels and antipsychotic and extrapyramidal effects. This relationship may be due to the fact that, in a study of this design, patients resistant to the effects of neuroleptic medication are likely to be given the highest doses. The findings support earlier claims that anticholinergic medication has adverse effects on schizophrenic symptoms.
Microinfusion of anticonvulsants into the perirhinal cortex through 1 guide cannula in each hemisphere only invades a small area of this seizure controlling site in rats exposed to soman. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether infusions made through 2 cannulas in each perirhinal cortex may produce more efficacious anticonvulsant action against soman intoxication than the use of 1 cannula only in rats infused with the ionotropic antagonists procyclidine and caramiphen or the metabotropic glutamate modulators DCG-IV and MPEP. The results showed that the mere presence of indwelling double cannulas caused proconvulsant effect in response to subsequent systemic administration of soman. Both the control and caramiphen groups with double cannulas had significantly shorter latencies to seizure onset than the corresponding groups with single cannula. Procyclidine resulted in anticonvulsant efficacy, even in rats with double cannulas. In rats that received twin infusions of DCG-IV or MPEP, the anticonvulsant impact was very high, inasmuch as a majority of the rats in each group was protected against seizure activity. Drugs possessing powerful anticonvulsant potency can apparently counteract the proconvulsant effect of double cannulas, and some can even gain enhanced anticonvulsant capacity when invading a larger area of the perirhinal cortex. Perirhinal EEG recordings (electrodes in indwelling cannulas) in a separate set of rats not exposed to soman or drugs showed no differences in basal electrical activity (total power 0.5-25Hz or the theta band 4-12Hz) between groups with single or double cannulas. The intrinsic excitability and synaptic connectivity of the perirhinal cortex may be associated with the proconvulsant impact observed in rats with double cannulas when exposed to soman.
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The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating A. castellanii with various concentrations of drugs in the growth medium for 48 h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal effects, amoebae were incubated with drugs in phosphate-buffered saline for 24 h, and viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the eight drugs tested, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed potent amoebicidal effects, as no viable trophozoites were observed (>95% kill rate), while amiodarone, procyclidine, digoxin, and apomorphine exhibited up to 50% amoebicidal effects. In contrast, haloperidol did not affect viability, but all the drugs tested inhibited A. castellanii growth. Importantly, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed compelling cysticidal effects. The cysticidal effects were irreversible, as cysts treated with the aforementioned drugs did not reemerge as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. Except for apomorphine and haloperidol, all the tested drugs blocked trophozoite differentiation into cysts in encystation assays. Given the limited availability of effective drugs to treat amoebal infections, the clinically available drugs tested in this study represent potential agents for managing keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. and possibly against other meningoencephalitis-causing amoebae, such as Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri.
A treatment regimen consisting of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the physostigmine regimen) has been based on the serendipitous discovery that it exerts powerful antidotal effects against high levels of soman poisoning if it is administered 1 min after exposure. A medical therapy with corresponding efficacy, but without the time limitation of the latter regimen, has been developed through studies of microinfusions of anticonvulsants into seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats. From these studies procyclidine emerged as the most potent anticonvulsant, and its potency was further enhanced when being combined with the antiepileptic levetiracetam during systemic administration. In the present study, the capacity of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the procyclidine regimen) was tested against that of the physostigmine regimen. The results showed that both regimens were very effective against supralethal doses of soman (3, 4, 5 × LD₅₀) when given 1 and 5 min after intoxication. When the treatments were administered 10 and 14 or 20 and 24 min after soman exposure, only the procyclidine regimen was able to terminate seizures and preserve lives. When used as prophylactic therapies, both regimens protected equally well against seizures, but only the procyclidine regimen provided neuroprotection. The procyclidine regimen has apparently capacities to serve as a universal therapy against soman intoxication in rats.
A systematic review of the treatment options available for stuttering priapism is presented combined with our own experience in managing this condition over a period of 25 years.
Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies.
Fifty-one healthy volunteers were given haloperidol 5 mg in two consecutive pharmacokinetic studies.
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A patient underwent an emergency Caesarean section under general anaesthesia for an antepartum haemorrhage. Following delivery of a live infant, cyclizine was administered in accordance with departmental anti-emetic protocol. On awakening she was confused, slow to articulate and had slurred speech. A computed tomography (CT) scan, which was performed to exclude an intracranial event, was normal. Her symptoms were suggestive of a lingual-facial-buccal dyskinesia as seen with dopamine antagonists. A presumptive diagnosis of a dystonic reaction to cyclizine was made. She received two doses of procyclidine before her symptoms completely resolved. Cyclizine has had a resurgence in popularity owing to the recent withdrawal of droperidol and anaesthetists should be aware that, although extremely rare, dystonic reactions may occur with this agent.
The study presented here shows that GC-MS with ion trap detection can be used for screening post mortem blood. The method described was used to simultaneously screen for unknowns, identify basic drugs present and semi-quantitate 14 drugs commonly encountered in coroner's toxicology (i.e. was used to determine whether the drugs were present in sub-therapeutic, therapeutic or greater than therapeutic amounts). The equipment used included a Varian Saturn 2000 GC-MS operating in full scan mode, a CP-3800 GC, a CP-8400 autosampler and Saturn GC-MS workstation Version 5.5 software. Post mortem blood samples were extracted using a standard liquid-liquid procedure; diethylether followed by back extraction into 0.1 M HCl. Standard curves for the 14 drugs which were semi-quantitated (amitriptyline, citalopram, clozapine, cocaine, cyclizine, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dothiepin, methadone, mirtazapine, procyclidine, sertraline, tramadol, venlafaxine) were prepared covering the concentration range 0-1.0 ug/mL. The procedure is in routine use for coroners toxicology; semi-quantitation has been used (i) to speed-up the through put of cases where drugs are an incidental finding and (ii) for cases where the amount of sample submitted for analysis was too small to allow for screening, identification and quantitation on separate sample volumes.
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A pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase (e.g., soman) intoxication should prevent lethality and convulsions (CNV) at 2 LD50s and be behavioral-decrement-free when given alone. Behavioral-deficit-free pretreatment regimens (PRGs) for guinea pigs consisted of Physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and adjunct. Adjuncts [mg/kg, im] tested were akineton [0.25], aprophen , trihexyphenidyl , atropine , azaprophen , benactyzine [1.25], cogentin , dextromethorphan [7.5], ethopropazine , kemadrin , memantine , promethazine , scopolamine [0.08] and vontrol . PRGs were given 30 min before soman (60 micrograms/kg, sc; 2 LD50s) or other OP agents. Animals were then observed and graded for signs of intoxication, including CNV at 7 time points and at 24 hr. Physostigmine alone reduced the incidence of CNV and lethality induced by 2 LD50s of soman by 42 and 60%, respectively. All of the PRGs tested abolished lethality and 12 shortened recovery time to 2 hr or less. Also, PRGs including azaprophen or atropine prevented CNV. When selected PRGs were tested against intoxication by sarin, tabun or VX, the efficacy was generally superior to that for soman. The data show that several PRGs are effective against soman intoxication in guinea pigs.
A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way. Other animal studies have examined the potential of drugs like physostigmine, galantamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl, and procyclidine, but they all produce marked behavioral impairment at doses sufficient to contribute to protection against a convulsant dose of soman. Attempts have also been made to develop a combination of drugs capable of assuring full protection (prophylaxis) against nerve agents. However, common to all combinations is that they at anticonvulsant doses cause behavioral deficits. Therefore, the use of limited pretreatment doses may be performed without marked side effects followed by post-exposure therapy with a combination of drugs.
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The antidotal, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of physostigmine (PhS) and procyclidine (PC), the combinational prophylactics for organophosphate poisoning, were evaluated. For the investigation of dose-response relationship in rats and guinea pigs, various doses (0-6 mg/kg) of PC in combination with a fixed dose (0.1 mg/kg) of PhS were pretreated subcutaneously 30 min prior to subcutaneous poisoning with soman. Procyclidine in combination with PhS exhibited remarkable synergistic effects in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 1.92-5.07 folds of protection ratio in rats and 3.00-4.70 folds in guinea pigs. On the other hand, a low effect (1.65 fold) was achieved with the traditional antidotes atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus 2-pralidoxime (30 mg/kg) treated immediately after soman poisoning, compared with a marked protection (5.50 fold) with atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus HI-6 (125 mg/kg) in unpretreated rats. Noteworthy, the combinational prophylactics greatly potentiated the effect of atropine plus 2-pralidoxime to 6.13 or 12.27 folds and that of atropine plus HI-6 to 12.00 or 21.50 folds with 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of PC, respectively. A high dose (100 μg/kg, 1.3×LD(50)) of soman induced severe epileptiform seizures in rats pretreated with HI-6 (125 mg/kg), resulting in brain injuries in discrete brain regions under histopathological examination in 24 h. Interestingly, such seizures and excitotoxic brain injuries were fully prevented by pretreatment with PhS (0.1 mg/kg) and PC (1 mg/kg). Taken together, it is proposed that the prophylactics composed of PhS and PC could be a promising regimen for the prevention of lethality, seizures and brain injuries induced by soman poisoning.
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Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic known for its efficacy in refractory schizophrenia. However, according to different epidemiological studies clozapine can induce neutropenia in less than 3% of patients and may represent a major problem for the management of treatment-resistant patients not responding to conventional or other atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a few case of neutropenia have been reported following the addition of other medications to clozapine, notably paroxetine, risperidone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In our report we present the case of Mr A., a 40-year-old Caucasian patient with a 20-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. After numerous trials with conventional antipsychotics, partial remission of psychotic symptoms was obtained with clozapine. Over the past eight years during his treatment with clozapine, the patient presented 2 episodes of neutropenia. The first episode came five years after starting clozapine and was attributed to the addition 6 weeks earlier of haloperidol (2 mg/day) to clozapine (250 mg/day) and divalproex (1,500 mg/day). Recently, one week after the addition of risperidone (2 mg/day) to clozapine (550 mg/day), leukocytes count dropped from 12 100/mm(3) to 5 700/mm(3) and neutrophils from 7 400/mm(3) to 900/mm(3). The patient was also taking haloperidol (4 mg/day), methotrimeprazine (35 mg/day), procyclidine (5 mg/day) and valproic acid (1,500 mg/day). Twelve days after discontinuation of risperidone, leukocytes and neutrophils count increased to 11,100/mm(3) and 6,300/mm(3) respectively while the treatment with clozapine was continued. The first eighteen weeks of treatment represent the period where the risk of neutropenia is the highest. In our patient neutropenia occurred 5 and 7 years after starting clozapine. It is proposed that the two neutropenic episode were precipitated by adding respectively haloperidol and risperidone to clozapine. Also, divalproex can potentially cause a decrease in white blood cell count and may have contributed to the two neutropenic episode. It is suggested that drug interactions may be responsible for neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that clozapine should not necessarily be discontinued in the presence of neutropenia. Also we propose that hematological surveillance should be done on a weekly basis for 4 to 6 weeks following the addition of psychotropic drugs known for their potential to cause neutropenia when associated with clozapine. Therefore polypharmacy may contribute to cause neutropenia in clozapine treated patients and that discontinuation of an antipsychotic should be done before introducing another one.
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Since the degree of tachypnoea, tachycardia, and bowel hypotonia closely paralleled the severity of the muscle rigidity, it is suggested that these autonomic features of NMS result from sustained muscle contraction rather than a direct effect of neuroleptic drugs on the central nervous system.
Vomiting is one of the most distressing adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. Metoclopramide by continuous infusion (400 micrograms/kg/h after a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg) is a novel administration method for optimizing efficacy. A two-year-old boy developed urinary retention on three occasions, once accompanied by priapism and slurred speech, while receiving a continuous infusion. This was reversed by procyclidine, suggesting that it may have been a dystonic reaction.
These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical screw electrodes. Electrocorticograms were displayed continually and recorded on a computerized electroencephalographic system. Pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1), i.m.) was injected as a pretreatment to inhibit red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by 30-40%. Thirty minutes after pyridostigmine, 2 x LD50 (56 microg x kg(-1)) of soman was injected s.c., followed 1 min later by i.m. treatment with atropine (2 mg x kg(-1)) + 2-PAM (25 mg x kg(-1)). Electrographic seizures occurred in all animals. Anticonvulsant treatment combinations were administered i.m. at 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Treatment consisted of diazepam or midazolam plus one of the above-mentioned anticholinergic drugs. All doses of the treatment compounds exhibited little or no antiseizure efficacy when given individually. The combination of a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug was effective in terminating soman-induced seizure, whether given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. The results suggest a strong synergistic effect of combining benzodiazepines with centrally active anticholinergic drugs and support the concept of using an adjunct to supplement diazepam for the treatment of nerve-agent-induced seizures.
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Platelet-rich plasma from healthy controls was pre-treated with neuroleptics of the phenothiazine, butyrophenone or benzamide variety before aggregation with one of the following agonist agents: ADP, adrenaline, 5-HT, collagen, platelet activating factor or ristocetin. All compounds effective as antipsychotics, except sulpiride, depressed aggregation. Unmedicated schizophrenics showed aggregation responses indistinguishable from healthy controls. However, within days of treatment with either trifluoroperazine or haloperidol responses became abnormal in acutely psychotic patients. Increased responses to 5-HT and depressed responses to platelet activating factor were detected. After 4 weeks of treatment responses tended to return to normal. Aggregation responses were normal in those patients on long-term depot neuroleptics.
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Although numerous medical treatment options have been reported, the majority are through small trials or anecdotal reports.
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Priapism is a urological emergency which is commonly classified into low-flow and high-flow priapism. Immediate intervention is required for low-flow cases as the development of ischaemia ultimately leads to long-term erectile dysfunction. Stuttering or recurrent priapism is less well understood. This subtype is characterised by short-lived painful erections and is commonly encountered in patients with sickle cell disease.
In a fatal case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a muscle sample taken within 1 h of death showed acute myopathic features with absence of muscle glycogen and neutral lipid. These features suggest that hyperpyrexia in this syndrome may be caused by heat production from uncoupled phosphorylation in muscle and imply that the primary biochemical abnormality responsible for this uncontrolled heat production might be muscular rather than hypothalamic.