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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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NO targets activation-dependent adhesion mediated by alpha(2)beta(1), possibly by reducing bioavailability of platelet-derived ADP, but has no effect on activation-independent adhesion mediated by GPVI. Thus, NO regulates platelet spreading and stable adhesion to collagen.

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A tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong.

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The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a biocompatible microemulsion (ME) containing soybean oil (O), phosphatidylcholine/sodium oleate/Eumulgin®HRE40 as the surfactant mixture (S) and water or buffer solution as the aqueous phase (W), for oral delivery of the poorly water-soluble drugs sulfamerazine (SMR) and indomethacin (INM). A wide range of combinations to obtain clear oil-in-water (o/w) ME was observed from pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, which was greater after the incorporation of both drugs, suggesting that they acted as stabilizers. Drug partition studies indicated a lower affinity of the drugs for the oil domain when they were ionized and with increased temperature, explained by the fact that both drugs were introduced inside the oil domain, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. High concentrations of SMR and INM were able to be incorporated (22.0 and 62.3 mg/mL, respectively). The ME obtained presented an average droplet size of 100 nm and a negative surface charge. A significant increase in the release of SMR was observed with the ME with the highest percentage of O, because of the solubilizing properties of the ME. Also, a small retention effect was observed for INM, which may be explained by the differences in the partitioning properties of the drugs.

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=112; 250-310 g) were injected intraperitoneally with a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride: L-NAME; 10, 50 or 500 mg/kg), a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10, 50 or 500 mg/kg), a combination of L-NAME and indomethacin (500 mg/kg each) or saline only under urethane anaesthesia (1.2 g/kg). We used the sparrow pecking technique for 1 min with a stainless steel acupuncture needle (0.20×30 mm) as the acupuncture stimulation method. The stimulus point was on the right tibialis anterior muscle. (51)Chromium-labelled microspheres were used for MBF measurement.

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The results showed that liquisolid compacts demonstrated considerably higher drug dissolution rates than those of conventionally made capsules and directly compressed tablets containing indomethacin. This was due to increased wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. Also it has been shown that the fraction of molecularly dispersed drug (FM) in the liquid medication of liquisolid systems was directly proportional to their indomethacin dissolution rates (DR). An attempt was made to correlate the percentage drug dissolved in 10-min with the solubility of indomethacin in different vehicles. A plot of the percentage drug dissolved against the solubility of indomethacin showed that the amount of drug dissolved increased linearly (correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and 0.996 at pH 7.2 and 1.2 respectively) with an increase in solubility of indomethacin in the vehicles.

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The pain of cluster headache attacks is severe, excruciating and selectively responsive to subcutaneous sumatriptan. Serious cardiovascular events attributed to sumatriptan are extremely rare and have most often been reported in patients at significant cardiovascular risk, or in overt cardiovascular disease. They also have occurred, however, in patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease. We describe a 42-year-old man with episodic cluster headache without history of coronary artery disease who was admitted to our coronary care unit for acute myocardial infarction after 3 h of subcutaneous injection of sumatriptan. During hospitalisation cluster headache attacks were successfully treated with e.v. indomethacin.

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Limonene, verbenone, alpha-terpineol, perillyl alcohol and caryophyllene were the major constituents of the essential oil. The essential oil in doses (mg kg-1) used 12.5 (13.9%, P<0.05), 25 (43.1%, P<0.01), 50 (68.7%, P<0.01), 75 (39.8%, P<0.01) induced significant reduction in pain response when compared to control. The ED50 was 61.61 mg kg(-1). Hyoscine (1 mg kg(-1)) and indomethacin (5 mg kg(-1)) induced significant (P<0.01) reductions (74.9% and 76.7% respectively) in pain response in comparison to control.

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The aim of this study was to study the effect of primary human AEC on the proliferation of fibroblasts obtained from healthy and fibrotic lungs in an interactive cell culture model.

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To compare the efficacy of enteral paracetamol and intravenous indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm neonates.

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Female rats were pretreated with vehicle or simvastatin (20 and 60 mg/kg p.o.). After 1 h, the rats received alendronate (50 mg/kg p.o.). Simvastatin was administered once daily for 7 days, and from the fourth day of simvastatin treatment, alendronate was administered once daily for 4 days. On the final day of treatment, 4 h after alendronate administration, animals were euthanized, their stomachs were removed, and gastric damage was measured. Samples of the stomach were fixed in 10 % formalin immediately after their removal for subsequent histopathological assessment. Unfixed samples were weighed, frozen at -80 °C until assayed for glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. A third group was used to measure mucus and gastric secretion.

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The organotin trimethyltin (TMT) is well known to cause neuronal degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice. The first purpose of the present study was to examine whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin could ameliorate neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus of mice following TMT treatment in vivo. The systemic injection into mice of TMT at 2.8 mg/kg produced activation of endogenous caspase-3 and calpain, enhanced the gene expression of COX-1 and COX-2, activated microglial cells, and caused the formation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the hippocampus. Given at 12-h post-TMT treatment, the systemic injection of indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly decreased the TMT-induced damage to neurons having active caspase-3 and single-stranded DNA in the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. The results of the α-Fodrin degradation test revealed that the post-treatment with indomethacin was effective in attenuating TMT-induced activation of endogenous caspases and calpain in the hippocampus. In TMT-treated animals, interestingly, the post-treatment with indomethacin produced not only activation of microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but also the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal in the dentate granule cell layer. Taken together, our data suggest that COX inhibition by indomethacin ameliorated TMT-induced neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus by attenuating intensive oxidative stress.

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Allergen-induced airways oedema in actively sensitized rats has been studied earlier by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used MRI to follow the consequences of non-immunological mast cell activation induced by compound 48/80 in the rat lungs in vivo.

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Fifteen patients (65%) had HPC at 48 skeletal sites, 30 of which affected the lower limbs. The number of HPC sites per patient ranged from 0 to 7, with an average of 2.6 for men and 1.1 for women (p = 0.047 for this sex difference; t-test). New HPC formation was observed both after fractures and outside of the context of fractures. Only a minority of lower limb fractures (26%) precipitated HPC formation. After an initial enlargement phase, HPC lesions usually stabilized, but could also resolve completely (n = 2) or progress and lead to bone deformation. The most common complication of HPC was a fracture through the lesion (n = 7). Neither pamidronate nor indomethacin seemed to influence the course of HPC.

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To evaluate the effect of postoperative use of ketorolac (Toradol) on spinal fusion in humans.

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Eighty patients were recruited in this randomized, double-blind study. ITM 0.1 mg (Group ITM) or periarticular local anaesthetic (ropivacaine 300 mg)+ketorolac 30 mg+ epinephrine 0.5 mg (total volume 151.5 ml) (Group LIA) were compared. After 24 h, 22 ml of saline (Group ITM) or ropivacaine (150 mg)+ketorolac (30 mg)+epinephrine (0.1 mg) (Group LIA) were injected via a catheter. After operation, rescue analgesic consumption, pain intensity, and home-readiness were measured.

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Twenty-three (59%) women in the indomethacin group, and 10 (25%) in the nifedipine group did not respond to treatment (P=0.002). None of the 16 and 30 women remaining in the indomethacin and nifedipine groups, respectively, delivered during the subsequent 48 hours. Of these remaining women, 1 (6.25%) in the indomethacin group and 4 (13.3%) in the nifedipine group delivered between 48 hours and 7 days (P=0.162). For the women who responded to treatment, the mean gestational age at time of delivery was 238.5±19.4 days and 246.4±15.4 days in the nifedipine and indomethacin groups, respectively (P=0.182). Seventeen (42.5%) women in the nifedipine group, and 11 (28.2%) in the indomethacin group showed adverse effects (P=0.184).

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The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera, Raphinus sativus, and Amaranthus tricolor in rats.

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In the ethanol-induced ulcer model, we observed a significant reduction in all the parameters analyzed, obtaining curative ratios of 58.8 ± 11.5, 86.2 ± 12.2 and 42.8 ± 6.6% for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg of extract and omeprazole (30 mg/kg), respectively. The dose of 25mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of Brassica oleracea showed no significant results. In the indomethacin-induced ulcer, the percentages of ulcer inhibition were 64.3 ± 9.9, 66.4 ± 12.3 and 81.2 ± 7.5% for the groups treated with 50 and 100mg/kg extract and positive control (cimetidine, 100mg/kg), respectively. The results showed a significant increase in pH and mucus production in the groups treated with Brassica oleracea when compared with the control group. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study.

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75% of patients systematically taking over the period of 6 weeks nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have their mucous of gastrointestinal tract pathologically changed. This process is called induced NSAID gastropathy. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (I-ACE) seems to have gastroprotective effect by enhancing level of endogenous prostaglandins. Besides, an application of I-ACE reduces angiotensin II formation and activates renin-kallicrein-kinin system resulting in nitrogen oxide formation that is in its turn an important component of reparative process of mucous of gastrointestinal tract.

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Indomethacin is used to pharmacologically occlude patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. It induces renal untoward effects and furosemide is administered simultaneously to counteract them. The effect of furosemide is blunted by indomethacin. We analyzed comparatively the interactions of furosemide and indomethacin at the organic anion transport system in adult and newborn individuals. Adult and 5-day-old Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: (1) indomethacin (10 mg/kg, ip); (2) furosemide (2 mg/kg, ip); and (3) indomethacin/furosemide, at the same doses. Urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium and potassium fractional excretions, and free-water and osmolal clearances were estimated. Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) uptake was measured in renal cortical slices to study the organic anion's secretory pathway. In adult and newborn rats, furosemide-induced increments in urinary fluxes and excretions of sodium and potassium were blunted by indomethacin administered simultaneously. PAH uptake was decreased to a further extent by indomethacin than by furosemide, suggesting that inhibition of the diuretic effect might be related to competition in the secretion of furosemide. Inhibitory interaction between indomethacin and furosemide was achieved at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations in the newborn than in the adult rats, suggesting that tubular secretion in the neonate is more sensitive to the action of these drugs than in the adult individual.

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indocin dosage forms 2016-06-18

Private practice buy indocin , Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, USA.

indocin alcohol 2017-09-08

To determine whether short-term (i.e. as recorded within the first month of therapy), oral low-dose corticosteroids (corresponding to a buy indocin maximum of 15 mg prednisolone daily) is superior to placebo and non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

indocin medication dosage 2016-08-04

The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids in osteoarthritis (OA). The CHON‑002 human chondrocyte cell line was used in the study. The levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑8 and IL‑10, released by cells treated with tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were determined by ELISA. Levels of collagen I, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑1, MMP‑13, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) subunit p65 and inhibitory subunit of NF‑κB (IκB) following treatment with IL‑1β, IL‑6, IL buy indocin ‑8 or IL‑10 were assessed by western blot. Levels of IL‑6 and IL‑8 were measured by ELISA following administration of TNF‑α combined with certain drugs. In addition, these parameters were evaluated by western blot following incubation with drugs in combination with IL‑6 or IL‑8 and after knockdown of STAT3, by addition of small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑STAT3 (siSTAT3), an inhibitor of the proteasome (MG132) or both. IL‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑8 and IL-10 were upregulated by TNF‑α. Addition of IL‑6 or IL‑8 led to increased collagen I, MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 protein levels, and also promoted STAT3 phosphorylation and increased the expression of NF‑κB subunit p65, but had no effect on aggrecan protein levels. When siSTAT3 and MG132 treatment was combined, levels of collagen I, MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 were reduced. Additionally, levels of IL‑6 and IL‑8 were significantly decreased by prednisone, ibuprofen and betamethasone. However, no significant differences were observed following treatment with piroxicam or indomethacin. In combination with IL‑6 or IL‑8, prednisone, ibuprofen and betamethasone significantly reduced the levels of collagen I, MMP‑1 and MMP‑13, and inactivated NF‑κB and STAT3 pathways. In conclusion, prednisone, ibuprofen and betamethasone may prevent OA by suppressing the expression of IL‑6 and IL‑8, subsequently inactivating NF‑κB and STAT3 pathways, and ultimately, leading to decreased levels of collagen I, MMP‑1, and MMP‑13.

indocin capsules 2017-02-19

Female C57BL/6J mice were given indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day and 2.5 mg rebamipide orally 3 times a day. After 7 days, they were sacrificed, and luminal contents were obtained from the ileum and cecum. The gut microbiota communities were analyzed by T-RFLP buy indocin analysis with BslI digestion.

indocin sr capsules 2017-07-13

These results confirm the important role of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in DEC's mechanism of action in vivo and show that in addition to its effects on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, it targets the cyclooxygenase pathway and COX-1. Moreover, we show buy indocin for the first time that inducible nitric oxide is essential for the rapid sequestration of microfilariae by DEC.

indocin generic table 2017-05-14

α-Amyrin acetate at 100 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of egg albumen-induced paw edema with % inhibition of 40 at the 5th hour. Oral administration up to 100 mg/kg did not produce significant (p > 0.01) irritation of the gastric mucosa while significant (p < 0.01) ulceration was recorded for indomethacin at 40 mg/kg compared with the negative control. At 100 μg/mL, both β-amyrin and α-amyrin acetate inhibited heat-induced hemolysis to as much 47.2 and 61.5%, respectively, while diclofenac sodium (100 μg/mL) evoked only 40.5% inhibition. Both compounds at 100 µg/ear produced significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of ear edema in mice by 39.4 and 55.5 buy indocin %, respectively. Also at 100 mg/kg (p.o.) α-amyrin acetate evoked 60.3% reduction in total leucocyte count and significant (p < 0.05) suppression (47.9%) of neutrophil infiltration.

indocin drug label 2017-08-27

To determine if a prolonged course of indomethacin (compared to a short buy indocin course) reduces the rate of treatment failure in preterm infants with PDA without unwanted side-effects.

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To investigate the effect of postnatal age at patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation buy indocin on postoperative need for cardiotropic support.

indocin tab 2016-11-06

Headaches provoked by cough, prolonged physical exercise and sexual activity have not been studied prospectively, clinically and neuroradiologically. Our aim was to delimitate characteristics, etiology, response to treatment and neuroradiological diagnostic protocol of those patients who consult to a general Neurological Department because of provoked headache. Those patients who consulted due to provoked headaches between 1996 and 2006 were interviewed in depth and followed-up for at least 1 year. Neuroradiological protocol included cranio-cervical MRI for all patients with cough headache and dynamic cerebrospinal functional MRI in secondary cough headache cases. In patients with headache provoked by prolonged physical exercise or/and sexual activity cranial neuroimaging (CT and/or MRI) was performed and, in case of suspicion of subarachnoid bleeding, angioMRI and/or lumbar tap were carried out. A total of 6,412 patients consulted due to headache during the 10 years of the study. The number of patients who had consulted due to any of these headaches is 97 (1.5% of all headaches). Diagnostic distribution was as follows: 68 patients (70.1%) consulted due to cough headache, 11 (11.3%) due to exertional headache and 18 (18.6%) due to sexual headache. A total of 28 patients (41.2%) out of 68 were diagnosed of primary cough headache, while the remaining 40 (58.8%) had secondary cough headache, always due to structural lesions in the posterior fossa, which in most cases was a Chiari type I malformation. In seven patients, cough headache was precipitated by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. As buy indocin compared to the primary variety, secondary cough headache began earlier (average 40 vs. 60 years old), was located posteriorly, lasted longer (5 years vs. 11 months), was associated with posterior fossa symptoms/signs and did not respond to indomethacin. All those patients showed difficulties in the cerebrospinal fluid circulation in the foramen magnum region in the dynamic MRI study and preoperative plateau waves, which disappeared after posterior fossa reconstruction. The mean age at onset for primary headaches provoked by physical exercise and sexual activity began at the same age (40 years old), shared clinical characteristics (bilateral, pulsating) and responded to beta-blockers. Contrary to cough headache, secondary cases are rare and the most frequent etiology was subarachnoid bleeding. In conclusion, these conditions account for a low proportion of headache consultations. These data show the total separation between cough headache versus headache due to physical exercise and sexual activity, confirm that these two latter headaches are clinical variants of the same entity and illustrate the clinical differences between the primary and secondary provoked headaches.

dosage of indocin 2016-01-22

Luminal exposure to concentrated acid, the most accepted physiological stimulus for duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS), cannot be used with in vitro preparations due to potential tissue damage. We thus examined whether exposure to PGE(2), a well-characterized physiological duodenal secretagogue, could mimic the effects of acid perfusion. DBS was measured in C57/BL mice by pH-stat/back-titration and measurement of total dissolved CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)](t)). Anion transport inhibitor DIDS, anion channel inhibitor 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid ( buy indocin NPPB), carbonic anhydrase inhibitor methazolamide, and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin were used to inhibit separate components of HCO(3)(-) secretory pathway. Baseline DBS was not altered by exposure to methazolamide (0.1 mM) but was slightly reduced by DIDS (0.5 mM). DBS and [CO(2)](t) increased after acid and PGE(2) exposure. DIDS (0.5 mM) and NPPB (0.2 mM) abolished acid-induced DBS increase. Methazolamide (0.1 mM) and DIDS inhibited acid-induced [CO(2)](t) increase. DIDS, NPPB, or methazolamide had little effect on DBS in response to high concentration PGE(2) (100 microg/ml). Low concentration PGE(2) (1 microg/ml) increased DBS that was inhibited by DIDS, NPPB, and methazolamide. Pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg/kg) inhibited DBS induced by acid exposure but not by PGE(2). High-dose PGE(2) substantially increases DBS by a mechanism that appears to be different than secretory response to luminal acid perfusion. Secretory response to low-dose PGE(2), at least in terms of inhibitor profile, closely resembles secretion in response to perfusion of physiological acid concentrations and may be a useful stimulus for in vitro study of DBS in isolated mouse duodenum.

indocin max dose 2015-10-17

The present study investigates the gastroprotective effect of citalopram, an antidepressant drug. Gastroprotective activity of citalopram (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, bid, po) was evaluated both by single and 14 days repeated pretreatment in the cold restraint stress (CRS) model and 14 days repeated pretreatment in pyloric ligation (PL) model. In addition to ulcer scoring and its histological assessment, levels of corticosterone, hexosamine, nitrite, PGE(2), lipid peroxide and microvascular permeability were also estimated. Mechanism underlying gastroprotective activity was further explored by investigating the involvement of nitric oxide (NO), sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels) and prostaglandins (PGs). Results show that against CRS model, repeated pretreatment with citalopram exhibit a significant gastroprotective effect while single pretreatment was ineffective. In CRS model, citalopram repeated pretreatment, in contrast to its single pretreatment, attenuates the corticosterone level and also mitigates the stress-induced increase in nitrite level, lipid peroxidation and microvascular permeability. Additionally, the repeated pretreatment increases the hexosamine and PGE(2) level in CRS model. This gastroprotective effect of citalopram was found to be decreased with L-NAME, NEM, glibenclamide and indomethacin pretreatment. Thus, gastroprotective activity of citalopram appears to be mediated by endogenous NO, SH, PGs and buy indocin K(ATP) channel opening. In contrast to CRS model, repeated pretreatment with citalopram was ineffective in reducing ulcer formation in PL model.

indocin 25mg suspension 2017-06-25

Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of buy indocin Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia.

indocin max dosage 2017-04-09

There are evidences that targeting IL-18 might be beneficial to inhibit inflammatory symptoms, including hypernociception (decrease in nociceptive threshold). The mechanism of IL-18 mechanical hypernociception depends on endothelin in rats and mice. However, the role of IL-18 in overt pain-like behaviour remains undetermined. Therefore, we addressed the role of IL-18 in writhing response induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ) and acetic acid in mice. Firstly, it was detected that PBQ and acetic acid i.p. injection induced a dose-dependent number of writhes in buy indocin Balb/c mice. Subsequently, it was observed that the PBQ - but not the acetic acid-induced writhes were diminished in IL-18 deficient ((-/-)) mice. Therefore, considering that IFN-gamma, endothelin and prostanoids mediate IL-18-induced mechanical hypernociception, we also investigated the role of these mediators in the same model of writhing response in which IL-18 participates. It was noticed that PBQ-induced writhes were diminished in IFN-gamma(-/-) mice and by the treatment with bosentan (mixed endothelin ETA/ETB receptor antagonist), BQ 123 (cyclo[DTrp-DAsp-Pro-DVal-Leu], selective endothelin ETA receptor antagonist), BQ 788 (N-cys-2,6 dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-l-methylleucyl-d-1-methoxycarboyl-d-norleucine, selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonist) or indomethacin (cycloxigenase inhibitor). Thus, IL-18, IFN-gamma, endothelin acting on endothelin ETA and ETB receptors, and prostanoids mediate PBQ-induced writhing response in mice. To conclude, these results further advance the understanding of the physiopathology of overt pain-like behaviour, and suggest for the first time a role for IL-18 in writhing response in mice.

indocin pill 2016-06-24

Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The main bioactive components of this species are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PNS and five of its main components (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1 and Rd, and notoginsenoside R1) on rat aorta rings pre-contracted with norepinephrine (NE) and to determine the underlying mechanism of action. Isolated aorta rings (with or without intact endothelium) from adult male Wistar rats were stimulated with NE to induce vasoconstriction, and subsequently treated with different concentrations of PNS and its five main components (Rg1, Re, Rb1, R1 and Rd) separately. This procedure was repeated after pre-incubation with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor Depakote Loading Dose indomethacin (INDO), in order to elucidate the mechanism of action of PNS and its components. The results demonstrated that PNS and the components Rg1, Re, Rb1 and R1, but not Rd, induced vessel relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner when the endothelium lining was intact. NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME and guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ attenuated the diastolic effects of PNS, Rg1, Re, Rb1 and R1 in aortic rings with intact endothelium. By contrast, INDO, a known COX inhibitor weakened the vasodilation effects of PNS, Re and Rb1 but demonstrated no effect on Rg1 and R1. In conclusion, PNS and two of its main components (Re and Rb1) exert vasodilating effects through the NO and COX pathways.

indocin medication generic 2015-05-15

The processing parameters for HME have been evaluated and the impact of solid state intermolecular drug-polymer interactions on supersaturation has been investigated. Poorly water soluble drugs Indomethacin (IND), Itraconazole (ITZ), and Griseofulvin (GSF) and hydrophilic polymers - Eudragit EPO, Eudragit L- Claritin Adult Dose 100-55, Eudragit L-100, HPMCAS-LF, HPMCAS-MF, Pharmacoat 603, and Kollidon VA-64 were selected for this study. Solubility parameters calculations (SPCs), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and rheological analysis of drug-polymer physical mixtures (PMs) was performed. The solid dispersions were manufactured using HME and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), polarized light microscopy (PLM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and dissolution study. Results obtained by DSC correlated well with SPC, showing single glass transition temperatures for all the PMs except ITZ in Eudragit EPO that depicted the highest difference in solubility parameters. The zero rate viscosity (η₀) was dependent on the melting point and consequently the state of the drug in the polymer at the softening temperature. The η₀ of PMs was useful to estimate the processing conditions for HME and to produce transparent glassy HMEs from most of the PMs. The amorphous conversion due to HME was confirmed by PXRD and PLM. The solid state drug-polymer interactions occurred during HME could be confirmed by FTIR analysis. Highest supersaturation could be achieved for IND, ITZ, and GSF using Eudragit EPO, HPMCAS-LF, and Eudragit L-100-55, respectively where relatively higher stretching of the carbonyl peaks was observed by FTIR. Thus, the highest dissolution rate and supersaturation of poorly water soluble drugs could be attributed to drug-polymer interactions occurred during HME.

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A total of 145 patients with EPF were enrolled; 62.8% were prescribed oral indomethacin. A multivariable analysis revealed that female patients were more Singulair 10mg Dosage likely to exhibit complete response to oral indomethacin after adjustment for confounders (adjusted proportion ratio = 1.93, p = 0.04).

indocin online 2016-09-22

To assess the efficacy of the superior hypogastric nerve block (SHNB) in permitting uterine artery embolization (UAE) to be Norvasc Dosage performed as a routine outpatient procedure.

indocin sr medication 2015-04-26

Hollow microspheres (microballoons) floatable in JPX III No.1 solution were developed as a dosage form characterized by excellent buoyant properties in the stomach. Microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method utilizing enteric acrylic polymers codissolved with drug in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol. The release properties of five different drugs exhibiting distinct water solubilities (aspirin, salicylic acid, ethoxybenzamide, indomethacin and riboflavin) entrapped within microballoons were investigated. Buoyancy of the microballoons decreased with increasing drug release rate. In the case of aspirin, salicylic acid and ethoxybenzamide, the drug release profiles of microballoons proved a linear relationships by Higuchi plotting. However, indomethacin and riboflavin release profiles did not follow the Higuchi equation. When the loading amount of riboflavin was higher than the solubility in the mixture of 4 Diflucan Pills dichloromethane and ethanol, the drug release profiles of the microballoons displayed an initial burst release. The insoluble riboflavin in the mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol adsorbed on to the microballoon surface in the crystal state. Such riboflavin crystals were released preferentially at the initial stage of the release test, which was attributable to the initial burst. In addition, by incorporating a polymer such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose within the shell of microballoons, the release rate of riboflavin from the microballoons could be controlled while maintaining high buoyancy.

indocin pain medication 2015-08-26

This study aimed to assess the anti- Trandate 200mg Tablets nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of n-butanol fraction (WIN-34B) prepared from dried flowers of Lonicera japonica and dried roots of Anemarrhena asphodeloides as potential novel treatment of osteoarthritis.

indocin sr dosage 2017-02-04

This study investigates the effects of aging and/or ovariectomy on vascular reactivity to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor stimulation with U46619, and the modulation by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in aorta from female senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) and from senescence resistant mice (SAMR1). Five-month-old female SAMR1 and SAMP8 were divided into three groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized and ovariectomized plus estradiol. Twenty-eight days after surgery, thoracic aortic rings were mounted for isometric recording of tension and concentration-response curves for U46619 (10(-10)-3 × 10(-7) M) were performed in the absence and in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) and/or COX inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5)M). Vascular superoxide production was detected by dihydroethidium staining on sections of thoracic aorta. NO bioavailability in response to U46619 was suppressed by estrogen withdrawn in young and senescent mice and was restored by the administration of estradiol. In the presence of indomethacin, contractions to U46619 decreased in all groups indicating an aging- and estrogen-dependent modulation of contractile prostanoids. The simultaneous incubation of L-NAME and indomethacin did not change the maximal responses and sensitivities to TXA2 in any group in comparison with untreated aortic segments. The superoxide generation induced by TXA2 was greater in aorta from SAMP8 than in SAMR1. Moreover, in ovariectomized groups superoxide production was further increased and treatment with 17β-estradiol reverted the effects of the ovariectomy. Effexor Reviews Webmd Inhibition of COX with indomethacin prevented the U46619-induced increase in superoxide formation. Our results indicate that NO bioavailability in response to TP receptor activation is both estrogen- and aging-dependent. TXA2 induced contractions are partially mediated by COX activation. Both aging and ovariectomy enhanced COX-dependent component of the TXA2-induced contraction. It is noteworthy that in the absence of estrogen, COX inhibition induces an increase of NO bioavailability. Therefore, in senescent female mice with an experimental menopause, TP-receptor stimulation is responsible for COX activation and enhanced superoxide generation, which may result in reduced NO bioavailability. These effects were reversed by estrogen administration.