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Cognitive impairment and dementia treatment costs are significant for health systems. According to national and international guidelines, recommended drugs for treatment of dementias are cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine. Despite these guidelines recommendations, other nootropics, vasodilators and antioxidants are often used in Argentina. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the prescription pattern of commonly used drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders and dementia in different regions of Argentina. An observational, retrospective study of 1814108 recipes prescribed to National Institute of Social Services for Retired and Pensioners outpatients during the during the second half of 2008 and the first and second half of 2009 was performed, taking in count the whole country and also different Argentina's regions. Demographic variables, quantity and rate of prescriptions, dosage forms and strengths were analyzed. Considering the entire country, memantine was the most prescribed drug in these periods (570893 packages). An increase in the memantine, donepezil, rivastigmine and idebenone rates of prescription was observed. Prescription rate of memantine increased in the North-West and North-East regions, that of idebenone in the North-East region and Patagonia and donepezil in the North-East region. Non recommended drugs were highly prescribed in all the analyzed regions. Some of them were indicated to young and middle-aged patients.
To assess the therapeutic use of different pharmaceutical forms of rivastigmine in patients with AD in normal clinical practice.
Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders with several pathoetiological pathways leading to cell death. Rationally designed multi-targeted agents, or "multi-targeted designed drugs" (MTDD) show significant promise in preclinical studies as neuroprotective and disease-modifying agents. In this review, we highlight the use of chemical scaffolds that lend themselves exquisitely to the development of MTDDs in neurodegeneration. Notably, synthetic polycyclic cage compounds have served as scaffolds for novel voltage-gated calcium channel blockers, NMDA receptor antagonists, and sigma-receptor ligands - attractive targets in neurodegeneration. In an entirely different approach, compounds containing the thiazolidinedione moiety (referred to as glitazones) alter mitochondrial function through the mitochondrial protein mitoNEET, an attractive new drug target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The design strategy for yet another agent, ladostigil, employed the amalgamation of active chemical moieties of the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine, and the monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor rasagiline, leading to a single compound that targets both enzymes simultaneously. Natural products have also served as design templates for several MTDD design studies. In particular, the stilbene scaffold has become popular in particular due to the neuroprotective effects of the non-flavonoid natural product resveratrol. Recently, stilbene scaffold-based compounds were developed to reduce - through chelation with metal ions that interact with beta-amyloid - both metal-induced beta-amyloid protein aggregation, and ROS generated from this aggregate. Other subtle modifications of the stilbene motif led to the creation of reversible, non-competitive MAO inhibitors. Finally, compounds derived from the xanthine scaffold afford neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease through mechanisms that include dual adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and MAO-B inhibition.
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Transdermal patches provide non-invasive, continuous drug delivery, and offer significant potential advantages over oral treatments. With all transdermal treatments a proportion of patients will experience some form of skin reaction. The rivastigmine patch has been approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) since July 2007 in the US. The aim of the component of the trial reported here was to evaluate the skin tolerability of the rivastigmine transdermal patch in patients with mild-to-moderate AD.
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High-level evidence related to pharmacological strategies for managing Lewy body dementia is rare. Strategies for important areas of need in Lewy body dementia, such as autonomic symptoms and caregiver burden, have not been investigated, nor have the views of patients and caregivers about pharmacological strategies.
The panel determined that statistically significant differences in scores on all scales except the MMSE were likely associated with functional or cognitive differences that were clinically relevant for patients, reflecting stabilization that would have beneficial consequences for caregivers and health care resource use. Subsequent chart review showed that improvement on specific scale items confirmed the physician panel's opinion. Analysis of possible cost implications to society indicated that medication expenditures would be offset largely by delays in the need for paid home care and institutionalization, positive effects on caregiver health, and less time lost from work for the caregiver.
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Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe.
Cholinesterase inhibitors are the 'first-line' agents in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This article presents the latest information on their pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic activity. Tacrine was the first cholinesterase inhibitor approved by regulatory agencies, followed by donepezil, rivastigmine and recently galantamine. With the exception of low doses of tacrine, the cholinesterase inhibitors exhibit a linear relationship between dose and area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Cholinesterase inhibitors are rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, with time to peak concentration usually less than 2 hours; donepezil has the longest absorption time of 3 to 5 hours. Donepezil and tacrine are highly protein bound, whereas protein binding of rivastigmine and galantamine is less than 40%. Tacrine is metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, and donepezil and galantamine are metabolised by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Rivastigmine is metabolised by sulfate conjugation. Two cholinesterase enzymes are present in the body, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Tacrine and rivastigmine inhibit both enzymes, whereas donepezil and galantamine specifically inhibit AChE. Galantamine also modulates nicotine receptors, thereby enhancing acetylcholinergic activity at the synapse. These different pharmacological profiles provide distinctions between these agents. Cholinesterase inhibitors show a nonlinear relationship between dose and cholinesterase inhibition, where a plateau effect occurs. Cholinesterase inhibitors display a different profile as each agent achieves its plateau at different doses. In clinical trials, cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrate a dose-dependent effect on cognition and functional activities. Improvement in behavioural symptoms also occurs, but without a dose-response relationship. Gastrointestinal adverse events are dose-related. Clinical improvement occurs with between 40 and 70% inhibition of cholinesterase. A conceptual model for cholinesterase inhibitors has been proposed, linking enzyme inhibition, clinical efficacy and adverse effects. Currently, measurement of enzyme inhibition is used as the biomarker for cholinesterase inhibitors. New approaches to determining the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors in the brain could involve the use of various imaging techniques. The knowledge base for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cholinesterase inhibitors continues to expand. The increased information available to clinicians can optimise the use of these agents in the management of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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To examine comorbidities and demographic characteristics associated with gap entry and exit.
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The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched on 27 March 2008 using the terms: Rivastigmine OR exelon OR ENA OR "SDZ ENA 713" . The CDCIG Specialized Register contains records from all major health care databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many clinical trials registries and grey literature sources.
The long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of high-dose 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in severe Alzheimer disease was evaluated in a 24-week, open-label extension to the double-blind ACTION study. Safety and tolerability, and efficacy on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale-Severe Impairment Version (ADCS-ADL-SIV), Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), and ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC) were assessed. Overall, 197 patients continued on 13.3 mg/24 h patch; 199 uptitrated from 4.6 mg/24 h to 13.3 mg/24 h patch. The incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs was similar in patients who continued on, and patients who uptitrated to, 13.3 mg/24 h patch (AEs: 57.9% and 59.8%; serious AEs: 16.2% and 16.1%; discontinuations: 11.2% and 12.1%, respectively). Larger mean changes from double-blind baseline were observed in patients uptitrated on the ADCS-ADL-SIV (-4.6; SD=8.7) and SIB (-7.0; SD=16.6), than those who continued on 13.3 mg/24 h patch (-3.9; SD=8.0 and -4.7; SD=16.8, respectively). ADCS-CGIC scores were comparable. There were no clinically relevant between-group differences in safety and tolerability. Greater decline was observed in patients with delayed uptitration to high-dose 13.3 mg/24 h patch than patients who continued on high-dose patch.
: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
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Treating patients with somatic and psychological symptoms calls for careful anamnestic exploration and clinical examination. Psychological alterations following neurological affection of the brain can imitate somatization disorder.
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Patients meeting prespecified decline criteria were randomized to receive 9.5 or 13.3 mg/24 h (15 cm(2)) patch during a 48-week, DB phase. Coprimary outcomes were change from baseline to week 48 on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living domain of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-IADL) scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Safety and tolerability were assessed.
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Rivastigmine is a carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor with central selectivity. Early studies showed that daily doses up to 6 mg/day have some efficacy in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The present study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of rivastigmine at doses up to 12 mg/day. A total of 114 patients with mild-moderate DAT were randomly assigned to either rivastigmine (b.i.d. (twice daily) or t.i.d. (three times daily)) or placebo in a double-blind fashion titrated to their maximum tolerated dose over 10 weeks followed by an eight-week maintenance phase. The mean maximum tolerated dose was approximately 10 mg/day (b.i.d. or t.i.d.). Gastrointestinal complaints, the majority of which were mild to moderate, were the most frequently reported adverse events. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, haematology or organ function were detected. Significantly more patients taking rivastigmine b.i.d. were considered improved according to the Clinicians' Interview-Based Impression of Change-Plus (CIBIC-Plus) vs. placebo (57% vs. 16%, respectively; P = 0.027). The Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) (memory component) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) also improved in the rivastigmine b.i.d. group vs. placebo (mean change from baseline on NOSGER = -0.7 vs. +1.3, respectively; P = 0.037: mean change from baseline on ADAS-cog = -2.7 vs. +0.2, respectively; P = 0.054). Despite the relatively small size and limited duration of the study, the finding that rivastigmine induced changes in the same (positive) direction in all three dimensions measured suggests that rivastigmine at doses of up to 12 mg/day has useful efficacy in patients with mild-moderate DAT. Reports from larger phase III studies confirm this finding. The results of this study also suggest that b.i.d. is the more efficacious regimen and has comparable tolerability to the t.i.d. regimen.
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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) have been used to improve cognitive status and disability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, while the efficacy of AChEIs (i.e. how they act in randomized controlled trials) in this setting is widely accepted, their effectiveness (i.e. how they behave in the real world) remains controversial. To compare the effects of three AChEIs, donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Reminyl) and rivastigmine (Exelon), in an Italian national, prospective, observational study representative of the 'real world' clinical practice of AChEI treatment for AD. 938 patients with mild to moderate AD collected within the framework of the Italian National Cronos Project (CP), involving several UVAs (AD Evaluation Units) spread over the entire national territory, who were receiving donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine were followed for 36 weeks by measuring: (i) function, as determined by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales; (ii) cognition, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) [primary outcome measures]; and (iii) behaviour, as measured on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Moreover, all patients were genotyped for apolipoprotein E (apoE) genetic variants. No statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measures (MMSE and ADAS-Cog) was observed with drug therapy at 36 weeks, at which point all groups had lost, on average, 1 point on the MMSE and gained 2-3 points on the ADAS-Cog scale compared with baseline. On the secondary outcome measures at week 36, all treatment groups showed a significant worsening on the ADL and IADL scales compared with baseline, while on the NPI scale there were no significant differences from baseline except for the galantamine-treated group which worsened significantly. Moreover, patients receiving galantamine worsened significantly compared with the donepezil-treated group on the IADL scale. ApoE epsilon4 allele did not influence the effect of drug therapy. Over a 36-week follow-up period, no significant difference in the effects of donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine on a variety of functional and cognitive parameters was observed in a large number of apoE-genotyped patients with mild to moderate AD recruited within the framework of a national project representative of the scenario usually encountered in actual clinical practice in Italy. The limitations (possibility of administration of lower drug doses than are used in clinical trials, relatively short follow-up period and the lack of randomization) and strengths (large number of patients, concomitant observation of the three drugs and the number of parameters assessed, including apoE genotype) of the present study are acknowledged. Our type of naturalistic study should complement clinical trials because 'real world' practice operates in the face of the numerous variables (e.g. health status and co-morbidities) associated with a complex disease such as AD in elderly people.
To estimate savings in the cost of caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) during 6 months, 1 year and 2 years of treatment with rivastigmine. An intermediate objective was to estimate the relationship between disease progression and institutionalisation.
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To date, pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEIs) for mild-to-moderate AD, and memantine for moderate-to-severe AD. AChEIs reversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), thus increasing the availability of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, enhancing cholinergic transmission. These drugs provide symptomatic short-term benefits, without clearly counteracting the progression of the disease.
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Open-label studies have an inherent potential for bias by both the caregiver and the physician.
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The results of this study suggest that the rivastigmine transdermal patch is safe and tolerable for Alzheimer's dementia patients in naturalistic conditions.
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The power of chosen carbamates and hydrazinium derivatives (carbazates) to inhibit the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine by butyrylcholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase was tested. The determined pI50 values (= negative logarithm of the molar concentration inhibiting the enzyme activity by 50%) of the tested substances were compared with pI50 values of the commercially used drugs for the Alzheimer's disease treatment--rivastigmine and galanthamine.
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An increased risk of SADRs related to cholinesterase inhibitors was associated with the use of antipsychotics (with no difference between conventional and atypical antipsychotics), drugs targeting the alimentary tract/metabolism and antihypertensive drugs. It was not associated with the use of other psychotropic drugs, other non-psychotropic CNS drugs or with the use of antiarrhythmic agents. The association with drugs targeting the alimentary tract and metabolism could result from a protopathic bias or reflect the particular sensitivity to serious nausea and vomiting in patients already treated for gastrointestinal disorders. These results confirm that attention needs to be paid to patients receiving both cholinesterase inhibitors and antipsychotics.
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The rate of functional but not cognitive decline was a strong risk factor for NHP. The results could be used to identify the care recipients that might risk early NHP to ensure that these individuals receive a sufficient level of assistance. Furthermore, higher doses of ChEI might postpone institutionalization in AD.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered to be a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Medicinal plants, with their antioxidant properties, have been used to cure several human diseases. The aim of the current study was to explore the protective and therapeutic effect of baicalein on AD-induced rats.
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Current PI documents for donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine were obtained from American manufacturers' websites, accessed in September, 2007. Adverse events (AEs) data for each drug versus placebo were compiled and analyzed using odds ratios.
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A novel brain-selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, SDZ ENA 713, is under development for the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer type. To determine the threshold dose for central activity, single doses of the compound were administered to 20 young male volunteers in a double-blind cross-over design and the effects on the sleep electroencephalography studied. The first group of eight volunteers received in random order: placebo, 0.5 mg; and 1 mg SDZ ENA 713. The second group of 12 volunteers received: placebo, 1.3 mg; and 2 mg SDZ ENA 713. Sleep quality was not affected by the study medication, which was well tolerated by all subjects. A statistically significant increase in rapid-eye movement sleep density was observed after doses of 1 mg, 1.3 mg, and 2 mg. Rapid-eye movement latency and slow-wave sleep were not altered. The results demonstrate that SDZ ENA 713 is centrally active in man at well-tolerated doses.