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Glucotrol (Glipizide)
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Glucotrol

Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy. Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Glipizide.

Description

Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas.

Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy.

Glucotrol is also known as Glipizide, Glytop SR.

Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Generic name of Glucotrol is Glipizide.

Brand names of Glucotrol are Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.

Dosage

Take Glucotrol orally.

Do not chew, divide or crush the tablet. Swallow it whole.

Glucotrol is usually taken before breakfast if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it is taken several times each day.

Take each dose of Glucotrol with a full glass of water.

The dosage and the kind of tablets depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

While taking Glucotrol follow diet, medication and exercise routines closely.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Glucotrol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Glucotrol overdosage: hunger, nausea, anxiety, cold sweats, weakness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, coma.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Glucotrol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Glucotrol if you are allergic to Glucotrol components.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you have kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, serious infection, illness, or injury.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you take aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve) and others; sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate) or phenelzine (Nardil); beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor) and others; diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril) and others; steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others) and others; phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan) and others; phenytoin (Dilantin); isoniazid (Nydrazid); prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy or weight loss medications.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for lowering glucose levels in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation and have diabetes.

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This case report outlines a very rare case of glipizide-induced severe proximal myopathy in a 61-year-old diabetic man. After taking 10 mg glipizide for 5 months, diabetes was well controlled but the patient presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness in all the four limbs. Clinical examination and relevant investigations suggested it to be a case of proximal myopathy and might be drug induced. De-challenge was done and was treated resulting in reversal of the diseased state. After 3 more months, controlled re-challenge was done and there was recurrence of proximal muscle weakness. There were no evidences of any other possible metabolic, infective, organic or other pathologic causes giving rise to that condition and Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale suggested that it was "probable" that glipizide was responsible for the development of myopathy in this patient.

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When transferring a diabetic patient to a combination tablet, improved compliance, cost savings, and better glycemic control may be achieved.

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We have previously shown that tight metabolic control by insulin therapy reduced thromboxane-dependent platelet activation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect could be obtained without switching diabetics in secondary failure to insulin treatment. For this purpose, we gave strict diet and exercise advise program and adjusted on a weekly basis the oral antidiabetic therapy (glipizide) that 26 patients with NIDDM had been given over the previous months. Basal measurements of urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 and PAI-1 confirmed previous findings of enhanced levels of these parameters in NIDDM patients with macrovascular disease in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls. After 2-6 weeks, 16 patients achieved tight metabolic control associated with significant reduction of both thromboxane biosynthesis and PAI-1 levels; 10 patients remained in poor control and no significant decrease of both parameters was observed. We conclude that reduction of in-vivo platelet activation and PAI-1 antigen levels after metabolic improvement obtained by frequent reassessment of sulphonylurea therapy together with strict diet and exercise programs may have beneficial effects on the progression of diabetic micro- and macrovascular disease.

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Fetal pancreatic beta-cells release insulin poorly in response to glucose; however, the cellular mechanism for this is unknown. By using fura-2 to measure changes in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration in beta-cells, we examined human/porcine fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) and human adult islets for the presence of functional K(+)(ATP) and voltage-activated Ca(2+) ion channels. The effects of glucose, glyceraldehyde, leucine, KCl, and the channel effectors glipizide and BAY K8644 were studied. In fetal human/porcine ICCs and adult islets, KCl, glipizide, and BAY K8644 increased [Ca(2+)](i). Both glucose and glyceraldehyde increased [Ca(2+)](i) in islets but had no effect on ICCs. Leucine increased [Ca(2+)](i) in islets and porcine but not human ICCs. We hypothesize that the beneficial effect of leucine in fetal porcine, but not human ICCs, is attributable to time-dependent maturation of the beta-cells, because porcine ICCs examined were at 87% of the gestational period, and human ICCs were at 42%. Our data demonstrate that both K(+)(ATP) and voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, required for glucose-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i), are functional early in gestation. This suggests that the cause of the immaturity of fetal human/porcine beta-cells is at a more proximal step of glucose-induced metabolism than the channels on the cell surface.

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Whether thiazolidinediones should be used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial, as studies on the cardiovascular effects of these drugs have produced conflicting results. A trial in which rosiglitazone and glipizide were compared supports earlier findings that rosiglitazone does not have an adverse effect on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

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The study of the kinetics of hypoglycemia induced by glipizide (second generation hypoglycemic sulfonamide) was carried out on the normal conscious dog. 1. In a first series of experiments glipizide was given intravenously at the dose of 0.1 mg .kg-1. The hypoglycemic effect of the drug occurred rapidly and reached a maximum at the 30th minute. This maximum effect did not much vary from one animal to another. The hypoglycemic action persisted at least 7 hours after the injection, and at the 24th hour blood glucose level returned practically to the initial values. 2. The kinetics of hypoglycemia after per os administration were studied when glipizide was given either in solid form preparation or in solution form. Glipizide given per os in powder form at the dose of 0.1 mg . kg-1 induced a kinetics of hypoglycemia which varied from one animal to another. The hypoglycemic effect which appeared within 1 to 4 hours after administration, reached its maximum within 2 to 6 hours; it ranged from -6 p. 100 to -52 p. 100. A tenfold higher dose (1 mg . kg-1) produced a hypoglycemia which occurred more rapidly, with less dispersion in the intensity of the response. When glipizide was given at the dose of 0.1 mg . kg-1 in solution form, it can be noted that in all cases hypoglycemia occurred earlier than after administration in powder form at the same dose, while the dispersion in the maximum effect is still considerable. These results lay stress once again on the importance of the form of administration on the kinetics of hypoglycemia and on its intensity.

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We describe 5 observations of cutaneous reactions or immediate hypersensitivity with different hypoglycemic sulfonylurea: Quincke's oedema with glibornuride, three urticaria (one was followed by bronchospasm and collapsus) with glibenclamide, one bullous dermatitis with carbutamide. With special regard to cross reactions between sulfonylurea: we observe the tolerance of glipizide after glibenclamide induced urticaria, tolerance of glicalazide after glibornuride induced Quincke's oedema and eruption, tolerance of glibornuride after chlorporpamide induced urticaria and Quincke's oedema. In the literature, cross reactions between 1st generation sulfonylurea are noted, but not cross reactions between 1st and 2nd generation.

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We propose that this sulfonylurea challenge test should be explored more extensively, as it may prove useful as a clinical and scientific tool.

glucotrol dosage administration

Lifestyle and some pharmacological interventions are beneficial in reducing the risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions require significant behaviour changes that may be achieved through incentives such as the use of pedometers. Adverse events and cost of pharmacological interventions should be taken into account when considering potential risks and benefits.

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Cats were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (5 mg of glipizide, PO or transdermally) and a control group. Blood samples were collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 hours after administration to determine concentrations of insulin, glucose, and glipizide.

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Prescription of interacting antimicrobial drugs to patients on sulfonylureas is very common, and is associated with substantial morbidity and increased costs.

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To evaluate the change in hemoglobin A1C (A1C) in patients with type 2 diabetes switched from coadministration of a sulfonylurea (SU), glyburide or glipizide, and metformin (SU+Met) to a single glyburide-metformin tablet.

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We have employed three-dimensional (3D) extrusion-based printing as a medicine manufacturing technique for the production of multi-active tablets with well-defined and separate controlled release profiles for three different drugs. This 'polypill' made by a 3D additive manufacture technique demonstrates that complex medication regimes can be combined in a single tablet and that it is viable to formulate and 'dial up' this single tablet for the particular needs of an individual. The tablets used to illustrate this concept incorporate an osmotic pump with the drug captopril and sustained release compartments with the drugs nifedipine and glipizide. This combination of medicines could potentially be used to treat diabetics suffering from hypertension. The room temperature extrusion process used to print the formulations used excipients commonly employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to assess drug-excipient interaction. The printed formulations were evaluated for drug release using USP dissolution testing. We found that the captopril portion showed the intended zero order drug release of an osmotic pump and noted that the nifedipine and glipizide portions showed either first order release or Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics dependent upon the active/excipient ratio used.

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Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level.

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Measurement of the renal function is critical to follow progression of kidney disease. Short-term and long-term variabilities in these measurements have significant impacts on clinical decision making and clinical trials. The goal of this study was to describe the variability in these measurements and to calculate minimum sample size estimates over varying time frames for clinical trials.

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The effects of i.v. administration of equipotent doses of glycodiazine, glibenclamide, desaglybuzol and glydiazinamide on the level of blood sugar and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) have been assessed in 30 diabetic patients and 24 healthy controls. Glibenclamide proved to have the most potent hypoglycaemic effect in diabetics. The decrease in blood sugar level was less sustained after glycodiazine as compared with the other three drugs. This is due mostly to differences in dynamics of insulin secretion. Glibenclamide also proved to have pronounced and most sustained antilipolytic action. In contrast, desaglybuzol, like phenformin (a biguanide), failed to cause a drop in the level of plasma FFA and hence can be recommended in obese diabetic patients.

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Submandibular and retro-orbital methods that required non-serial blood collections did not allow for inter-animal variability assessments and resulted in poorly described absorption and distribution kinetics.  The submandibular and tail vein with needle-hub methods were the least favorable from a technical feasibility perspective.  Serial bleeding was possible with cannulated animals or saphenous bleeding in non-cannulated animals.

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The elderly patient with type II diabetes should be treated in much the same fashion as a younger person with the same disease, although emphasis needs to be placed on minimizing side effects, drug interactions, and hypoglycemia. Chlorpropamide should not be used in these patients, unless there is no other choice. The remaining agents--tolbutamide, acetohexamide, tolazamide, glyburide, and glipizide--should be started at low doses and gradually increased until optimal diabetic control is reached. The initial treatment goal is a FPG level of less than 180 mg/dl and a final goal is a 1- to 2-hour PPG concentration between 140 and 180 mg/dl. The glycosylated hemoglobin value should be no greater than 1.5% above the upper limit of normal, and should be lower, if possible. It must be kept in mind, however, that the closer diabetic patients are to achieving euglycemia, the more likely is hypoglycemia. Treatment goals therefore may have to be relaxed in someone at increased risk of hypoglycemia (e.g., patients with irregular eating habits or renal insufficiency) or when hypoglycemia may pose a greater hazard (e.g., patients with coronary artery or cerebral vascular disease). Patients on sulfonylurea agents should have blood glucose values measured once a month and glycosylated hemoglobin levels determined once every 3 months to alert the clinician to the possible need to adjust therapy. In this way, potential hypoglycemia can be avoided if blood glucose levels are drifting too low and chronic hyperglycemia can be identified and treated within a short period of time. When a patient's status changes--e.g., he is placed on new medication, becomes depressed and anorexic, or develops another medical problem--care must be taken to re-evaluate his diabetes management. Drugs such as sulfonamide antibiotics can potentiate the action of the sulfonylureas and cause hypoglycemia, renal insufficiency may necessitate changing the type of sulfonylurea agent or decreasing the dose, and malnutrition may obviate any need for therapy with an oral hypoglycemic agent. If these guidelines are kept in mind, the older diabetic patient can be managed on a sulfonylurea agent in conjunction with the appropriate diet. Should these measures prove to be ineffective, then insulin therapy should be instituted. Controlling chronic hyperglycemia will help improve the quality of life for patients with diabetes and decrease the probability of developing some of the devastating complications associated with this disease.

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The possible contribution of K+ channel activation to airway smooth muscle relaxation induced by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was investigated in isolated guinea-pig trachea. Concentration-relaxation (CR) curves were assessed in preparations precontracted by 30 mM K+, 124 mM K+ or histamine either alone or in the presence of a K+ channel blocker: iberiotoxin (IbTX), glipizide, tetraethylammonium (TEA) or Ba2+. VIP completely relaxed contractions induced by histamine but had a lower effectiveness against those induced by 30 mM K+ and 124 mM K+. IbTX and TEA shifted the CR curve for VIP 5 and 14 times to the right, respectively. Glipizide and Ba2+ did not significantly antagonize the action of VIP. ANP relaxed contractions induced by histamine and 30 mM K+ but failed to relax those elicited by 124 mM K+. IbTX and TEA shifted the CR curve for ANP 8 and 46 times to the right, respectively. Glipizide and Ba2+ suppressed the maximal effect produced by ANP, and glipizide also shifted the CR curve to the left. The K+ channel opener levcromakalim relaxed tracheal contractions induced by histamine and 30 mM K+ but not those induced by 124 mM K+. Glipizide caused a 5-fold rightward shift of the CR curve for levcromakalim whereas IbTX shifted the curve to the left and increased the maximal relaxant effect. The Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine completely relaxed contractions induced by 30 mM K+ and 124 mM K+ but only partially relaxed those contracted by histamine. All four K+ channel blockers increased the maximal relaxant effect and shifted the CR curve for isradipine to the left. The results suggest that airway smooth muscle relaxation produced by VIP and ANP involves activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels (BKCa) and further that ANP may possibly activate other types of K+ channels additional to BKCa.

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We used a randomized 2-group design to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of troglitazone and metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was inadequately controlled with diet and oral sulfonylureas. Thirty-two subjects were randomized to receive either troglitazone or metformin for 14 weeks, including a 2-week drug-titration period. The primary outcome variable was mean change in the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) from baseline. Secondary outcomes included mean changes from baseline in fasting plasma glucose and C-peptide levels, renal or metabolic side effects, and symptomatic tolerability.

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A method for capping of beta 2-microglobulin involving the transglutaminase inhibitor monodansylthiacadaverine was applied to lymphocytes from 17 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and from a matched control group of 16 normoglycaemic healthy subjects. Monodansylthiacadaverine strongly inhibited the capping, which points to the involvement of transglutaminase in the redistribution of beta 2-microglobulin on the cell surface. The inhibition was more pronounced in lymphocytes from diabetic patients, indicating impaired transglutaminase function in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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K(ATP) channels are important for insulin secretion and depolarization of vascular smooth muscle. In view of the importance of drugs affecting K(ATP) channels in the treatment of diabetes, we investigated the effects of these channels on splanchnic blood perfusion in general and pancreatic islet blood flow in particular. We treated anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with the K(ATP) channel openers diazoxide or NNC 55-0118 or the K(ATP) channel closer glipizide. Both diazoxide and NNC 55-0118 dose-dependently increased total pancreatic and islet blood flow in the presence of moderate hyperglycemia, but had no effects on the blood perfusion of other splanchnic organs. Diazoxide markedly lowered the mean arterial blood pressure and thus increased vascular conductance in all organs studied. NNC 55-0118 had much smaller effects on the blood pressure. Glipizide did not affect total pancreatic blood flow, but decreased islet blood flow by 50% in the presence of hypoglycemia. We conclude that K(ATP) channels actively participate in the blood flow regulation of the pancreatic islets and that substances affecting such channels may also influence islet blood flow.

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Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with inadequate long-term blood glucose control with sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy require additional treatment. The synergistic effects of combining glipizide with metformin on glucose control may be realized by treating the primary effects of type 2 DM, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance.

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We studied the effect of long-term glipizide therapy in a small group of closely monitored patients. Fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were measured on multiple occasions throughout the investigation. Our observations show that glipizide therapy is effective in certain patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus over a prolonged time period. The major effect of the drug appears to be mediated by its alteration of insulin sensitivity, but glipizide also causes a sustained increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in most patients.

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This is a prospective cross-sectional descriptive case series.

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To determine whether glipizide, a sulfonylurea, can prevent diabetes in the diabetic-prone BB rat model, rats were studied from 35 to 240 days of age. Treated animals received oral glipizide (10 or 100 mg/kg/day) from 35 to 200 days of age, and control rats received oral placebo. From 80 to 135 days of age at both drug doses, glipizide decreased the incidence of diabetes, thus delaying disease onset (P < 0.02). At the higher dose of glipizide, a diabetes preventive effect was observed (P < 0.025). There were no significant differences in body weights between the treated and control groups. At 240 days, i.e. 40 days after stopping glipizide and placebo treatments, diabetes incidence remained stable in the two groups; thus the effect of glipizide persisted after discontinuation of the drug. Serum glucose and insulin levels measured at 90 and 200 days did not reveal differences between the glipizide treated and control groups. To determine whether the sulfonylurea affected autoimmune events, the prevalence and severity of islet inflammation were examined. In glipizide-treated BB rats at 240 days, only 44% of rats had islet inflammation compared to 86% in the control group (P < 0.01). At both 90 and 240 days the severity of islet inflammation was decreased in the glipizide treatment groups compared with the control groups (P < 0.01). These data indicate that glipizide (a) prevents diabetes in the diabetic-prone BB rat strain, (b) decreases the prevalence and severity of islet inflammation even after drug withdrawal and (c) may dampen autoimmune events leading to diabetes onset.

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All patients aged 30 years or older receiving glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) and admitted with myocardial infarction (MI) not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in Denmark during 1997-2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity, and concomitant pharmacotherapy were used to assess differences in the composite endpoint of non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality between individual GLDs, using metformin monotherapy as reference.

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The osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system, OROS, is an advanced drug delivery technology that uses osmotic pressure as the driving force to deliver pharmacotherapy, usually once-daily, in several therapeutic areas.

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glucotrol and alcohol 2016-04-13

Glipizide peak concentrations and time to peak differed significantly with the dosage schedule; when smaller doses were administered more often, peak concentrations were lower and more delayed. The mean values for area under the curve from time zero to infinity (range 7240.7-10,001.8 micrograms.L-1.hr-1; 16,226-22,414 nmol.L-1.hr-1), clearance (0.44-0.64 ml.min-1.kg-1; 0.07-0.11 ml.sec-1.kg-1), post-distribution phase volume (0.17-0.25 L.kg-1), and half-life (4.2-5.4 hrs) were not significantly different among regimens. Neither morning fasting glucose nor maximum and minimum times and concentrations of glucose and C-peptide over 24 hours were statistically different among buy glucotrol regimens. Similarly, no significant differences were found in area under the concentration-time curve for glucose and C-peptide measured over 2.5 hours after each meal and from time zero to 24 hours.

glucotrol xl dosing 2015-06-01

The acute effect of sulfonylurea drugs during long-term treatment was evaluated in two separate studies. In the first study, the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured after intake of 10 mg glyburide alone or together with a standardized mixed meal in 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients treated with 10-20 mg glyburide/day for greater than buy glucotrol 2 yr. There was no acute effect of glyburide on the insulin and C-peptide responses to the meal or during continued fasting, indicating the absence of an acute insulinotropic action of glyburide during chronic treatment. The glucose increase after the meal was also unchanged, but a significant glucose reduction was found after glyburide intake during continued fasting, suggesting a sustained acute extrapancreatic (hepatic) effect. In the second study, the diurnal glycemic excursions in 8 NIDDM patients chronically and continuously (24 h/day) exposed to glipizide (2.5-7.5 mg 3 times/day) were similar when the drug was taken 30 min before each of the three main meals and when taken immediately before the meals. It is concluded that there is no acute insulinotropic action of sulfonylurea drugs during chronic continuous exposure, whereas an acute extrapancreatic action may prevail. During such exposure, there seems to be no clinical benefit in taking a sulfonylurea 30 min before rather than at the start of a meal.

glucotrol xl dosage 2015-10-26

Conversion from glyburide to glipizide was associated with an increase in A1c, but the incidence of hypoglycemia was reduced. Results of this study are consistent with the recommendation of the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes to use second-generation sulfonylureas other than glyburide. Patients converted to glipizide should be monitored closely to adjust therapy as appropriate buy glucotrol to maintain glycemic control.

glucotrol dosage administration 2016-04-04

Glipizide (GPZ) has been widely used in the treatment of type-2 diabetics as insulin secretogague. Multiunit chitosan based GPZ floating microspheres was prepared by ionotropic gelation method for gastroretentive delivery using sodiumtripolyphosphate as cross-linking agent. Pharmacokinetic study of microspheres was done in rabbit and plasma samples were analyzed by a newly developed and validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Method was developed on Hypersil ODS-18 column using a mobile phase of 10mM phosphate buffer (pH, 3.5) and methanol (25:75, v/v). Elute was monitored at 230 nm with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 25.38-2046.45 ng/mL. Retention times of GPZ and internal standard (gliclazide) were 7.32 and 9.02 min respectively. Maximum plasma drug concentration, area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve and elimination half life for GPZ floating microspheres were 2.88±0.29 μg mL(-1), 38.46±2.26 μg h mL(-1) and 13.55±1.36 h buy glucotrol respectively. When the fraction of drug dissolved from microspheres in pH 7.4 was plotted against the fraction of drug absorbed, a linear correlation (R(2)=0.991) was obtained in in vitro and in vivo correlation study.

glucotrol 5 mg 2017-09-14

Immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide secretory responses to consecutive stimulations with terbutaline, glucagon, glucose and a standard meal were investigated in fasted subjects with newly diagnosed, untreated Type 2 diabetes with and without concomitant administration of the sulphonylurea agent glipizide (5 mg). Basal concentrations of blood glucose were 8.7 +/- 0.8 mmol/l without glipizide, and 6.6 +/- 0.5 mmol/l with glipizide (p less than 0.01). This difference in prestimulation glucose levels persisted throughout the study. It was found that glipizide potentiated the IRI and C-peptide secretion in response to terbutaline (125 micrograms i.v.). The absolute IRI and C-peptide secretory responses to glucagon (250 micrograms i.v.) were of similar magnitudes with or without glipizide, despite the lower blood glucose concentrations after glipizide. Allowing for the lower blood glucose, IRI and C-peptide responses to glucagon were potentiated buy glucotrol by glipizide. Glucose (6 g i.v.) exerted no IRI or C-peptide secretory effect in these patients either without or with glipizide. The changes in blood glucose concentration after injection of glucagon were not altered by glipizide. On the contrary, the terbutaline-induced increment in blood glucose concentration was inhibited by glipizide and the glucose elimination rate after glucose injection was slightly enhanced by glipizide; effects explained by the higher plasma insulin levels. After meal ingestion, the absolute IRI and C-peptide secretory responses were slightly enhanced by glipizide. Glipizide had no effect on the meal-induced changes in blood glucose concentrations. In conclusion, glipizide had the ability to cause an absolute potentiation of beta 2-adrenoceptor-stimulated and meal-induced insulin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

glucotrol drug 2017-05-09

The actual time between the HbA(1c buy glucotrol ) measurement and the hypoglycemic event was variable and not controlled for in the analysis.

glucotrol generic 2016-08-11

Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated concentrations of the novel vascular risk marker LpPLA2 and buy glucotrol inflammatory risk markers e-selectin and VCAM-1. Neither pioglitazone nor glipizide significantly altered LpPLA2, VCAM-1, or highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels after 12 weeks of therapy. In study subjects with type 2 diabetes, e-selectin concentrations declined significantly with pioglitazone therapy, whereas ICAM-1 concentrations decreased significantly with glipizide therapy.

glucotrol generic name 2017-12-20

A three-group parallel study was conducted in 120 patients with T2DM (HbA1c > 7%) undergoing treatment with metformin. Patients were randomly assigned to receive add-on therapy with glipizide or pioglitazone. Markers of PF (platelet PAC-1 binding, p-selectin expression and adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation) were measured at weeks 0, 4 and 24. Primary outcome was effects of buy glucotrol pioglitazone and glipizide on platelet aggregation. Secondary outcome was the related influencing factors of platelet aggregation.

glucotrol user reviews 2015-05-08

30 studies were included in the NMA. There was a reduced hazard of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with all interventions versus standard lifestyle advice; glipizide, diet plus pioglitazone, diet plus exercise plus metformin plus rosiglitazone, diet plus exercise plus orlistat, diet plus exercise plus pedometer, rosiglitazone, orlistat and diet plus exercise plus voglibose buy glucotrol produced the greatest effects.

glucotrol usual dosage 2015-08-27

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with either improper functioning of the beta-cells or wherein cells fail to use insulin properly. Insulin, the principal hormone regulates uptake of glucose from the blood into most of the cells except central nervous system. Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a key role in all forms of diabetes. In the present work, attempt has been made to find out plant sources which show anti hyperglycaemic activity (AhG) (i.e. compounds that bring down the blood glucose level in the body). Ayurvedic plants showing AhG activity formed the basis of our study by using the platform of Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD). Among 600 plants showing AhG activity, 500 compounds were selected and screened, out of which 243 compounds showed drug likeness property that can be used as therapeutic ligand/drug. Initial screening of such compounds was done based on their drug likeness or biochemical properties. Dynamic interaction of these molecules was captured through Protein-Ligand study. It also gave an insight of the binding pockets involved. Bench marking of all the parameters were done using the buy glucotrol diabetic inhibitor drug, Glipizide. Pharmacokinetic studies of the compounds such as Aloins, Capparisine, Funiculosin and Rhein exhibited less toxicity on various levels of the body. As a conclusion these ligands can lay a foundation for a better anti-diabetic therapy.

glucotrol cost 2017-10-02

We measured the ability of insulin, metformin, glipizide, exendin-4 and sitagliptin, after acute or repeat dose administration, to lower buy glucotrol free-feeding glucose levels in gk(wt/del) mice. Further, we measured the ability of novel GKAs, GKA23, GKA71 and AZD6370 to control glucose either alone or in combination with some standard agents.

glucotrol maximum dosage 2015-03-10

Ingestion of sulfonylureas is life-threatening in toddlers and children due to its strong and prolonged hypoglycemic effect. The authors present a 15-mo-old boy with accidental ingestion of Glipizide who presented with encephalopathy, seizure and severe hypoglycemia. The management included parenteral dextrose and octreotide administration to maintain euglycemia, followed by complete neurological recovery within 24 h. Sulphonylurea intoxication buy glucotrol should be considered in previously healthy toddlers and children presenting with hypoglycemia especially if any caregiver is on sulfonylurea drugs.

glucotrol drug interactions 2017-09-16

This was a post hoc analysis of a 2-year, double-blind study of 2639 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy, which assessed achievement of a composite endpoint of sustained glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (≤7.0% at week 104 or ≥0.5% decrease from baseline) with no weight gain and no hypoglycaemic events with alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg daily or glipizide (≤20 mg daily), each added to metformin. With an HbA1c target of ≤7.0%, 24.2 and 26.9% of patients treated with alogliptin 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively, achieved the composite endpoint versus 10.7% of patients treated with glipizide (both p < 0.001). With a criterion of ≥0.5% decrease in HbA1c, the composite endpoint was reached in 22.5, 25.2 and 10.4% of patients treated with buy glucotrol alogliptin 12.5 mg, alogliptin 25 mg and glipizide, respectively. Odds ratios for achieving the composite endpoint favoured alogliptin in the primary analysis set and in all subgroups of patients. Patients with T2DM failing metformin monotherapy were more likely to achieve sustained glycaemic control with no hypoglycaemia or weight gain at 2 years with alogliptin than with glipizide.

glucotrol name brand 2015-11-18

Potential phototoxicity has been described for a number of drugs buy glucotrol and chemical substances. Psoralens, chlorpromazines and fluoroquinolones have been described as inducing photomutagenicity and photocarcinogenicity in vitro and in vivo. We wanted to investigate oral antidiabetics and diuretics for potential phototoxicity and possible DNA damage in the HaCaT cell line.

glucotrol dose 2015-02-03

To study the effects of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on Topamax 20 Mg the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glipizide.

glucotrol renal dosing 2017-01-25

Glipizide is mainly absorbed in the proximal areas of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive films to prolong the stay of drug in its absorption area. Glipizide was formulated in a mucoadhesive film that could be retained in Valtrex 400 Mg the stomach for prolonged intervals. Polymeric films were designed with various compositions of hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). Properties of the mucoadhesive film such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, swelling index, moisture content, pH and viscosity of polymeric dispersion, film thickness, content uniformity and mucoadhesion in a simulated gastric environment were characterized. In addition, percentage drug retained in stomach mucosa was estimated using a simulated dynamic stomach system as a function of time. Increase in hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration resulted in a higher tensile strength and elongation at break, while increase in concentration of PEG 400 was reflected in a decrease in tensile strength and increase of elongation at break. Glipizide/hydroxypropyl cellulose/PEG 400 (2.5:1:0.5) (GF5) was found to be the optimal composition for a novel mucoadhesive stomach formulation that showed good peelability, relatively high swelling index, moderate tensile strength, and stayed on rat stomach mucosa up to 8 h. In vivo testing of the mucoadhesive films with glipizide demonstrated a potential hypoglycemic effect.

glucotrol xl medication 2016-07-10

Compression coating, which presents some advantages like short manufacturing process and non-solvent residue over liquid coating, has been introduced to the oral administration systems for decades. The purpose of this study was to design a zero-order release of compression-coated tablets using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the coating layer and glipizide which was solubilized by manufacturing the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin as a model drug. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated by "f2" factor with Glucotrol XL(®). The uptake and erosion study, the correlation coefficient (R) and the exponent (n) were used as indicators to justify drug release mechanism. Bioavailability in vivo was determined by administering the compression-coated tablets to rabbits in contrast with Glucotrol XL(®). It was found that the formulation presented a well zero-order behavior at the weight ratio of drug 11:14 (core:layer) and the combination of HPC-L (8.0 mPa s) and HPC-M (350 mPa s) (8:9), with the "f2" of 66.90. The mechanism for zero-order release of these compression-coated tablets was solvent penetration into the dosage form and drug dissolution from the erosion of the gelled HPC matrix. The parameter AUC0-∞ of the compression coated tablets and the market tablets were 37,255.93±1474.08 h ng/ml and 43265.40±1015.28 h ng/ml, while the relative bioavailability was 87.66±1.56 Atarax 75 Mg %. These studies demonstrate that the designed compression-coated tablets may be a promising strategy for peroral controlled release delivery system of water-insoluble drugs.

glucotrol generic names 2015-05-02

When compared with glipizide as add-on therapy to metformin, sitagliptin was noninferior but had lower rates of hypoglycemia and weight gain. In addition, when compared with insulin glargine, sitagliptin was less effective in decreasing glycosylated hemoglobin, but was associated with significantly lower rates of hypoglycemia. Further, trials have shown a beneficial effect of Coumadin 80 Mg using statins in patients with diabetes mellitus with regard to decreasing cardiovascular risk, regardless of baseline lipid levels or the presence of a cardiac disease. Both medications have also demonstrated an acceptable side effect profile. However, caution is needed when coadministering with any drug that may increase simvastatin levels to reduce the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.

glucotrol tablet 2016-01-09

To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes Parlodel Drug Uses mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin.

glucotrol diabetic pills 2016-02-15

Hypoglycemic sulfonylureas, such as tolbutamide, gliclazide and glipizide, provoked the translocation of Ca from an aqueous medium into or across an organic immiscible phase. The amount of Ca translocated into the organic phase was proportional to the square of the drug concentration, and appeared saturable at high Ca concentration. Non-hypoglycemic sulfonylureas and diazoxide had little or no effect upon Ca translocation. The ionophoretic capacity of the hypoglycemic sulfonylureas was antagonized by suloctidil. Tolbutamide and gliclazide also provoked Na translocation into the organic phase, the amount of Na translocated being proportional to the drug concentration. Gliclazide-mediated Ca translocation was inhibited Amaryl 3mg Dosage in a dose-related fashion by increasing concentrations of Na+ or H+. It is proposed that the ionophoretic capacity of hypoglycemic sulfonylureas may participate in their insulinotropic action.

glucotrol pill identifier 2016-02-05

The combination of metformin hydrochloride (MTF) and glipizide (GLZ) is second-line medication for diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). In the present study, elementary osmotic pump ( EOP) tablet is designed to deliver the combination of MTF and GLZ in a sustained and synchronized manner. By analyzing different variables of the formulation, sodium hydrogen carbonate is introduced as Glucovance Cost pH modifier to improve the release of GLZ, while ethyl cellulose acts as release retardant to reduce the burst release phase of MTF. A two-factor, three-level face-centered central composite design (FCCD) is applied to investigate the impact of different factors on drug release profile. Compared with conventional tablets, the EOP tablet demonstrates a controlled release behavior with relative bioavailability of 99.2% for MTF and 99.3% for GLZ. Data also shows EOP tablet is able to release MTF and GLZ in a synchronized and sustained manner both in vitro and in vivo.

glucotrol reviews 2016-05-13

Monotherapy with sitagliptin, 25 mg daily or glipizide (initiated with 2.5 mg daily and titrated up to a potential maximum Arava Arthritis Medication dose of 10 mg twice daily or down to avoid hypoglycemia).

glucotrol xl generic 2017-02-27

To report a case of spontaneous hypoglycemia associated with congestive heart failure in an Zetia Become Generic adult.

glipizide glucotrol dosage 2016-07-14

Glipizide GITS produced better cost outcomes than metformin and acarbose in a model of 3 years' treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glipizide GITS had pharmacoeconomic and quality of life advantages over diet alone in the short term, but more clinically relevant comparisons with other antidiabetic agents are needed. There are limitations to the present data, but the Sinequan 60 Mg available pharmacoeconomic data have been favourable for glipizide GITS.

glucotrol 50 mg 2017-04-03

This study compares the human placental transport of glyburide, glipizide, chlorpropamide, and tolbutamide. Lamictal Reviews Bipolar

glucotrol max dose 2017-10-26

In a perfused guinea-pig heart model of myocardial ischaemia, reducing coronary flow by 95% for four successive 6 min periods caused a reproducible net loss of K+ into the coronary perfusate. This was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by ATP dependent K+ channel blockers (glibenclamide and glipizide) and calcium channel blockers (verapamil and nifedipine). Other K+ channel blockers (UK-66,914, 4-aminopyridine, R56865 and phentolamine) and beta 1-adrenoceptor and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists (betaxolol and ICI118551) did not reduce this loss significantly. A single 30 min low-flow period reliably induced K+ release and ventricular fibrillation in control hearts. Glibenclamide, glipizide and phentolamine suppressed ventricular fibrillation but not ischaemic K+ loss in this model. R56865 and 4-aminopyridine and coadministration of betaxolol and ICI118551 yielded similar results while UK-66,914 suppressed neither. In our model, modulation of ischemic K+ loss and suppression of ventricular fibrillation were not closely associated and appeared to occur via separate mechanisms.

glucotrol 10mg tab 2017-03-01

The study was performed to see that, whether metabolic control and response to treatment in freshly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus is affected by primary pathology (hyperinsulinemia/inappropriate insulin secretion).

glucotrol diabetes medicine 2017-12-07

Glimepiride is a sulphonylurea agent that stimulates insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and may act via extrapancreatic mechanisms. It is administered once daily to patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in whom glycaemia is not controlled by diet and exercise alone, and may be combined with insulin in patients with secondary sulphonylurea failure. The greatest blood glucose lowering effects of glimepiride occur in the first 4 hours after the dose. Glimepiride has fewer and less severe effects on cardiovascular variables than glibenclamide (glyburide). Pharmacokinetics are mainly unaltered in elderly patients or those with renal or liver disease. Few drug interactions with glimepiride have been documented. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glimepiride has an effective dosage range of 0.5 to 8 mg/day, although there is little difference in efficacy between dosages of 4 and 8 mg/day. Glimepiride was similar in efficacy to glibenclamide and glipizide in 1-year studies. However, glimepiride appears to reduce blood glucose more rapidly than glipizide over the first few weeks of treatment. Glimepiride and gliclazide were compared in patients with good glycaemic control at baseline in a 14-week study that noted no differences between their effects. Glimepiride plus insulin was as effective as insulin plus placebo in helping patients with secondary sulphonylurea failure to reach a fasting blood glucose target level of < or = 7.8 mmol/L, although lower insulin dosages and more rapid effects on glycaemia were seen with glimepiride. Although glimepiride monotherapy was generally well tolerated, hypoglycaemia occurred in 10 to 20% of patients treated for < or = 1 year and > or = 50% of patients receiving concomitant insulin for 6 months. Pooled clinical trial data suggest that glimepiride may have a lower incidence of hypoglycaemia than glibenclamide, particularly in the first month of treatment. Dosage is usually started at 1 mg/day, titrated to glycaemic control at 1- to 2-week intervals to a usual dosage range of 1 to 4 mg/day (maximum 6 mg/day in the UK or 8 mg/day in the US).

buy glucotrol 2017-04-17

Longitudinal cohort study.

glucotrol 10 mg 2017-04-23

The data from three clinical trials are presented, comparing the efficacy of different sulfonylureas in the treatment of type II diabetes. In a multicenter study, gliclazide improved control in 49% of patients who had failed on other drugs. When five groups of type II diabetic patients were treated concurrently with five randomly allocated different sulfonylureas over 1 year, the percentage of patients achieving normal HbA1 levels was best with gliclazide (80%) and glibenclamide (74%), when compared with chlorpropamide (17%), glipizide (40%), and gliquidone (40%). Secondary failure rate over 5 years was assessed in 248 type II diabetic patients randomly allocated to three different sulfonylureas and found to be lowest with gliclazide (7%) compared with glibenclamide (17.9%): p < 0.1) and glipizide (25.6%: p < 0.005). The incidence of hypoglycemia was significantly higher with glibenclamide than with gliclazide (p < 0.05). The differences in efficacy and secondary failure rate between sulfonylureas may be related to the mechanism of insulin release from the beta-cell and the more physiological action of gliclazide could partly explain this. These trials suggest that gliclazide is a potent sulfonylurea with a low rate of secondary failure and a low incidence of side effects and may be a better choice in long-term sulfonylurea therapy.