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Medical charts of 180 children with CAE were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, electroencephalographic and imaging findings were recorded to correlate with complete VPA response and long-term epilepsy outcome. Factors associated with non-responsiveness were identified individually and in a multivariable logistic regression analysis.
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The original serotonergic and noradrenergic hypotheses do not fully account for the neurobiology of depression or mechanism of action of effective antidepressants. Research implicates a potential role of the dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The current study was undertaken as a proof of the concept that dopamine agonists will be effective in patients with bipolar II depression.
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Gliosis is a pathological hallmark of posttraumatic epileptic foci, but little is known about these reactive astrocytes beyond their high glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Using diolistic labeling, we show that cortical astrocytes lost their nonoverlapping domain organization in three mouse models of epilepsy: posttraumatic injury, genetic susceptibility, and systemic kainate exposure. Neighboring astrocytes in epileptic mice showed a 10-fold increase in overlap of processes. Concurrently, spine density was increased on dendrites of excitatory neurons. Suppression of seizures by the common antiepileptic, valproate, reduced the overlap of astrocytic processes. Astrocytic domain organization was also preserved in APP transgenic mice expressing a mutant variant of human amyloid precursor protein despite a marked upregulation of GFAP. Our data suggest that loss of astrocytic domains was not universally associated with gliosis, but restricted to seizure pathologies. Reorganization of astrocytes may, in concert with dendritic sprouting and new synapse formation, form the structural basis for recurrent excitation in the epileptic brain.
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We report an unusual case of acute acquired toxoplasmosis (AAT) presenting as lymphadenopathy and recurrent seizures in an immunocompetent 15-year-old boy.
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The ontogeny of valproic acid (VPA) disposition and metabolism was investigated in developing lambs and adult sheep (Dorset or Suffolk breed). Specifically, we wished to investigate the role of glucuronidation and beta-oxidation on VPA elimination during development. Catheters were implanted in a carotid artery, a jugular vein, and the urinary bladder in 10-day-old (10 d; n = 8), 1-month-old (1 M; n = 4), and 2-month-old lambs (2 M; n = 5). In adult sheep (n = 5), catheters were implanted in a femoral artery and vein. After the administration of a 10 mg/kg VPA i.v. bolus, serial blood samples and cumulative urine samples were collected for 36 h in the adult ewes and for 72 h in the lambs. Due to saturable protein binding, age-related differences in VPA clearance were more obvious when examining the total body clearance of unbound drug (Cl(u)tb). Mean Cl(u)tb increased significantly with age up to 2 months (10 d = 2.65 +/- 1.16 ml/min/kg; 1 M = 5.11 +/- 2.49 ml/min/kg; 2 M = 12.84 +/- 3.88 ml/min/kg) before decreasing to adult levels (7.73 +/- 2.64 ml/min/kg). Similarly, the urinary recovery of the major metabolite, VPA-glucuronide, was significantly less in 10 d lambs (29.2 +/- 16.0% of the dose) when compared with the adult and 2 M groups (both approximately 74% of the dose). No differences with age were observed in the portion of the dose excreted as the beta-oxidation metabolite, 2-n-propyl-3-oxopentanoic acid. The results suggest that alterations in Cl(u)tb with age may be attributable to postnatal development of enzymes involved in VPA glucuronidation.
Quetiapine-associated leucopenia and thrombocytopenia seems reversible but possibly fatal. Therefore, clinical practitioners should be aware of this adverse reaction.
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Topographic analysis in the frequency domain has been used to analyze 104 electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs of 52 patients presenting with first-ever generalized seizure, with normal MRI and EEG. Patients were treated with valproate, arbamazepine, or lamotrigine in monotherapy (each group n = 13). Thirteen patients without medication served as a control group.
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Accumulating evidence suggests an association between prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and increased risk of both physical anomalies and neurodevelopmental impairment. Neurodevelopmental impairment is characterised by either a specific deficit or a constellation of deficits across cognitive, motor and social skills and can be transient or continuous into adulthood. It is of paramount importance that these potential risks are identified, minimised and communicated clearly to women with epilepsy.
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InvDup(15) syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Here we review the seizure types described in InvDup(15) patients and the main electroclinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the syndrome.
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Rapid cycling patients did less well over long-term treatment than non-rapid cycling patients. Among rapid cycling patients, olanzapine and divalproex appear similarly effective against manic symptoms; however, among non-rapid cycling patients, olanzapine-treated patients experienced superior mania improvement. Olanzapine-treated, non-rapid cyclers experienced greater mania improvement than rapid cyclers. The converse was true of divalproex-treated patients early in treatment.
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Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and valproic acid can significantly interfere not only with each other and other AEDs, but also with other treatments. Although newer AEDs have a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile, they are not entirely exempt from interactions and they are also commonly administered in combination with older AEDs. Another aspect that should be considered is the existence of any clinically important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions in patients requiring the continuous administration of other treatments.
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Valproic acid (VPA) is widely prescribed for treatment of epilepsy, mood disorders, migraines, and neuropathic pain. It exerts its therapeutic benefits through multiple mechanisms, including enhancement of GABAergic activity, activation of prosurvival protein kinases, and inhibition of histone deacetylase. Increasing evidence suggests that VPA possesses neuroprotective properties. We examined neuroprotective effects of VPA in an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) excitotoxicity model, which mimics some of the pathological features of glaucoma. In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography revealed that NMDA-induced retinal degeneration was suppressed in the VPA-treated retina, and histological analyses confirmed that VPA reduced retinal ganglion cell death. In vivo electrophysiological analyses demonstrated that visual impairment was prevented in the VPA-treated retina, clearly establishing both histological and functional effects of VPA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was up-regulated in Müller glial cells, and neuroprotective effects of VPA on retinal ganglion cells were significantly reduced in a conditional knockout mouse strain with deletion of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for BDNF from retinal ganglion cells. The results show that VPA stimulates BDNF up-regulation in Müller glial cells and provides direct evidence that neuronal TrkB is important in VPA-mediated neuroprotection. Also, VPA suppresses oxidative stress induced by NMDA in the retina. Our findings raise intriguing possibilities that the widely prescribed drug VPA may be useful for treatment of glaucoma.
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These results suggest that HDAC inhibition by VPA alters essential human PDC functions, highlighting the need for monitoring immune functions in cancer patients receiving HDAC inhibitors, but also making these drugs attractive therapies in inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases implicating PDC.
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Sydenham's chorea is still the most frequently seen form of acquired chorea in childhood in developing countries. Nine patients presented with Sydenham's chorea as one of the major criteria (one or more attacks) were evaluated their clinical characteristics and treatment. All patient were given sodium valproate. Clinical improvement began 11+/-4.0 days in sodium valproate treatment, and no adverse effect was seen due to the drugs. Echocardiography revealed rheumatic carditis sequela in all patient. The nine Sydenham's chorea patients presented 13 attacks of chorea in follow-up. We observed isolated chorea in 44% of patients, and 22% presented one or more recurrences. The interval between the attacks ranged from months to 2 years. The 90% of the patients were not on prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin. One patient had diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and one had diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the follow-up period. This report emphasizes the significance of Sydenham's chorea and sequela of rheumatic carditis association and a high risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders in the follow-up period. Valproic acid is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of Sydenham's chorea.
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To investigate the effects of valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor) on visceral function and outcome in a canine lethal hemorrhage model.
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The frequency of severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from psychotropic drugs was investigated in hospitalised psychiatric patients in relation to their age. Specifically, the incidence of ADRs in patients up to 60 years was compared to that of patients older than 60 years.
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Most of the AEDs inhibited placental carnitine transport. Kinetic analyses showed that TGB had the greatest inhibitory effect [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50, 190 microM)], and the order of inhibitory potency was TGB > PHT > GBP > VPA > VGB, TPM > LTG. Further studies showed that TGB competitively inhibited carnitine uptake by the human placental carnitine transporter, suggesting that it may be a substrate for this carrier.
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The concurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and glioma is uncommon. Approximately 30 cases have been reported, but in only six of them the tumour was pure or mixed oligodendroglioma. The appearance of new neurological symptoms and signs in a patient with multiple sclerosis is usually attributed to a relapse of this disease and neuroradiological studies are not always performed. When done, the finding of a new focal mass lesion is usually interpreted as a pseudotumoural plaque.
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The risks of teratogenicity have been regarded as multifactorial, involving such factors as genetic predisposition, although most prospective studies show that AED-related factors are the primary risk factors for an increased incidence of congenital malformations.
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PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature searches from January 1, 1980, to October 15, 2010, were performed using the search terms anticonvulsant, antiepileptic drug, carbamazepine, divalproex, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pheno-barbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, valproate, valproic acid, and zonisamide; bioavailability, bioequivalence, bioequivalency, bioequivalent, and substitution; and generic.
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These pilot data suggest a controlled study with an adequate sample size, and the appropriate rating scale may demonstrate efficacy for inositol in bipolar depression. The tolerability and the 'natural substance' aspect of inositol may be particularly appealing to subjects with bipolar depression.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the properties of sodium valproate tablets that were dry powder-coated with pre-plasticized Eudragit L 100-55. Polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) was used as primer to facilitate initial coating powder adhesion. Solubility parameters were employed to determine the wetting properties of the PEG 3350 primer. Additional PEG 3350 within the powder coating formulation was required to enable powder adhesion to the tablet cores. The application of a subcoat of either Eudragit E PO or Eudragit RL PO facilitated adhesion of the enteric polymer to the tablet cores and reduced the amount PEG 3350 required in the coating formulation. Since reduction of the PEG 3350 content produced less water-vapor permeable films, the enteric coating level necessary to control the drug release was decreased. PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M were incorporated in both Eudragit E PO and Eudragit RL PO subcoating formulations as pore forming agents. The influence of the pore forming excipients on physicochemical properties of free powder-cast films was investigated. The miscibility of the PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M in the film coating was correlated with their ability to function as pore forming agent.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is considered to be the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and loss of GABA inhibition has been clearly implicated in epileptogenesis. GABA interacts with 3 types of receptor: GABAA, GABAB and GABAC. The GABAA receptor has provided an excellent target for the development of drugs with an anticonvulsant action. Some clinically useful anticonvulsants, such as the benzodiazepines and barbiturates and possibly valproic acid (sodium valproate), act at this receptor. In recent years 4 new anticonvulsants, namely vigabatrin, tiagabine, gabapentin and topiramate, with a mechanism of action considered to be primarily via an effect on GABA, have been licensed. Vigabatrin elevates brain GABA levels by inhibiting the enzyme GABA transaminase which is responsible for intracellular GABA catabolism. In contrast, tiagabine elevates synaptic GABA levels by inhibiting the GABA uptake transporter, GAT1, and preventing the uptake of GABA into neurons and glia. Gabapentin, a cyclic analogue of GABA, acts by enhancing GABA synthesis and also by decreasing neuronal calcium influx via a specific subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Topiramate acts, in part, via an action on a novel site of the GABAA receptor. Although these drugs are useful in some patients, overall, they have proven to be disappointing as they have had little impact on the prognosis of patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite this, additional GABA enhancing anticonvulsants are presently under development. Ganaxolone, retigabine and pregabalin may prove to have a more advantageous therapeutic profile than the presently licensed GABA enhancing drugs. This anticipation is based on 2 characteristics. First, they act by hitherto unique mechanisms of action in enhancing GABA-induced neuronal inhibition. Secondly, they act on additional antiepileptogenic mechanisms. Finally, CGP 36742, a GABAB receptor antagonist, may prove to be particularly useful in the management of primary generalised absence seizures. The exact impact of these new GABA-enhancing drugs in the treatment of epilepsy will have to await their licensing and a period of postmarketing surveillance. As to clarification of their role in the management of epilepsy, this will have to await further clinical trials, particularly direct comparative trials with other anticonvulsants.
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Hypomethylating agents have demonstrated activity in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Preclinical and single-arm trials have suggested that adding histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may synergize the epigenetic modulation of hypomethylating agents and improve treatment results.
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The patients with epilepsy (n=109) on treatment with conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled. Of these, 70 were on monotherapy: levetiracetam (n=12), VPA (n=16), carbamazepine (n=20) and phenytoin (n=22) and the remaining on polytherapy. Their body composition [body fat mass, lean dry mass (LDM), total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated and biochemical parameters were assessed.
Cardiac rhythm changes are not uncommon in connection with seizures and should be considered and recognized given their potentially harmful consequences including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). The most well known are ictal tachycardia and bradycardia. However, other potentially dangerous peri-ictal arrhythmias have been reported. Brief atrial fibrillation episodes, never longer than 2 min, have rarely been described in connection with seizures. We report the case of a patient who presented with two generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with prolonged atrial fibrillation. Extensive non-invasive cardiac investigations failed to disclose cardiac abnormalities, and after proper antiepileptic drug treatment the patient had neither further seizures nor cardiac events in an 18-month follow-up. Our case, to our knowledge, is the first report of prolonged (more than 1 h) peri-ictal atrial fibrillation.
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Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid, when given in therapeutic doses to neonatal rats, cause pronounced neuronal apoptotic cell death. This effect is especially pronounced in the striatum and cortex during the second postnatal week, a period corresponding to the "brain growth spurt" (third trimester of gestation and early infancy) in humans. Of particular concern is the fact that phenobarbital is the most frequently used therapy for neonatal epilepsy. If AED-induced neuronal cell death leads to long-term functional impairment, then it becomes crucial to find therapies that avoid this neurotoxicity in the sensitive period. Herein we examine short- and long-term functional effects following exposure of neonatal rat pups to phenobarbital; the functions tested include striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic responses and reflex development in pups, and fear conditioning, emotionality, and sensory-motor gating in adults. In all cases, phenobarbital exposure during the second postnatal week was sufficient to cause significant impairment. In contrast, adult animals exposed as pups to lamotrigine (given in a dose that does not cause apoptotic neuronal death) were not impaired on the tasks we examined. Our data suggest that treatments devoid of proapoptotic actions may be promising therapies for avoiding adverse outcomes after neonatal exposure. In addition, our findings identify early exposure to certain AEDs as an important potential risk factor contributing to psychiatric and neurologic abnormalities later in life.
Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of therapeutic doses of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), valproate (VA) and lamotrigine (LA) monotherapy were investigated in patients with beginning epilepsy. Baseline waking EEG (EEG1) was recorded in the untreated state, the second EEG (EEG2) was done after 8 weeks of reaching the therapeutic dose. Left occipital data were used for analysis. QEEG target parameters were absolute band-power (delta: AD, theta: AT, alpha: AA, beta: AB), and alpha mean frequency (AMF). Group effects (untreated versus treated condition in the CBZ, VA, OXC, LA groups) were computed for each target parameter. One group with benign rolandic epilepsy remained untreated for clinical reasons and served to estimate the QEEG test-retest differences. In addition, the individual QEEG response to each drug was calculated as (EEG2-EEG1).