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Under anesthesia, voiding was completely inhibited, but spontaneous, nonvoiding bladder contractions were observed with mean amplitude of 16 +/- 1 cm H(2)O, duration of 35 +/- 2 seconds, and intercontraction interval of 43 +/- 4 seconds (n = 25). YM934 and (-)-cromakalim both caused dose-dependent decreases in bladder contraction area under the curve (AUC) with effective doses to inhibit AUC by 35% of 3.6 and 14.9 nmol/kg, i.v., respectively. However, concomitant reductions in mean arterial pressure of 12 and 13% were also observed. Tolterodine did not inhibit spontaneous bladder contractions at doses up to 100 nmol/kg, i.v. corresponding to plasma concentrations up to 41 ng/mL.
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To evaluate the effects of tolterodine and oxybutynin on visual accommodation, pupillary diameter, intraocular pressure and tear secretion in women with overactive bladder.
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It has previously been shown that elocalcitol might protect bladder contractile function in experimental models and that elocalcitol has beneficial effects in patients with LUTS. In humans, elocalcitol was demonstrated with a very good safety profile but only exhibited limited efficacy on LUTS in patients with BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). Recent reports show that therapies with antimuscarinics, when combined with other drugs in clinical use, might perform better than a monotherapy in managing LUTS. It is not known how a combination of elocalcitol and an antimuscarinic performs on bladder dysfunction. The present study suggests that concomitant use of secosteroids and antimuscarinics has additive beneficial effects on obstruction-related functional changes in an experimental model. If confirmed also in a clinical setting, this could allow for individual dose adjustments to improve efficacy in obstruction-related LUTS, and possibly reduce unwanted adverse activities by antimuscarinic therapy.
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Patients on transdermal oxybutynin or long-acting tolterodine for their OAB symptoms showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement, results that were documented in both 3-day and 7-day bladder diaries. However, compared with 7-day symptom records, 3-day diaries were associated with significantly better compliance with record-keeping (P < 0.001).
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Assess changes in resource utilization, work and activity impairment, and health utility among OAB patients continuing to have urgency symptoms with tolterodine ER 4 mg and willing to try solifenacin 5/10 mg.
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Solifenacin was a less costly and more effective treatment strategy compared with tolterodine. During the course of 1 year, the estimated cost per patient was pound509 for patients treated with solifenacin and pound526 for those given tolterodine, a cost saving of pound17 per patient. Treatment with solifenacin was also associated with a small incremental gain of 0.004 quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) over tolterodine. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the incremental cost effectiveness of solifenacin relative to tolterodine does not appear to exceed pound30 000/QALY with even large variations in key model parameters.
The results presented are a secondary analysis of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Of patients treated with tolterodine extended release, 44% reported improved urgency symptoms (compared with 32% for placebo), and 62% reported improved bladder symptoms (placebo, 48%) (both P<.001 compared with placebo). The odds of reducing urgency and improving bladder symptoms were 1.68 and 1.78 times greater, respectively, for patients in the tolterodine extended release group than for patients receiving placebo. In response to urgency, there was a more than six-fold increase in the proportion of patients able to finish a task before voiding in the tolterodine extended release group. The proportion of patients unable to hold urine upon experiencing urgency was also decreased by 58% with tolterodine, compared with 32% with placebo (P<.001). The proportion of patients reporting "much benefit" from treatment was greater for tolterodine extended release than for placebo (43% versus 24%; P<.001). The only adverse events with an incidence of greater than 5% were dry mouth, headache, and constipation, with only dry mouth markedly more frequent with tolterodine than with placebo.
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Solifenacin succinate [YM905; (+)-(1S,3'R)-quinuclidin-3'-yl 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carboxylate monosuccinate] is a new muscarinic receptor antagonist developed for the treatment of overactive bladder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo bladder selectivity profile of solifenacin over salivary gland in the same animal species, and to compare the results with those obtained for tolterodine, oxybutynin, darifenacin and atropine. Solifenacin and the other antimuscarinic drugs inhibited carbachol-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in bladder smooth muscle cells and salivary gland cells isolated from rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of solifenacin for bladder smooth muscle cells (pK(i)=8.12) was 3.6-fold more potent than that for salivary gland cells (pK(i)=7.57). In contrast, the inhibitory effects of the other antimuscarinic drugs for bladder smooth muscle cells were 1.7- to 2.2-fold more potent than those for salivary gland cells. In anesthetized rats, solifenacin dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced intravesical pressure elevation and salivary secretion, and exhibited functional selectivity (3.7- to 6.5-fold) for urinary bladder over salivary gland. Tolterodine was also 2.2- to 2.4-fold more selective in inhibition of bladder response. In contrast, oxybutynin, darifenacin and atropine did not show functional selectivity for urinary bladder. These results indicate that solifenacin exerts greater selectivity for urinary bladder over salivary gland than tolterodine, oxybutynin, darifenacin and atropine, and may consequently provide symptomatic benefit in the treatment of overactive bladder with less dry mouth than currently used antimuscarinic drugs.
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An efficient and highly enantioselective method for the preparation of (R)-tolterodine is described. The synthesis was performed by CuH-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate reduction of a beta,beta-diaryl-substituted unsaturated nitrile as a key step, which is prepared by a stereoselective hydroarylation of alkynenitrile with aryl boronic acid. The synthesis was accomplished without employing the protection-deprotection sequence.
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We analyzed data from two 12-wk, placebo-controlled trials of tolterodine ER (4mg QD). Patients completed 7-d bladder diaries and rated the urgency sensation associated with each micturition on a 5-point urgency rating scale. Micturitions were categorized by urgency rating: total (1-5), non-OAB (1-2), OAB (3-5), or severe OAB (4-5). Changes in micturitions during 24-h, daytime, and nocturnal intervals were assessed.
The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases with age, and much attention has been paid to the risk of cognitive impairment which may be induced by antimuscarinics used for OAB in patients with AD. Imidafenacin, an antimuscarinic agent for OAB treatment, has been reported not to affect learning in normal animals. However, under the condition in which sensitivity to learning impairment by antimuscarinics is increased, it remains unclear whether imidafenacin still does not impair the learning. Therefore, the influences of imidafenacin on passive avoidance response were investigated in sham-operated and nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM)-lesioned rats and compared with oxybutynin hydrochloride and tolterodine tartrate. The learning-inhibitory doses of intravenous oxybutynin hydrochloride and tolterodine tartrate were 0.3 and 3 mg/kg in sham-operated rats and 0.1 and 1 mg/kg in nbM-lesioned rats, respectively. Thus, the learning impairments by those antimuscarinics were more sensitive in nbM-lesioned rats than in sham-operated rats. On the other hand, intravenous administration of imidafenacin had no influence on learning in either case of the rats. In normal rats, however, intracerebroventricular administration of imidafenacin impaired learning to the same degree as that of oxybutynin hydrochloride. Thus, the present study suggests that imidafenacin, unlike the other antimuscarinics used, has no significant risk of enhancing learning impairment even in models whose sensitivity to learning impairment by antimuscarinics is commonly increased, probably because of its low brain penetration.
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An efficient and short enantioselective synthesis of (S)- and (R)-tolterodine was performed by asymmetric hydrogenation of a coumarin intermediate, easily obtained by a Heck reaction from inexpensive and commercially available starting materials.
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A significant improvement was found for all treatment groups at 3 and 12 months in urinary frequency, UUI episodes, QOL-rUI, and number of daily pads. Only CPFR showed a significant decrease of 4 voids/24 h and a significant increase in self-reported function.
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Between April 1998 and May 2002, 142 healthy children, aged between 6.5 and 18 years (mean: 9 +/- 0.5 years), were referred to us for bedwetting. Ninety three of them were boys and 49--girls. Eight of them had also concurrent daytime enuresis. According to our protocol, the type of enuresis was identified (primary or secondary) and then we administered the respective treatment. Sixteen children underwent behavioural therapy only. Fifteen children with detrusor instability received oxybutinine or tolterodine. Twenty children with diurnal and nocturnal enuresis were given desmopressin and oxybutinine or desmopressin and tolterodine. The remaining 91 children received monotherapy with desmopressin (individualized dose). The initial follow up ranged from 3 to 6 months.
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Using data from 307 women, we performed logistic regression to identify predictors for outcomes described above.
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OXY-TDS and TOL-LA are effective and comparable treatments for patients with urge and mixed incontinence. OXY-TDS improves systemic safety with regard to anticholinergic side effects. Local skin irritation occurs in some OXY-TDS patients.
In our randomized, placebo controlled, parallel group study 123, 129 and 64 patients 18 years old or older with proved detrusor overactivity (idiopathic detrusor instability or detrusor hyperreflexia) were randomized to receive 1 or 2 mg. tolterodine, or placebo, respectively, twice daily for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures were number of voids per 24 hours, urine volume per void and episodes of urge incontinence per 24 hours on a frequency-volume chart with detailed recording of side effects.
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The two groups of female patients with overactive bladder were given treatment with weekly acupuncture (n = 118), oral tolterodine tartrate (n = 122) for 4 weeks respectively. At weeks 4, subjects in both intervention and control groups had significant decreases in number of urinary urgency episodes, incontinence episodes, daytime frequency, nocturia episodes and increase in volume voided per micturition without a significant difference in the changes of overactive bladder symptoms between the groups. There were no serious adverse events during the study.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nighttime dosing with tolterodine extended release (TER) in men with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia.
Costs after 1 year were estimated to be an average of $32 less per patient for oxybutynin XL compared with tolterodine IR, and 3.1 additional patients in every 100 who received oxybutynin XL were expected to attain complete continence compared with those who received tolterodine. During the course of 1 year, patients receiving oxybutynin XL were expected to have a mean 16.5 additional incontinence-free days compared with those receiving tolterodine IR. The results were sensitive to relative drug prices. In the other sensitivity analyses, however, oxybutyrin XL maintained its advantage over a wide range of inputs.
Behavioral therapy components (daily bladder diary and recommendations for fluid management) in the group receiving drug therapy alone may have attenuated between-group differences. Assigned treatment was completed by 68% of participants, whereas 8-month outcome status was assessed on 77%.
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In a double-blind, randomised, four-way crossover study, 16 healthy volunteers received single oral doses of tolterodine 5 mg and oxybutynin 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg. Voiding parameters were assessed for 12 hours post-dose, along with visual accommodation (near point of vision) at regular intervals.