T47D:A18/PKCα cells were grown in vitro using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture, three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel and in vivo by establishing xenografts in athymic mice. Immunofluoresence confocal microscopy and co-localization were applied to determine estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) subcellular localization. Co-immunoprecipitation and western blot were used to examine interaction of ERα with caveolin-1.
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Osteoporosis and low bone density are associated with a risk of fracture as a result of even minimally traumatic events. The estimated lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is as high as 50 percent, especially in white and Asian women. The use of caffeine, tobacco and steroids is associated with a decrease in bone density. Cognitive impairment, vision problems and postural instability increase the risk of falling and sustaining a fracture. Medications such as long-acting sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants also increase this risk. Combinations of clinical and radiographic findings can predict fracture risk more effectively than bone densitometry, but often only after the first fracture has occurred. The addition of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D is clearly both cost-effective and significant in reducing the likelihood of fractures. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk but at a cost that may be prohibitive for some patients. Estrogen and estrogen-receptor modulators have not been well studied in randomized trials evaluating the reduction of fractures, but they are known to increase bone density. Pharmacologic therapy and the reduction of sensory and environmental hazards can prevent osteoporotic fractures in some patients.
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Influenza causes an acute infection characterized by virus replication in respiratory epithelial cells. The severity of influenza and other respiratory diseases changes over the life course and during pregnancy in women, suggesting that sex steroid hormones, such as estrogens, may be involved. Using primary, differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNEC) cultures from adult male and female donors, we exposed cultures to the endogenous 17β-estradiol (E2) or select estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and then infected cultures with a seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) to determine whether estrogenic signaling could affect the outcome of IAV infection and whether these effects were sex dependent. Estradiol, raloxifene, and bisphenol A decreased IAV titers in hNECs from female, but not male, donors. The estrogenic decrease in viral titer was dependent on the genomic estrogen receptor-2 (ESR2) as neither genomic ESR1 nor nongenomic GPR30 was expressed in hNEC cultures and addition of the genomic ER antagonist ICI 182,780 reversed the antiviral effects of E2. Treatment of hNECs with E2 had no effect on interferon or chemokine secretion but significantly downregulated cell metabolic processes, including genes that encode for zinc finger proteins, many of which contain estrogen response elements in their promoters. These data provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how natural and synthetic estrogens impact IAV infection in respiratory epithelial cells derived from humans.
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In this study, therapeutic effects of Vitamin K2, Raloxifene and their co-administration on bone, uterus, blood and weight profiles were investigated with an ovariectomized rat model. Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=8): Raloxifene (R), Vitamin K2 (K), Raloxifene+Vitamin K2 (R+K), ovariectomized controls (OVX) and Sham-operated controls (Sham). Treatment began 3 months after ovariectomy. Vitamin K2 and Raloxifene were administered 30 and 1.5 mg/kg/day separately and in combination five times per week for 12 weeks. All treatment groups had significantly higher ultimate strength and energy absorption capacity (P<0.05) than ovariectomized controls in both femur and tibia. Histological results showed that treatment groups had healthy lumen structure, whereas OVX had degeneration. Adverse effects which were seen in individual treatments (myometrium weakening in K, endometrium weakening in R, and ALP increase in group R) were not observed in the R+K group implying a synergistic effect of these two agents when they are co-administered. According to blood analysis, ALP values were significantly high in Raloxifene-only group (P<0.0001). This effect is suppressed in the co-administered group. In summary, the groups R, K and R+K had significantly higher ultimate strength and less susceptibility to fracture than ovariectomized controls. In summation, Vitamin K2 treated groups (either in single or combined with Raloxifene) had considerable biomechanical performance and reproductive tissue profile indicating that this agent is prospectively effective in osteoporosis management.
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The primary outcome of our study was all incident VTEs, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the relative VTE risk among alendronate, raloxifene, and calcitonin groups under an on-treatment scenario.
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There is increasing evidence linking phosphorus and calcium levels to a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population.
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The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) active site faces the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and is enclosed behind a lipid bilayer. Consequently, observed UGT activity is latent in microsomal preparations, and thus, mechanical and/or chemical disruptions of the vesicle membrane are commonly employed to better expose the active site. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the impact of incubation pH on the glucuronidation of raloxifene, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and ezetimibe, which are basic, acidic and neutral compounds, respectively. Their glucuronidation was examined in human liver microsomal incubations by monitoring for the production of the glucuronide metabolites at pHs ranging between 5.4 and 9.4. Compared to physiological pH, unbound intrinsic clearance (CL(int,u)) was 11- and 12-fold higher at pH 9.4 for raloxifene 4'-glucuronide (R4G) and raloxifene 6-glucuronide (R6G), respectively; whereas a 10-fold increase was observed at pH 5.4 for MPA glucuronide (MPAG). In contrast, ezetimibe glucuronidation did not vary as the pH deviated from 7.4. Kinetic analysis revealed that increases in CL(int,u) were accompanied by less than a 2-fold change in V(max). Instead, K(m,u) decreased 8-, 13- and 5-fold for R4G, R6G and MPAG, respectively. Similar pH dependency on glucuronidation was observed in experiments utilizing recombinant UGT enzymes (recUGT). Particularly, recUGT1A9 was one of the major isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of raloxifene and MPA. While the highest rate of glucuronidation was found at pH 9.4 for raloxifene, the pH for optimal glucuronidation of MPA was between 5.4 and 7.4. In summary, these results suggest that microsomal glucuronidation may be enhanced for acidic and basic compounds by altering the incubation pH, perhaps by improving substrate membrane permeability.
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The objective of the study was to compare the effect of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the endometrium of female rats in persistent estrus, by Ki-67 protein expression.
Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in postmenopausal women. Consequently, new and effective therapies are being sought to preserve bone mass and prevent osteoporosis in this population of women. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of lasofoxifene with raloxifene and placebo on indices of bone health in postmenopausal women.
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Raloxifene is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator recently launched in Japan as a new medicine for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultured cells and increases hippocampal cholineacethyl trasferase activity and serotonin receptor in the brain of ovariectomized rats. As a part of the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial, 7,478 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied by using six tests of cognitive function. There was some evidence that Raloxifene may lower the risk of a decline in memory and attention. It is expected that novel SERM, which has more specific efficacy improving cognitive function will be developed.
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Increased risk of breast cancer may result from modifiable factors such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors such as genetic susceptibility or increasing age. Those factors that are easiest to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. The Gail model, based on known factors may be useful for estimating life-time risk in some individuals. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious. In the NSABP-P1 study, there was a 49% reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen but in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials, no effect on breast cancer incidence was detected, possibly because of the different case-mix in these studies. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65%. The effect was restricted to ER positive tumours: no reduction in ER negative cancers was seen. Life-style factors such as diet, obesity, exercise, and age of first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk and so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. So far, studies of retinoids have not shown a benefit in terms of breast cancer risk reduction. Fat reduction and GnRH analogues reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk.
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After completion of this article, the reader will be able to understand the clinical impact and sequlae of osteoporosis in women, how to identify the high risk patient and those patient that should be screened, the various tests that are available for screening and monitoring, and the various pharmacologic therapies for osteoporosis.
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Approximately 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, a potentially painful disease process and important cause of female infertility. Raloxifene, a commercially available SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator) compound, used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, has preclinically demonstrated its estrogen antagonist effect on uterine tissue in rats. There is potential that SERM compounds may become a viable treatment option for human endometriosis, although more investigation is needed. In this study, raloxifene was administered at various doses to determine the efficacy and an appropriate dose level for use as a positive control in a rat model of endometriosis. Prior to dose administration, all rats underwent a bilateral ovariectomy, autologous transplantation of uterine tissue onto the peritoneal surface of the abdominal wall, and implantation of a subcutaneous estrogen pellet (E2). Two separate postsurgical experiments were performed. In experiment 1, following a 4-wk recovery, the rats bearing implants were assigned to three groups: (1) removal of the E2 pellet and dosing vehicle only (n = 7); (2) E2 and vehicle (n = 6); and (3) E2 and raloxifene at 10.0 mg/kg (n = 6). In experiment 2, also following a 4-week recovery, the rats bearing implants were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group): (1) E2 and vehicle only; (2) E2 and raloxifene, 0.3 mg/kg/d; (3) E2 and raloxifene, 1.0 mg/kg/d; (4) E2 and raloxifene, 3.0 mg/kg/d; (5) E2 and raloxifene, 10.0 mg/kg/d. All rats were dosed orally BID for 14 d. At the end of the study, the implanted endometrium was remeasured and compared to the pretreatment measurement. The results from both studies demonstrated that Raloxifene at only one dose (10.0 mg/kg) displayed significant implant regression (p < .05). Subsequently, our rat endometriosis experimental model consistently uses the exogenous E2 pellet and raloxifene at 10 mg/kg, BID, as a positive control to help screen and compare novel SERM compounds.
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Collagen cross-links are determinants of bone quality. Homocysteine (Hcys) interferes with collagen cross-linking. Because RLX is thought to ameliorate bone quality, we investigated whether RLX ameliorated hyperhomocysteinemia-induced cross-link abnormalities using a Met-rich diet rabbit model.
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Following the reports of the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement (HERS) Trial and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), many women abruptly discontinued their hormone therapy. This withdrawal of estrogen causes physiological changes, some changes which are short-term and obvious (i.e., hot flashes, night sweats) and other changes that are more subtle and lead to long-term problems (i.e., loss of bone density, increased risk of fracture). Health care providers need to be prepared to discuss alternative therapies available to women who have recently stopped estrogen therapy. Practitioners today have many more, and better, therapeutic choices to prevent osteoporosis than ever before. Counseling patients on which treatment options: raloxifene, bisphosphonate, calcitonin, or PTH are most appropriate for their situation is important to long-term compliance and a satisfactory reduction in fracture risk.
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Trials were assessed and data extracted independently by two review authors.
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Treatment with anti-resorptive agents over 13 months was associated with for three to fivefold lower bone mineral density changes and 1.5-fold increased risk of incidence fracture in vitamin D insufficient as compared to vitamin D repleted postmenopausal osteoporotic women.
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Lifetime prevalence of definite or possible migraine was 67% of women with chronic pelvic pain. An additional 8% met criteria for possible migraine. Migraine was no more likely in women with endometriosis than those without. Women with the most severe headaches had a lower quality of life compared with those with pelvic pain alone.
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To investigate the short-term effects of HMR 3339 in comparison with raloxifene and placebo on cardiovascular risk factors.
To determine whether estrogen down-regulates MCP-1 in vascular endothelial cells.
In a previous report, we described the results of a randomized, controlled trial that evaluated the potential of raloxifene to induce or exacerbate hot flushes. Here, we provide additional analyses that were undertaken to identify potential predictors of hot flushes and to assess the clinical usefulness of various therapeutic strategies for the reduction of hot flushes in postmenopausal women who receive raloxifene therapy.