Crystals of alpha-momorcharin (MMC) were cross-linked and soaked in an 80% acetonitrile--water mixture and X-ray data were collected to 2.2 A resolution. MMC is a ribosome-inactivating protein with a sugar chain on Asn-227. In previous studies, the whole conformation of the sugar chain could not be obtained in the aqueous system. Here the structure of MMC in a low water system is shown to be similar to the native one, but the sugar chain on Asn-227 is defined by the electron density map. Several oxygen atoms of the oligosaccharide formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds to the protein moiety. The conformation of the residues in the active center is similar to that in the aqueous system. Our results show conformational alteration of the tetrasaccharide of MMC in organic media. They indicate that the oligosaccharides are more rigid in organic solvents. X-ray determination in organic media may be used to solve some structures of oligosaccharides linked to glycoproteins.
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Twenty-five microsatellite loci were isolated from the genome of bitter melon using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) method. Ten loci were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.46 to 0.65. The markers also amplified successfully in the related species M. cochinchinensis and Cucurbita pepo.
Momordica charantia or bitter melon is traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent in Asia, Africa, and South America. Recent studies indicate that bitter melon can also lower plasma lipids and VLDL in diabetic animal models as well as animals fed a high-fat diet, suggesting an effect on lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon and regulation of apolipoprotein B (apoB). Human hepatoma cells, HepG2, treated with bitter melon juice (BMJ) for 24 h reduced apoB secretion with and without the addition of lipids (P < 0.05). However, BMJ did not increase apoB secretion in cells treated with N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal, indicating a lack of effect on the proteasomal degradation pathway. BMJ reduced the secretion of new triglycerides (P < 0.05) and decreased microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression, suggesting that lipid bioavailability and lipidation of lipoprotein assembly are likely involved in decreased apoB secretion. Interestingly, BMJ increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, P < 0.05), involved in MTP secretion. Our data suggest that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of apoB secretion and TG synthesis and secretion that may be involved in the plasma lipid- and VLDL-lowering effects observed in animal studies.
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Present study demonstrated that MC caused dose-dependent reductions in body weight and serum cholesterol concentration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. MC may, therefore, be useful in controlling body weight increase in individuals of growing age as well as be a potential agent in the management of overweight and obesity.
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During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD.
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Chlorogenic acids (CGA) have been profiled in the leaves of Momordica balsamina, Momordica charantia, and Momordica foetida. All three species were found to contain the trans and cis isomers of 4-acyl para-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and feruloylquinic acid (FQA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pCoQA and FQA and their cis isomers in these Momordica species. These profiles were obtained by a newly developed UPLC-qTOF-MS method based on the in-source collision induced dissociation (ISCID) method optimized to mimic the MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of an ion trap-based MS. The presence of the cis isomers is believed to be due to high UV exposure of these plants. Furthermore, the absence of the 3-acyl and 5-acyl CGA molecules points to a metabolic mark that is unusual and represents a very interesting biochemical phenotype of these species. Our optimized ISCID method was also shown to be able to distinguish between the geometrical isomers of all three forms of CGA, a phenomenon previously deemed impossible with other common mass spectrometry systems used for CGA analyses.
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Effect of graded doses (100-400 mg/kg) of M. charantia on intestinal alkaline phosphatase showed decrease in activity at 48 hours, while the reductive effect was significantly expressed in the castor oil than in the control and extract treated groups. Disaccharidases (lactase, maltase and sucrase) activities were significantly reduced in the castor oil group when compared with the extract treated groups and the control. The reduction in protein concentration was also observed in the castor oil group compared to the control and extract treated groups.
Eight glycosidic compounds, 1-8, including two new compounds, (4ξ)-α-terpineol 8-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (5) and myrtenol 10-O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (7), were isolated from the BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of Momordica charantia leaves. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-8 on the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), these compounds were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with 7.1-27.0% and 23.6-46.4% reduction of melanin content at 30 μM and 100 μM, respectively, with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (80.0-103.5% of cell viability at 100 μM). Western blot analysis showed that compound 7 reduced the protein levels of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2.
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Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.
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Alpha- and beta-momorcharins are ribosome-inactivating proteins present in the seeds of the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Both of them possess ribonuclease activity which may account for some of their biological properties. However, the activity is weak and hence it is important to confirm that the ribonuclease activity observed is not due to any contamination. To this end, the ribonuclease from the seeds of M. charantia (RNase-MC) was purified and compared with the ribonuclease activity of the momorcharins. Purification was achieved by ion-exchange chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose and Mono-S. RNase-MC had a molecular mass of 22 kDa. It acted on tRNA to release acid-soluble UV-absorbing species with a pH optimum around 6.0-6.5. When polyhomoribonucleotides were used as substrates, it was found that RNase-MC acted preferentially on polyU but exerted much weaker activity on polyC, polyG and polyA. Chromatographic analysis of the reaction product indicated that mono- and oligo-ribonucleotides, but not free base, were generated from polyU, suggesting that the enzymatic action involved ribonucleolytic cleavage. RNase-MC exhibited a much more potent (at least 1000-fold higher) ribonuclease activity than alpha- and beta-momorcharins. RNase-MC, alpha-momorcharin and beta-momorcharin were separable on Mono-S, indicating that the ribonuclease activities present in the three proteins were distinct entities.
The ethanolic and water extracts of those herbs were tested. For antioxidant method was measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay, anti-microbial activity using disc diffusion assay and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using the modified resazurin assay against four species of micro-organisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method.
The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.
The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which bitter melon seed (BMS) alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and elucidate the mechanism by which BMS exerts beneficial effects. Three-month-old female Zucker rats were assigned to following groups: lean control (L-Ctrl), obese control (O-Ctrl), and obese + BMS (O-BMS). The control groups were fed AIN-93M purified rodent diet, and the O-BMS group was fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 3.0% (wt/wt) ground BMS for 100 days. After 100 days of treatment, BMS supplementation in the obese rats lowered the total serum cholesterol by 38% and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by about 52% and increased the ratio of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol compared to the O-Ctrl group. The percentage of total liver lipids was about 32% lower and serum triglyceride levels were 71% higher in the O-BMS group compared to the O-Ctrl group. Serum glucose levels were significantly lowered partly because of the increase in the serum insulin levels in the BMS-based diet groups. BMS supplementation increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the white adipose tissue of the obese rats significantly (P < .05) and down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue of the obese rats. The findings of this study suggest that BMS improves the serum and liver lipid profiles and serum glucose levels by modulating PPAR-γ gene expression. To our knowledge, this study for the first time shows that BMS exerts cardioprotective effects by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. Several complex dynamics converge together to accelerate the advancement of DN. The present investigation was postulated to explore the mechanism of reno-protective nature of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides (MCP) by evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic as well as markers for oxidative stress and antioxidant proficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of MCP showed a significant normalization in the levels of kidney function test in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea protein and creatinine increased by 316.58%, 195.14% and 800.97% respectively, in STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with normal rats. MCP treatment also illustrated a significant improvement in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels, with a significant decline in MDA in diabetic kidneys. Immunoblots of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 of MCP treated diabetic rats showed a significant up-regulation of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein. Histological and ultra-structural observations also reveal that MCP efficiently protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage. These findings illustrate that the reno-protective nature of MCP mitigates the progression of STZ induced DN in rats by suppression of oxidative stress and amelioration of the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway.
Chromium, and possibly gymnema, appears to improve glycemic control. Fibre, green tea, and fenugreek have other benefits but there is little evidence that they substantially improve glycemic control. Further research on bitter melon and cinnamon is warranted. There is no complementary and alternative medicine research addressing microvascular or macrovascular clinical outcomes.
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Fruits of Momordica charantia L.-cucurbitaceae have been frequently used in folk medicine for rapid healing of cutaneous lesions and peptic ulcer, especially in Western Anatolia in Turkey.
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Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease.
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In 2004, the Department of Health published 10 High Impact Changes across the NHS. Of these, the first was treating day surgery as the norm for elective operations, releasing up to half a million in-patient beds each year. Adenoidectomy is an operation commonly performed in children for upper respiratory tract obstruction and as part of the surgical management of otitis media with effusion. Many surgeons consider the traditional curettage adenoidectomy as an unsatisfactory operation because it is performed blind, and is associated with varying reported levels of post-operative bleeding. Concern about the risk of bleeding and the frequent occurrence of post-operative nausea and vomiting have discouraged many surgeons from adopting adenoidectomy as a day-case procedure. We have audited the management and discharge of a cohort of 72 children undergoing traditional curettage adenoidectomy. Based on the results, we have completed the audit loop, by managing a second cohort of 77 children by suction coagulation adenoidectomy. An anaesthetic protocol has been designed to reduce post-operative nausea and vomiting, and facilitate same day discharge from hospital. The rate of post-operative nausea and vomiting fell from 21 to 1.3%, and the post-operative bleeding from 9.7% to nil. Discharge on the day of operation rose from 40.3 to 100%. Our audit confirms that these measures permit safe, day-case adenoidectomy.
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Previous studies showed that the two forms of momorcharins which are isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia L. are effective in inducing early and midterm abortions in the mouse. Momorcharins were found to be teratogenic to the cultured mouse embryos at the early organogenesis stage. Morphological abnormalities were seen in the head, trunk and limbs. Ultrastructural studies on the visceral yolk sac of the momorcharin-treated embryos showed that the endodermal layer was deranged, membrane invaginations at the apical surface were decreased and intercellular space became distended. It is likely that the teratogenic action of momorcharins on mouse embryos in vitro is mediated through the deleterious effects on the visceral yolk sac, which functions as a vital transport organ for the conceptus at the immediate post-implantation period.
Coccinia indica leaves were extracted with 60% ethanol, solvents were evaporated and the residue was suspended in water. This suspension was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt. after 18 h of fasting to normal fed and streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats (180-250 g). After 90 min the rats were killed, and blood-glucose, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and red-cell G6PDH were assayed. Blood sugar was depressed by 23% (P < 0.01) and 27% (P < 0.001) in the normal fed and streptozotocin-diabetic rats respectively compared with controls which were given distilled water. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities were depressed by 32% (P < 0.001) 30% (P < 0.05) respectively in the streptozotocin-diabetic rats, compared with 19% (P < 0.02) and 20% (P < 0.01) depression in the normal fed controls, whereas both the red-cell and hepatic G6PDH activities were found to be elevated by feeding the extract in the streptozotocin-diabetic and in the normal fed controls. Similar results were obtained with the 95%-ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia. Taken together, these results indicate that Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia extracts lowered blood glucose by depressing its synthesis, on the one hand through depression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and on the other by enhancing glucose oxidation by the shunt pathway through activation of its principal enzyme G6PDH.
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Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common vegetable grown widely in Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether wild bitter gourd possessed protective effects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Meanwhile, mice were treated with ethanol extracts from four different wild bitter gourd cultivars: Hualien No. 1', Hualien No. 2', Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4'. The results indicated that the daily administration of 500 mg kg body weight(-1) of a Hualien No. 3' extract (H3E) or a Hualien No. 4' extract (H4E) markedly reduced the steatotic alternation of liver histopathology. In addition, the activation of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and the accumulation of hepatic TG content caused by alcohol were ameliorated. The hepatoprotective effects of H3E and H4E involved the enhancement of the antioxidant defence system (GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT and SOD), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the liver. Moreover, H3E and H4E supplementation suppressed the alcohol-induced elevation of CYP2E1, SREBP-1, FAS and ACC protein expression. These results demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4' have beneficial effects against alcoholic fatty liver, in which they attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
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α-Momorcharin (α-MMC), a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), has shown therapeutic potential such as anti-tumor and anti-viral agent. Traditional process of α-MMC purification from bitter melon seeds was time consuming and low efficient. To take this challenge, we made an affinity matrix by coupling the monoclonal antibody (McAb) with Sepharose 4B. Using this attractive strategy, 196 mg of α-MMC was obtained from 100 g of bitter melon seeds as the starting material. The yield of the protein was 2.7%. The homogeneity and properties of the protein were assessed by SDS-PAGE, acidic PAGE, RP-HPLC and N-terminal sequence as well as Western blot. Purified α-MMC showed remarkable inhibition to the melanoma cell line JAR and EMT-62058. In addition, it also displayed obvious inhibition on hepatitis B virus (HBV). This work provided a simple, rapid and efficient approach for α-MMC purification from Momordica charantia.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450), aniline hydroxylase (ANH) and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AMD) as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicities of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and to induce the phase II enzymes [i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST)] in rat liver. It was found that feeding of the diets containing 12.5% neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits for 2 weeks strongly enhanced GST activity, 2.7- and 1.6- fold of the pair-fed control values, respectively, while resulting in a marked reduction of the levels of most phase I reactions. Fruits of the Chinese bitter gourd, which is in the same species as Thai bitter gourd, had no effect on GST activity but decreased AMD activity and the in vitro metabolic activation of AFB1 and BaP. On the other hand, however, dietary sweet basil leaves caused a significant increase in the levels of both GST and all phase I enzymes. Results in the present study clearly demonstrate that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits contain monofunctional phase II enzyme inducers and compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases, especially those involved in the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, while sweet basil leaves contain compounds, probably bifunctional inducers, capable of inducing both phase I and phase II enzymes and Chinese bitter gourd fruits contain only compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases. These results therefore suggest that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits may possess chemopreventive potential, while those of Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves are uncertain.
An aqueous extract from the unripe fruits of the tropical plant Momordica charantia was found to be a potent stimulator of insulin release from beta-cell-rich pancreatic islets isolated from obese-hyperglycemic mice. The stimulation of insulin release was partially reversible. It differed from that of D-glucose and other commonly employed insulin secretagogues in not being suppressed by L-epinephrine and in even being potentiated by the removal of Ca2+. This anomalous behaviour was not associated with general effects on the metabolism of the beta-cells as indicated by an unaltered oxidation of D-glucose. Studies of 45Ca fluxes suggest that the insulin-releasing action is the result of perturbations of membrane functions. In support for the idea of direct effects on membrane lipids, the action of the extract was found to mimic that of saponin in inhibiting the Ca2+/H+ exchange mediated by the ionophore A23187 in isolated chromaffin granules and release Ca2+ from preloaded liposomes.
Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) method, 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified in 36 individuals of M. charantia. Across all the M. charantia samples, the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to eight. Seven primers successfully amplified in the four related species. •
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500g of M. charantia powder were macerated in methanol and the extract administered to two groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The first group received 125mg/kg, the second 375mg/kg and a third group 7mg/kg of metformin. A fourth group received 1ml normal saline. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured at 0.5,1,2,3,5,8 and 12 hours and compared using one-way ANOVA.