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Existing observational studies provide conflicting evidence for the causal effect of metformin use on cancer risk in patients with type-2 diabetes, and there are concerns about bias affecting a number of studies.
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The tocolytic agent ritodrine acts on the β2-adrenoceptor and is an effective treatment option for preterm labor. However, several adverse effects of ritodrine therapy, including liver damage, have been noted. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ritodrine-induced adverse effects, development of sensitive biomarkers of these adverse events is necessary. Here, we report the development and analysis of an animal model of ritodrine-induced liver damage. Female mice received daily ritodrine injections for 2 weeks; liver samples were then collected and subjected to DNA microarray analysis. Ritodrine significantly altered the expression of genes related to steroid and lipid metabolism, as well as the metabolism of ritodrine itself. Importantly, expression of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA) significantly increased after ritodrine injection, with values indicating the largest fold-change. This large increase in blood SAA levels serves as a more sensitive biomarker than conventional liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The increase in SAA expression is specific to ritodrine-induced liver damage, because SAA expression was not induced by other hepatotoxic drugs such as acetaminophen, valproic acid, or metformin. Our in vitro studies showed that cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation was not a primary cause of the ritodrine-induced SAA increase. Instead, SAA expression was enhanced by indirect phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) mediated by interleukin-6. Therefore, our study provides a method for sensitive and early detection of hepatic injury, and may thus help preclude serious liver damage due to ritodrine use in preterm labor.
Meal tolerance tests (MTT) were performed at baseline and at week 24 in a subset of Taspo10, Taspo20 and Exe patients (n = 42, 39 and 67, respectively). Blood samples for glucose, insulin, glucagon and C-peptide were obtained before and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) ingestion of a standardized liquid meal.
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Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) involved in cell motility, proliferation, tissue remodeling, development, differentiation, inflammation, tumor progression, and invasion and controls vessel thickening in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the control of HA synthesis could permit the fine-tuning of cell behavior, but the mechanisms that regulate HA synthesis are largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that the availability of the nucleotide-sugar precursors has a critical role. Because the formation of UDP-sugars is a highly energetically demanding process, we have analyzed whether the energy status of the cell could control GAG production. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the main ATP/AMP sensor of mammalian cells, and we mimicked an energy stress by treating human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside and metformin. Under these conditions, HA synthesis, but not that of the other GAGs, was greatly reduced. We confirmed the inhibitory effect of AMPK using a specific inhibitor and knock-out cell lines. We found that AMPK phosphorylated Thr-110 of human HAS2, which inhibits its enzymatic activity. In contrast, the other two HAS isoenzymes (HAS1 and HAS3) were not modified by the kinase. The reduction of HA decreased the ability of AoSMCs to proliferate, migrate, and recruit immune cells, thereby reducing the pro-atherosclerotic AoSMC phenotype. Interestingly, such effects were not recovered by treatment with exogenous HA, suggesting that AMPK can block the pro-atherosclerotic signals driven by HA by interaction with its receptors.
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Glyburide and metformin are comparable oral treatments for GDM regarding glucose control and adverse effects. Their combination demonstrates a high efficacy rate with a significantly reduced need for insulin, with a possible advantage for metformin over glyburide as first-line therapy.
Metformin is unanimously considered as the first-line glucose-lowering agent in type 2 diabetes. Theoretically, however, it cannot be prescribed in a large proportion of patients because of the presence of numerous contraindications corresponding to situations that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Recent data suggest that type 2 diabetes patients who are considered as being "at risk" because of the presence of cardiac disease still take benefit from metformin therapy, with a reduction of morbidity and mortality compared with other glucose-lowering agents. The present review analyzes the benefit-risk balance of metformin therapy in special populations, namely patients with stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure.
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Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The mucin 1 (MUC1) oncoprotein is highly expressed in human prostate cancers with aggressive features. However, the role for MUC1 in occurrence and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remained elusive. In this study, we showed that solamargine, a major steroidal alkaloid glycoside, inhibited the growth of CRPC cells, which was enhanced in the presence of metformin. Furthermore, we found that solamargine increased phosphorylation of AMPKα, whereas reducing the protein expression and promoter activity of MUC1. A greater effect was observed in the presence of metformin. In addition, solamargine reduced NF-κB subunit p65 protein expression. Exogenously expressed p65 resisted solamargine-reduced MUC1 protein and promoter activity. Interestingly, exogenously expressed MUC1 attenuated solamargine-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPKα and, more importantly reversed solamargine-inhibited cell growth. Finally, solamargine increased phosphorylation of AMPKα, while inhibiting MUC1, p65 and tumor growth were observed in vivo. Overall, our results show that solamargine inhibits the growth of CRPC cells through AMPKα-mediated inhibition of p65, followed by reduction of MUC1 expression in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, metformin facilitates the antitumor effect of solamargine on CRPC cells.
"Window of opportunity" study of metformin in women with operable endometrial cancer (EC). Eleven newly diagnosed, untreated, non-diabetic patients with EC received metformin 500 mg tid from diagnostic biopsy to surgery. Fasting plasma insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) measurements were taken before and after metformin treatment. Ki-67, pAMPK, and pS6 immunohistochemistry staining was performed on the endometrial cancer before and after metformin treatment and was compared to a control group of 10 women with EC who did not receive metformin.
Among 40,537 who met the inclusion criteria, 17,519 (43.2%) had insulin initiated over a median follow-up period of 58.6 months. The rate of insulin initiation due to 1% increase in A1c increased by 33.6%, 28.8%, 24.2%, 19.7%, 15.4% for patients exposed to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 classes of oral-glucose-lowering agents. A higher insulin initiation rate was also associated with younger age, more comorbidities, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, obesity, longer diabetes duration, and attending endocrinology clinics.
A 54-year-old obese woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes was put on the maximum allowed doses of Metformin, Glimepiride and Rosiglitazone. When Exenatide was added, she lost 33 kg. She remained euglycemic for at least 7 months after the sequential discontinuation of Exenatide and the other oral agents.
Our data indicate that metformin can induce apoptosis in both primary ovarian cancer cells and in SKOV-3 cells. When metformin was combined with carboplatin or paclitaxel, an increased apoptotic activity was observed, implicating a chemo-adjuvant potential.
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Obesity is a major public health issue. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacologic treatments for overweight and obesity in adults.
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Obesity promotes pancreatic and breast cancer progression via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although obesity is associated with increased systemic levels of placental growth factor (PlGF), the role of PlGF in obesity-induced tumor progression is not known. PlGF and its receptor VEGFR-1 have been shown to modulate tumor angiogenesis and promote tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and activity. Here, we hypothesized that increased activity of PlGF/VEGFR-1 signaling mediates obesity-induced tumor progression by augmenting tumor angiogenesis and TAM recruitment/activity.
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As compared to placebo, 6 months of pioglitazone therapy in patients with T2DM resulted in significant reduction in mean total testosterone level (16.1 to 14.9 vs 17.1 to 17.0 nm; P = 0.031), calculated free testosterone (P = 0.001) and bioavailable testosterone (P = 0.000) despite significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.000). Plasma androstenedione (∆(4) ) level increased (1.5 to 1.9 vs 1.7 to 1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.051) following pioglitazone therapy. The decrease in testosterone was independent of change in body weight, body fat and HbA1c.
1235 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 290 specialists in the United States reviewed medical charts for 5995 patients whose HbA1c was between 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) at diagnosis and were being treated with metformin monotherapy. In an online survey physicians rated the relevance of 22 reasons for not initiating dual therapy using a 5-point Likert scale. Relevant reasons were compared between PCPs vs. specialists, and younger vs. older patients, using multivariate general linear regression and mixed-effect models.
Metformin-induced [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) bowel uptake can hinder positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) evaluation of the bowel. This study aimed to investigate the segmental bowel uptake of FDG according to metformin discontinuation times up to 72 h.
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Serum OPG levels correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbAlc, HOMA-IR, IL6, and CRP, and inversely correlated with adiponectin after adjusting for age (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that FPG, HbAlc, and adioponectin were independently correlated with OPG level. After 6 months of treatment, the reduction in FPG and HbAlc levels was similar between the two groups. Pioglitazone treatment significantly increased body mass index (P<0.05) and waist circumference (P<0.05) and decreased triglycerides (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). The adiponectin concentration was increased (P<0.05), and OPG and CRP levels were decreased in the pioglitazone group (P<0.05), but were unchanged in the metformin group. The changes in serum OPG in the pioglitazone group showed significant correlation with changes in FPG, HbAlc, and adiponectin.
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A Niuean women, first evaluated at age 6 years for severe acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, poor growth and cognitive impairment, had extremely elevated fasting insulin levels of 10740 IU/l (fasting reference range 4-24 IU/l) and a normal glucose concentration (4.9 mmol/l). Diabetes was diagnosed at age 9 years and metformin treatment introduced. By age 14 years, she developed refractory hyperglycaemia despite metformin, rosiglitazone and 240 IU insulin daily. Insulin receptor genetic analysis was documented as normal. At age 23 years, with a blood glucose concentration of 37 mmol/l and an HbA1c concentration of 116 mmol/mol, U500 insulin 2000 IU/day was required for glycaemic control. She developed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy with neovascular glaucoma leading to blindness. There was no renal dysfunction, dyslipidaemia or hepatic steatosis. A muscle biopsy was performed to evaluate the insulin signalling pathway and showed reduced insulin receptor protein. Sequencing of the insulin receptor showed a homozygous p.Val1010Leu missense mutation.
Various classes of medication are currently being used in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients including the biguanides and the statins. However, their efficacies are rarely compared. This study aimed to compare efficacy ofa biguanide and a statin in treating PCOS. In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 400 women with PCOS were recruited within 15 months in Taleghani Hospital. They randomly received either a biguanide (metformin 500 mg three times daily) or a statin (simvastatin 20 mg daily) for three consecutive months. Changes of clinical and laboratory variables were compared. In the biguanide group the serum glucose status (abnormal fasting and non-fasting sugar and insulin levels and percentage of hyperinsulinemic cases) and menstrual abnormalities improved significantly after treatment (p < 0.05). In the statin group the lipid profile status (abnormal total cholesterol, high and low density lipoproteins), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hyperinsulinemia, severity of acne and menstrual abnormalities improved significantly after treatment (p < 0.05). Comparing the two groups, the improvements in fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were significantly better in the biguanide group (p = 0.04 for both parameters); whereas the improvements in serum total cholesterol (p < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001) and acne status (p = 0.04) were significantly superior in the statin receivers. Based on these results, each medication is only effective on some aspects of the disease. Overall, the simvastatin was superior to metformin with regard to the number of beneficial effects.
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The mean phenprocoumon dosage increased from 2.13 to 2.37 mg per day within 6 weeks (mean increase, 0.23 mg; 95% CI, 0.12-0.34) and 2.49 mg per day within 3 months (mean increase, 0.36 mg; 95% CI, 0.24-0.48) after starting metformin. The mean INR decreased from 2.88 to 2.26 (mean decrease, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.85) within 6 weeks and 2.54 (mean decrease, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.48) within 3 months after starting metformin.
In Asian adults with T2DM, IDegAsp BID effectively improves long-term glycaemic control, and compared to BIAsp 30, provides superior reductions in FPG with a lower dose, and numerically less nocturnal hypoglycaemia.
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Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 31 completed the study. The coadministration of rosuvastatin with metformin produced a significant pharmacokinetic interaction in rosuvastatin Css,max, with the 90% CI for the geometric mean ratio (coadministration:monoadministration) being 110.27% to 136.39% (P = 0.0029), whereas no significant interaction was observed in rosuvastatin AUCtau, yielding the 90% CI of 104.41% to 118.95%. When metformin was coadministered with rosuvastatin, no significant pharmacokinetic interaction was observed for Css,max and AUCtau of metformin, yielding the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratio for coadministration to monoadministration as 87.38% to 102.54% and 86.70% to 99.08%, respectively. Overall, 19 mild and 1 moderate adverse events occurred in 12 subjects, with no significant differences in the incidence among the 3 treatments.