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Children aged 3 to 10 years with persistent asthma.
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We carried out a real-life clinical observation of undercontrolled asthmatic patients switched over from dry powder inhalers of fluticasone/salmeterol and budesonide/formoterol to I-EF-BDP/F (Foster(®), Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Italy). The effects of 8-weeks of treatment were documented by means of visual analog scale (VAS), quality of life by Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), spirometry and markers of airway or systemic inflammation: exhaled breath temperature (EBT), blood eosinophils (Eos), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Before/after treatment differences between forced vital capacity percent of predicted (%FVC), a simple indicator of small airways involvement, were calculated and subjects were ranked accordingly to reflect the magnitude of the therapeutic response. Subjects above the 75th percentile (n = 15), "top responders", were then compared with those below the 25th percentile (n = 15) "poor responders".
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Fluticasone is a corticosteroid drug which is used in inhaled and nasal formulations for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450. Ritonavir, an inhibitor of the HIV protease, also acts as an inhibitor of several isoenzymes of the P450 cytochrome. This property explains the many drug interactions observed with this agent.
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To investigate the effects of fluticasone on expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and mRNA in allergic rhinitis rats.
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Asthma patients who continue to experience symptoms despite taking regular inhaled corticosteroids represent a management challenge. Leukotrienes play a key role in asthma pathophysiology, and since pro-inflammatory leukotrienes are poorly suppressed by corticosteroids it seems rational to add a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) when a low to moderate dose of inhaled corticosteroids does not provide sufficient disease control. Long acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment represents an alternative to LTRAs and both treatment modalities have been shown to provide additional disease control when added to corticosteroid treatment. To compare the relative clinical benefits of adding either a LTRA or a LABA to asthma patients inadequately controlled by inhaled corticosteroids, a randomized, double-blind, multi-centre, 48-week study will be initiated at approximately 120 centres throughout Europe, Latin America, Middle East, Africa and the Asia-Pacific region in early 2000. The study will compare the oral LTRA montelukast with the inhaled LABA salmeterol, each administered on a background of inhaled fluticasone, on asthma attacks, quality of life, lung function, eosinophil levels, healthcare utilization, and safety, in approximately 1200 adult asthmatic patients. The requirements for study enrollment include a history of asthma, FEV1 or PEFR values between 50% and 90% of the predicted value together with > or = 12% improvement in FEV1 after beta-agonist administration, a minimum pre-determined level of asthma symptoms and daily beta-agonist medication. The study will include a 4-week run-in period, during which patients previously taking inhaled corticosteroids are switched to open-label fluticasone (200 microg daily), followed by a 48-week double-blind, treatment period in which patients continuing to experience abnormal pulmonary function and daytime symptoms are randomized to receive montelukast (10 mg once daily) and salmeterol placebo, or inhaled salmeterol (100 microg daily) and montelukast placebo. All patients will continue with inhaled fluticasone (200 microg daily). During the study, asthma attacks, overnight asthma symptoms, and morning peak expiratory flow rate will be assessed using patient diary cards; quality of life will also be assessed using an asthma-specific quality-of life questionnaire. The results of this study are expected to provide physicians with important clinical evidence to help them make a rational and logical treatment choice for asthmatic patients experiencing breakthrough symptoms on inhaled corticosteroids.
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Dermatophagoides farinae are known to be a common environmental allergen causing allergic asthma; however, little is known about their pathophysiological effect via the allergenicities in vivo. Therefore, we first established a mouse model of asthma induced by repeated instillations of D. farinae. Second, to investigate whether the asthmatic responses are Th2-dependent, we examined the effect of the deficiency of interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor alpha chain gene. Finally, we examined the effect of fluticasone propionate on this model. Mice were instilled with D. farinae without additional adjuvants into the trachea 8 times. After the final allergen instillation, the airway responsiveness to acetylcholine was measured, and bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination were carried out. The instillation of the allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, the accumulation of inflammatory cells and increases in the levels of Th2 cytokines and transforming growth factor-beta(1) production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid dose dependently. The number of goblet cells in the epithelium and the extent of the fibrotic area beneath the basement membrane were also increased in the morphometric study. In contrast, the defect of IL-4/IL-13 signaling through IL-4 receptor alpha chain completely abrogated all these responses. Furthermore, the simultaneous instillation of fluticasone propionate with the allergen showed significant inhibition or an inhibitory tendency of these changes. These findings demonstrate that the repetitive intratracheal instillations of D. farinae can induce airway remodeling through Th2-type inflammation, and that fluticasone propionate inhibits D. farinae-induced airway remodeling in mice, and this model would be useful for studying mechanisms involved in the development of allergic asthma.
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The class label warning in the United States for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS's) states that these drugs may reduce growth velocity in children. In this paper, the evidence for this warning is reviewed from a clinical point of view. Children with asthma tend to grow slower than their healthy peers during the prepubertal years because they go into puberty at a later age. However, asthmatic children do achieve a (near) normal adult height. In randomized controlled clinical trials, the use of inhaled beclomethasone, budesonide and fluticasone is associated with a reduced growth during the first months of therapy, in the order of magnitude of approximately 0.5-1.5 cm x yr(-1). It is, however, unlikely that such an effect continues or persists because accumulating evidence shows that asthmatic children, even when they have been treated with ICS for years, attain normal adult height. Individual rare cases have been reported, however, where ICS use was associated with clinically relevant growth suppression. Inhaled corticosteroids are the most effective therapy available for maintenance treatment of childhood asthma. Fear of reduced growth velocity is based on exceptional cases and not on group data. It should, therefore, not be a reason to withhold or withdraw such highly effective treatment in children with asthma.
Fluticasone/formoterol was demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior to SKP FP. The least squares (LS) mean difference in FEV1 from baseline pre-dose to 2 hours post-dose at week 12 was 0.161 L (95% CI: 0.078, 0.245, p < 0.001). Fluticasone/formoterol also demonstrated superior efficacy against GSK FP (LS mean difference = 0.185 L, 95% CI: 0.102, 0.268, p < 0.001). Results from multiple secondary and tertiary efficacy endpoints assessing lung function, asthma symptoms, exacerbations and rescue medication use supported a superior efficacy of the fluticasone/formoterol combination over both fluticasone formulations. Treatment-emergent adverse events were lowest in the fluticasone/formoterol group (32.9%) compared to SKP FP (39.7%) or GSK FP (40.4%).
After lung transplantation (LTx), inhaled corticosteroids may be prescribed and at the same time prophylaxis against fungal infections with itraconazole is common. In our center, the addition of inhaled fluticasone propionate to systemic immunosuppression resulted in clinical Cushing's syndrome in 4 lung transplant recipients on itraconazole comedication.
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The %ΔFEV1 induced by 4 weeks' treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (1000 μg daily) was measured in 246 asthmatics. The 15 SNPs of TAAR6 were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. An association analysis between %ΔFEV1 and TAAR6 polymorphisms was carried out using a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, smoking status, presence of atopy, and baseline FEV1 as covariates.
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The overall methodological quality of included studies was low. SUCRA ranking probability indicated that PPI had the highest probability of being the best treatment for achieving histological remission and mean change in eosinophils (0.81 and 0.85, respectively), followed by budesonide (0.74 and 0.63, respectively) and fluticasone (0.5 and 0.5, respectively). None of the comparisons indicated a statistically signicant difference.
A primary health care centre recruited 20 non-smoking patients with perennial allergic asthma (18 years-50 years, six male) outside the pollen season. At every visit (0, 2, 4, 8 weeks), FE(NO) was measured and an exposure questionnaire was completed. ICS dose was adjusted according to FE(NO) (>or=22 ppb prescribed increase in ICS). Quantitative analyses of serum IgE (eight common aeroallergens) confirmed allergy.
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This was a prospective observational study. On discharge from hospital patients were given a salmeterol/fluticasone inhaler with an INCATM device attached. Analysis of this audio quantified the frequency and proficiency of inhaler use.
CPG could improve the clinical symptoms and lung function, facilitate to Th1/Th2 balance and enhance the secretion of adrenal cortex. It is an effective and safe Chinese herbal remedy for treatment of refractory asthma.
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Both inhaled steroids (ICS) and long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA) are used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This updated review compared compound LABA plus ICS therapy (LABA/ICS) with the LABA component drug given alone.
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This ultrasensitive method has been successfully validated using LC-MS/MS for determination of fluticasone propionate in human plasma at low pg/ml level.
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A single-blinded randomized controlled trial in children (aged 6-18 years) with pollen-related AR. Patients received either INCS daily (fluticasone propionate), INCS on demand (fluticasone propionate) or oral antihistamine on demand (levocetirizine) for 3 months during the grass pollen season. A daily online symptom diary on both nose and eye symptoms was completed. The primary outcome was the percentage of symptom-free days.
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To evaluate cys-LTs in EBC of allergic patients and to assess the activity of nasal fluticasone propionate (FP) on EBC cys-LTs levels.
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Both treatments led to similar control of eosinophilic airway inflammation, although PEF and symptom control were better with SFC. STUDY NUMBER: SAM40030 (SOLTA).
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A course of combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β(2) agonist (LABA) for asthma can improve lung function, asthma symptoms and reduce exacerbations. Because both medicinal substance and inhalation devices are associated with clinical efficacy, each ICS/LABA combination may have different features. This study aimed to compare the effects of two widely available formulations, budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) delivered by a Turbuhaler(®), and fluticasone/salmeterol (FP/SM) delivered by a Diskus(®), on small airway function and airway inflammation.
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To investigate the function of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in the asthmatic airway remodeling and the relationship between IL-33 and asthma severity.
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In total, 211 patients were randomized and 210 completed the core phase; of these patients, 208 entered and 205 completed the extension phase of the study. Predose FEV1 increased from day 0 to day 84 [FP/FORM, 182 ml; 95% confidence interval (CI), 127, 236; FP/SAL, 212 ml, 95% CI, 160, 265] and FP/FORM was noninferior to FP/SAL: least squares (LS) mean treatment difference: -0.031 (95% CI, -0.093, 0.031; p = 0.026). Secondary efficacy analyses indicated similar efficacy with both therapies. There were no notable differences observed in the safety and tolerability profile between treatments. No safety concerns were identified with long-term FP/FORM therapy, and there was no evidence of an effect of FP/FORM on plasma cortisol.
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Eleven healthy males (18-30 yr old) were placed on 2 wk of fluticasone proprionate (440 μg) twice daily. A 30-min bout of exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at approximately 70% of peak work rate before and after the start of ICS. Blood was sampled before and after exercise. Cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mediators were measured by ELISA, and fluticasone was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.