NO targets activation-dependent adhesion mediated by alpha(2)beta(1), possibly by reducing bioavailability of platelet-derived ADP, but has no effect on activation-independent adhesion mediated by GPVI. Thus, NO regulates platelet spreading and stable adhesion to collagen.
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A tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong.
The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a biocompatible microemulsion (ME) containing soybean oil (O), phosphatidylcholine/sodium oleate/Eumulgin®HRE40 as the surfactant mixture (S) and water or buffer solution as the aqueous phase (W), for oral delivery of the poorly water-soluble drugs sulfamerazine (SMR) and indomethacin (INM). A wide range of combinations to obtain clear oil-in-water (o/w) ME was observed from pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, which was greater after the incorporation of both drugs, suggesting that they acted as stabilizers. Drug partition studies indicated a lower affinity of the drugs for the oil domain when they were ionized and with increased temperature, explained by the fact that both drugs were introduced inside the oil domain, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. High concentrations of SMR and INM were able to be incorporated (22.0 and 62.3 mg/mL, respectively). The ME obtained presented an average droplet size of 100 nm and a negative surface charge. A significant increase in the release of SMR was observed with the ME with the highest percentage of O, because of the solubilizing properties of the ME. Also, a small retention effect was observed for INM, which may be explained by the differences in the partitioning properties of the drugs.
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Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=112; 250-310 g) were injected intraperitoneally with a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride: L-NAME; 10, 50 or 500 mg/kg), a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10, 50 or 500 mg/kg), a combination of L-NAME and indomethacin (500 mg/kg each) or saline only under urethane anaesthesia (1.2 g/kg). We used the sparrow pecking technique for 1 min with a stainless steel acupuncture needle (0.20×30 mm) as the acupuncture stimulation method. The stimulus point was on the right tibialis anterior muscle. (51)Chromium-labelled microspheres were used for MBF measurement.
The results showed that liquisolid compacts demonstrated considerably higher drug dissolution rates than those of conventionally made capsules and directly compressed tablets containing indomethacin. This was due to increased wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. Also it has been shown that the fraction of molecularly dispersed drug (FM) in the liquid medication of liquisolid systems was directly proportional to their indomethacin dissolution rates (DR). An attempt was made to correlate the percentage drug dissolved in 10-min with the solubility of indomethacin in different vehicles. A plot of the percentage drug dissolved against the solubility of indomethacin showed that the amount of drug dissolved increased linearly (correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and 0.996 at pH 7.2 and 1.2 respectively) with an increase in solubility of indomethacin in the vehicles.
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The pain of cluster headache attacks is severe, excruciating and selectively responsive to subcutaneous sumatriptan. Serious cardiovascular events attributed to sumatriptan are extremely rare and have most often been reported in patients at significant cardiovascular risk, or in overt cardiovascular disease. They also have occurred, however, in patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease. We describe a 42-year-old man with episodic cluster headache without history of coronary artery disease who was admitted to our coronary care unit for acute myocardial infarction after 3 h of subcutaneous injection of sumatriptan. During hospitalisation cluster headache attacks were successfully treated with e.v. indomethacin.
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Limonene, verbenone, alpha-terpineol, perillyl alcohol and caryophyllene were the major constituents of the essential oil. The essential oil in doses (mg kg-1) used 12.5 (13.9%, P<0.05), 25 (43.1%, P<0.01), 50 (68.7%, P<0.01), 75 (39.8%, P<0.01) induced significant reduction in pain response when compared to control. The ED50 was 61.61 mg kg(-1). Hyoscine (1 mg kg(-1)) and indomethacin (5 mg kg(-1)) induced significant (P<0.01) reductions (74.9% and 76.7% respectively) in pain response in comparison to control.
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The aim of this study was to study the effect of primary human AEC on the proliferation of fibroblasts obtained from healthy and fibrotic lungs in an interactive cell culture model.
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To compare the efficacy of enteral paracetamol and intravenous indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm neonates.
Female rats were pretreated with vehicle or simvastatin (20 and 60 mg/kg p.o.). After 1 h, the rats received alendronate (50 mg/kg p.o.). Simvastatin was administered once daily for 7 days, and from the fourth day of simvastatin treatment, alendronate was administered once daily for 4 days. On the final day of treatment, 4 h after alendronate administration, animals were euthanized, their stomachs were removed, and gastric damage was measured. Samples of the stomach were fixed in 10 % formalin immediately after their removal for subsequent histopathological assessment. Unfixed samples were weighed, frozen at -80 °C until assayed for glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. A third group was used to measure mucus and gastric secretion.
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The organotin trimethyltin (TMT) is well known to cause neuronal degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice. The first purpose of the present study was to examine whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin could ameliorate neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus of mice following TMT treatment in vivo. The systemic injection into mice of TMT at 2.8 mg/kg produced activation of endogenous caspase-3 and calpain, enhanced the gene expression of COX-1 and COX-2, activated microglial cells, and caused the formation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the hippocampus. Given at 12-h post-TMT treatment, the systemic injection of indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly decreased the TMT-induced damage to neurons having active caspase-3 and single-stranded DNA in the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. The results of the α-Fodrin degradation test revealed that the post-treatment with indomethacin was effective in attenuating TMT-induced activation of endogenous caspases and calpain in the hippocampus. In TMT-treated animals, interestingly, the post-treatment with indomethacin produced not only activation of microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but also the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal in the dentate granule cell layer. Taken together, our data suggest that COX inhibition by indomethacin ameliorated TMT-induced neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus by attenuating intensive oxidative stress.
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Allergen-induced airways oedema in actively sensitized rats has been studied earlier by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used MRI to follow the consequences of non-immunological mast cell activation induced by compound 48/80 in the rat lungs in vivo.
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Fifteen patients (65%) had HPC at 48 skeletal sites, 30 of which affected the lower limbs. The number of HPC sites per patient ranged from 0 to 7, with an average of 2.6 for men and 1.1 for women (p = 0.047 for this sex difference; t-test). New HPC formation was observed both after fractures and outside of the context of fractures. Only a minority of lower limb fractures (26%) precipitated HPC formation. After an initial enlargement phase, HPC lesions usually stabilized, but could also resolve completely (n = 2) or progress and lead to bone deformation. The most common complication of HPC was a fracture through the lesion (n = 7). Neither pamidronate nor indomethacin seemed to influence the course of HPC.
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To evaluate the effect of postoperative use of ketorolac (Toradol) on spinal fusion in humans.
Eighty patients were recruited in this randomized, double-blind study. ITM 0.1 mg (Group ITM) or periarticular local anaesthetic (ropivacaine 300 mg)+ketorolac 30 mg+ epinephrine 0.5 mg (total volume 151.5 ml) (Group LIA) were compared. After 24 h, 22 ml of saline (Group ITM) or ropivacaine (150 mg)+ketorolac (30 mg)+epinephrine (0.1 mg) (Group LIA) were injected via a catheter. After operation, rescue analgesic consumption, pain intensity, and home-readiness were measured.
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Twenty-three (59%) women in the indomethacin group, and 10 (25%) in the nifedipine group did not respond to treatment (P=0.002). None of the 16 and 30 women remaining in the indomethacin and nifedipine groups, respectively, delivered during the subsequent 48 hours. Of these remaining women, 1 (6.25%) in the indomethacin group and 4 (13.3%) in the nifedipine group delivered between 48 hours and 7 days (P=0.162). For the women who responded to treatment, the mean gestational age at time of delivery was 238.5±19.4 days and 246.4±15.4 days in the nifedipine and indomethacin groups, respectively (P=0.182). Seventeen (42.5%) women in the nifedipine group, and 11 (28.2%) in the indomethacin group showed adverse effects (P=0.184).
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The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera, Raphinus sativus, and Amaranthus tricolor in rats.
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In the ethanol-induced ulcer model, we observed a significant reduction in all the parameters analyzed, obtaining curative ratios of 58.8 ± 11.5, 86.2 ± 12.2 and 42.8 ± 6.6% for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg of extract and omeprazole (30 mg/kg), respectively. The dose of 25mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of Brassica oleracea showed no significant results. In the indomethacin-induced ulcer, the percentages of ulcer inhibition were 64.3 ± 9.9, 66.4 ± 12.3 and 81.2 ± 7.5% for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg extract and positive control (cimetidine, 100mg/kg), respectively. The results showed a significant increase in pH and mucus production in the groups treated with Brassica oleracea when compared with the control group. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study.
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75% of patients systematically taking over the period of 6 weeks nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have their mucous of gastrointestinal tract pathologically changed. This process is called induced NSAID gastropathy. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (I-ACE) seems to have gastroprotective effect by enhancing level of endogenous prostaglandins. Besides, an application of I-ACE reduces angiotensin II formation and activates renin-kallicrein-kinin system resulting in nitrogen oxide formation that is in its turn an important component of reparative process of mucous of gastrointestinal tract.
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Indomethacin is used to pharmacologically occlude patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. It induces renal untoward effects and furosemide is administered simultaneously to counteract them. The effect of furosemide is blunted by indomethacin. We analyzed comparatively the interactions of furosemide and indomethacin at the organic anion transport system in adult and newborn individuals. Adult and 5-day-old Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: (1) indomethacin (10 mg/kg, ip); (2) furosemide (2 mg/kg, ip); and (3) indomethacin/furosemide, at the same doses. Urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium and potassium fractional excretions, and free-water and osmolal clearances were estimated. Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) uptake was measured in renal cortical slices to study the organic anion's secretory pathway. In adult and newborn rats, furosemide-induced increments in urinary fluxes and excretions of sodium and potassium were blunted by indomethacin administered simultaneously. PAH uptake was decreased to a further extent by indomethacin than by furosemide, suggesting that inhibition of the diuretic effect might be related to competition in the secretion of furosemide. Inhibitory interaction between indomethacin and furosemide was achieved at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations in the newborn than in the adult rats, suggesting that tubular secretion in the neonate is more sensitive to the action of these drugs than in the adult individual.