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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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To evaluate safety and efficacy of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide (CyP) in acute macular serpiginous choroiditis (SC).

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In this chemotherapy-induced animal model of HCC, SLBZP was most efficacious as adjunctive therapy and appears to act by inhibiting tumor growth promoters and anti-apoptotic proteins while enhancing pro-apoptotic proteins.

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Ninety seven women have reached menopause at a median age of 44 years. Menopause has been surgically induced in 36% of women. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for non-surgical menopause included exposure to alkylating agents, increasing radiation dose to the ovaries, procarbazine dose, cyclophosphamide dose and unilateral oophorectomy. The highest risk ratio for non-surgical menopause was observed for women treated after the onset of puberty with alkylating agents, either alone (RR = 9, 95% CI: 2.7-28, P = 0.0003) or associated with even a low dose of radiation to the ovaries (RR = 29, 95% CI: 8-108, P < 0.0001). Exposure to unilateral oophorectomy is associated with a 7-year earlier age at menopause. By the age of 40, only 2.1% had non-surgical premature menopause and its main risk factors were age at diagnosis, cyclophosphamide dose, exposure to melphalan and radiation dose to the ovaries.

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The most widely accepted conditioning regimen to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation consists of total body irradiation, especially in patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this retrospective study, we report our experience on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 44 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia using a non-radiation-based conditioning regimen (busulfan/cyclophosphamide). Median age at transplantation was 12.5 years (range, 4 to 14 y). 39 out of 44 patients received transplants in complete remission. At a median follow-up of 390 days, the probabilities of 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 50% and 68%, respectively. Disease status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was the only significant variable affecting the overall survival. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease occurred in 23 (64%) and 12(18%) patients, respectively. Relapse was significantly higher among patients transplanted in advanced disease status. The results of the study indicate that non-radiation-based preparative regimens can be used in pediatric patients with ALL. However, well-designed comparative trials are needed to better clarify the difference between radiation and non-radiation-based conditioning regimens in pediatric ALL.

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Oocytes have a vast repertoire of active MDRs. The implications of this study are that these protective mechanisms are important during oogenesis and that these activities change with maturation, increasing susceptibility to toxicants. Future directions may exploit the up-regulation of these transporters during gonadotoxic therapy.

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A prospective national protocol for children with classical HL was implemented in Morocco to increase EFS by careful risk stratification, providing each cycle of therapy on time, decreasing treatment abandonment, improving communication among healthcare providers, and improving data collection. Patients were stratified into a favorable risk group (Ann Arbor stages I and II, no B symptoms, no bulky disease, and no contiguous (E) lesions) and received four cycles of vinblastine, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisone (VAMP) or an unfavorable risk group (all others) who received two cycles of vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and doxorubicin (OPPA) and four cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP). All patients received involved-field radiotherapy 25.5 Gy after completion of chemotherapy. EFS was calculated counting death, relapse/resistant disease, and abandonment as events.

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Highly sensitised children in need of cardiac transplantation have overall poor outcomes because of increased risk for dysfunction of the cardiac allograft, acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection, and vasculopathy of the cardiac allograft. Cardiopulmonary bypass and the frequent use of blood products in the operating room and cardiac intensive care unit, as well as the frequent use of homografts, have predisposed potential recipients of transplants to allosensitisation. The expansion in the use of ventricular assist devices and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has also contributed to increasing rates of allosensitisation in candidates for cardiac transplantation. Antibodies to Human Leukocyte Antigen can be detected before transplantation using several different techniques, the most common being the "complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity assays". "Solid-phase assays", particularly the "Luminex® single antigen bead method", offer improved specificity and more detailed information regarding specificities of antibodies, leading to improved matching of donors with recipients. Allosensitisation prolongs the time on the waiting list for potential recipients of transplantation and increases the risk of complications and death after transplantation. Aggressive reduction of antibodies to Human Leukocyte Antigen in these high-risk patients is therefore of vital importance for long-term survival of the patient and cardiac allograft. Strategies to decrease Panel Reactive Antibody or percent reactive antibody before transplantation include plasmapheresis, intravenous administration of immunoglobulin, and specific treatment to reduce B-cells, particularly Rituximab. These strategies have resulted in varying degrees of success. Antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy are two of the most important complications of transplantation in patients with high Panel Reactive Antibody. The treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in recipients of cardiac transplants is largely empirical and includes the use of high-dose corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, intravenous administration of immunoglobulins, anti-thymocyte globulin, and Rituximab. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is believed to be secondary to chronic complement-mediated endothelial injury and chronic vascular rejection. The use of proliferation signal inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus, has been shown to delay the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. In some non-sensitised recipients of cardiac transplants, the de novo formation of antibodies to Human Leukocyte Antigen after transplantation may increase the likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes. The use of serial testing for donor-specific antibodies after cardiac transplantation may be advisable in patients with frequent episodes of rejection and patients with history of sensitisation. Allosensitisation before transplantation can negatively influence outcomes after transplantation. A high incidence of antibody-mediated rejection and graft vasculopathy can result in graft failure and decreased survival. Current strategies to decrease allosensitisation have helped to expand the pool of donors, improve times on the waiting list, and decrease mortality. Centres of transplantation offering desensitisation are currently using plasmapheresis to remove circulating antibodies; intravenous immunoglobulin to inactivate antibodies; cyclophosphamide to suppress B-cell proliferation; and Rituximab to deplete B-lymphocytes. Similar approaches are also used to treat antibody-mediated rejection after transplantation with promising results.

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Gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common subtype of extranodal lymphoma. There has been uncertainty about the clinical efficacy of combination therapy (surgery and chemotherapy) for gastrointestinal DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal DLBCL from six medical centers. We evaluated four groups based on whether they were treated with or without surgery as the initial treatment for DLBCL, followed by either a regimen with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP with rituximab (R-CHOP). For all patients, treatment with R-CHOP resulted in significantly greater overall survival (OS; 93.2 vs. 74.5%, p = 0.008) and progression-free survival (89.8% vs. 72.7, p = 0.029). Tumor resection did not improve OS (84.0 vs. 85.0%, for surgery and chemotherapy alone, respectively, p = 0.980). However, for younger patients, overall survival was greater (p = 0.005) for patients treated with surgery plus chemotherapy (83.9%) than for patients treated with chemotherapy alone (40.0%). Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level (p = 0.004) and performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; p = 0.003) were independent predictors of survival in patients with gastrointestinal DLBCL. Stage-modified IPI was recognized as the best prognostic tool. There were significant differences among patients with low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups in 50-month OS (94.2 vs. 84.0 vs. 66.7%, p = 0.008). The results of this large-scale study suggest that R-CHOP regimen is the first-line treatment for gastrointestinal DLBCL. The benefit of surgery for these patients remains controversial. Further prospective analyses are warranted.

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Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the active ingredients isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Previous investigation demonstrated that Rg3 was stereospecific in promotion of the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate Rg3 and its epimers, 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, for their effects on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) in mice. Forty-eight mice were randomly distributed into 6 groups and intraperitoneally administered saline solution, Cy, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3+Cy or 20(S)-Rg3+Cy. After that, the spleen, thymus and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that Rg3 significantly inhibited Cy-induced oxidative stress in mice by increasing the indices of the spleen and thymus and total antioxidant capacity, elevating the activities of catalase, superoxidase dismutase and lysozyme as well as decreasing the activity of xanthine oxidase and the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Rg3 was stereospecific in antioxidant activities as R form exhibited significantly higher antioxidant effects than S form. Therefore, R form should be used when Rg3 is considered to be used as an antioxidant agent.

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Previously, different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been evaluated for their potential immunomodulatory activities. Mefenamic acid is a well-known NSAID and is used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, inflammation, fever, and pain. To the best of our knowledge, promising data regarding the immunomodulatory activity of mefenamic acid is scarce. Current study investigates the immunomodulatory activity of mefenamic acid in different models of cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

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Patients with irresectable granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) often receive chemotherapy. The effectiveness of this approach, however, is uncertain. The aim of our study was to assess the response rate to chemotherapy for residual and recurrent inoperable GCT.

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A systematic review of purine analogs revealed heterogeneity between trials in treatment effects on response and progression free survival, but not survival, perhaps partly due to variations in analytical methods. In addition, combination treatments required evaluation. Therefore, individual patient data were sought for all randomized trials in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia which involved a purine analog, but which did not include antibody therapies. Sixteen trials were found, addressing seven comparisons. Eight trials, with 2,753 patients, showed that single agent purine analog improved progression free survival (odds ratio=0.71; 95% confidence interval=0.63-0.79). Heterogeneity remained substantial. Three trials, with 1,403 patients, showed that progression free survival was further improved by the addition of cyclophosphamide (odds ratio=0.54; 0.47-0.62). Fewer data were available on the addition of other drugs to purine analog, and none showed clear benefit. Two trials, with 544 patients, suggested cladribine improved progression free survival compared to fludarabine (odds ratio=0.77; 0.63-0.95). No differences were seen in overall survival for any comparisons. In conclusion, purine analogs, particularly combined with cyclophosphamide, significantly improve progression free survival but not survival. Some groups, such as the elderly, may not see the same benefits and maximizing doses may be important for all treatments, including chlorambucil. Longer follow up, consistent definitions and detailed reporting of trials should be encouraged.

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While cyclophosphamide (CYC) can save the life of a young woman with severe rheumatologic disease, it may lead to the long-term side-effects of infertility and premature menopause. We compared the reproductive health histories of young women with rheumatologic disease with and without prior CYC exposure to identify the impact of this medication on this important component of health.

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We identified 24 and analyzed data from 22 patients. 12 were male (54.5%) and 10 female (45.4%) and their median age was 55 years (range: 19-83). Most patients had localized disease at the time of diagnosis (n = 19, 86.3%), the most common site was the spine (n = 11, 50%) and the most common histology was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. 21 patients received chemotherapy as initial therapy and 16 received combined chemoradiation. 81.8% of the patients (n = 18) achieved complete remission. 5-year survival rate was 86.3% and overall survival was found to be affected by the patients' initial response to treatment.

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Current evidence indicates that the abnormal expression of chemokines or their receptors, such as CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), is positively correlated with the development, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the role of CXCR4 in neuroblastoma and its response to chemotherapy remain largely unclear. In addition, forkhead box 3 (Foxp3), a transcription factor associated with T cell tolerance, is expressed in tumor cells and plays a role in the immune evasion of cancers. The present study aimed to examine the expression of CXCR4 and Foxp3 in the LAN-5 and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines. The effects of chemotherapy drugs, cyclophosphamide (CTX) and pirarubicin (THP), on the expression of these two genes were also investigated. Our findings indicated that CXCR4 and Foxp3 were highly expressed in LAN-5 and SK-N-SH cells. Following treatment with CTX and THP, the protein expression of CXCR4 in LAN-5 and SK-N-SH cells was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The expression of Foxp3 in LAN-5 cells was also significantly downregulated by CTX and THP treatment (P<0.05). Therefore, the high expression of CXCR4 and Foxp3 in LAN-5 and SK-N-SH cells and their subsequent downregulation following administration of the chemotherapy agents suggests that the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and Foxp3, may be involved in the metastasis and tumor evasion of neuroblastoma. Further studies should investigate the expression of CXCR4 and Foxp3 in patient samples.

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Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities and chromosomal breakages with the occurrence of hematological and solid malignancies. FA is the most common type of inherited bone marrow failure and poses tremendous challenges. FA patients are uniquely hypersensitive to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) conditioning agents due to the underling chromosomal instability. HSCT has shown important progress in the last years, especially after the introduction of fludarabine and the reduction of cyclophosphamide in the preparative regimen. For patients with HLA-identical-related donors HSCT should be performed as first-line therapy, for patients with alternative donors HSCT remains a therapy with increased morbidity and mortality.

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The VEGFA -634CC genotype was found to be associated with an inferior prognosis for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

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Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1, Map3k7), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, is essential in innate and adaptive immune responses. We postulated that blockade of TAK1 would affect autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Administration of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (OZ), a TAK1 inhibitor, decreased the incidence and delayed the onset of autoimmune diabetes in both spontaneous and accelerated (cyclophosphamide-induced) experimental NOD mice. OZ also reduced insulitis, preserved islet function, increased the expression of α1- antitrypsin (AAT), and severely inhibited NF-κB and JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways in immune organs and pancreatic tissues. Importantly, TAK1 inhibition by OZ elicited a Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift, and increased TGF-β1 production in cultured T lymphocytes supernatants. Systemic TAK1 inhibition induced immature DCs with lower expressions of MHC-II and CD86, attenuated DC-mediated T cell proliferation in allogeneic MLR, and production of cytokine IL-12p70 in DCs suspensions. The results indicate that TAK1 inhibition with OZ was associated with a lower frequency of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. The net effect of TAK1 inhibition in NOD mice therefore appears to be protective rather than disease-enhancing. Strategies targeting TAK1 specifically in NOD mice might prove useful for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes in general.

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Among these 81 patients, the incidence of ISAE was 7.4% in the non-anthracycline platinum group. The most commonly reported ISAE were swelling (3%), extravasation (3%), and phlebitis (3%). When stratified by regimen, fosaprepitant was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of ISAE in the anthracycline group (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.0-31.9) compared to the platinum group.

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Several studies have shown that more than half of cancer patients have unrecognized renal insufficiency (RI), which is a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with normal serum creatinine. The aim of this study was to determine whether unrecognized RI is associated with an increased risk for chemotherapy-associated adverse effects in breast cancer patients treated with combined doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide treatment. GFR was estimated for 95 breast cancer patients from January 2005 to August 2009 using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Unrecognized RI was defined as GFR less than 75 ml/min/1.73 m and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of GFR on clinical outcomes. In total, 49 (52%) patients experienced at least one of the following chemotherapy-associated adverse effects during the course of treatment: an episode of neutropenic fever with hospital admission, a delay in chemotherapy treatment for a medical reason, a need for dose adjustment because of toxicity of the chemotherapeutic drugs, and the need for use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The incidence of these adverse effects occurred more frequently in patients with GFR less than 75 compared with patients with GFR at least 75 (64 vs. 42%, odds ratio 5.29, 95% confidence interval 2.10-13.33) and remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and initial doses of chemotherapeutic drugs (odds ratio 3.56, 95% confidence interval 1.08-11.67). Neutropenic fever, dose delay, and dose adjustment as separate outcomes occurred more frequently in the GFR less than 75 group but lost statistical significance after adjustment. Our results demonstrate that unrecognized RI is associated with an increased risk for chemotherapy-associated adverse events in this patient population. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether a dose reduction in patients with unrecognized RI reduces adverse effects without adversely affecting the benefit of treatment.

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There are some nail abnormalities described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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To analyze clinical features and outcomes of non-upper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (NUAT-NKTCL).

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The constellation of "white dot syndromes" and systemic symptoms necessitates a general work-up to exclude granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis or tuberculosis. Delayed diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis may have life-threatening consequences and the ophthalmologist may be the first physician to diagnose the condition.

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Germ cells tumours can present in primary extra-gonadal locations. It is difficult to distinguish a retroperitoneum primary germ cell tumour from metastatic disease of a clinically undetected gonadal tumour or one that has regressed, like the situation described in the case presented.

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Female SD rats were injected with cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at day 1, 4, 7 and 10 to induce chronic cystitis. Saline was injected in the same protocol for controls. Bladder specimens were cut at 8 μm thickness, fixed in 70% ethanol and lightly stained by hematoxylin and eosin, and then superficial urothelium, intermediate/basal urothelium and detrusor muscles were laser-captured separately. Real-time PCR was performed to examine expressions of α-SMA, CK20, muscarinic 2 receptors (M2R) and muscarinic 3 receptors (M3R).

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cytoxan tablets 2016-07-09

Scleromyxedema is a rare chronic buy cytoxan cutaneous mucinosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by papular eruption and scleroderma with microscopic evidence of mucin deposition, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis. Most patients with scleromyxedema have monoclonal gammopathy and systemic manifestations resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Several types of treatment have been reported with partial or inconsistent responses. Despite showing unpredictable evolution, systemic consequences of scleromyxedema and treatment side effects may result in death. We describe a rare case of a patient with scleromyxedema without paraproteinemia with systemic involvement that evolved to death despite treatment with cyclophosphamide.

cytoxan chemo drug 2017-05-06

C3 glomerulonephritis is a clinicopathologic entity defined by the presence of isolated or dominant deposits of C3 on immunofluorescence. To explore the effect of immunosuppression on C3 glomerulonephritis, we studied a series of 60 patients in whom a complete registry of treatments was available over a median follow-up of 47 months. Twenty patients had not received immunosuppressive treatments. In the buy cytoxan remaining 40 patients, 22 had been treated with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil while 18 were treated with other immunosuppressive regimens (corticosteroids alone or corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide). The number of patients developing end-stage renal disease was significantly lower among treated compared with untreated patients (3 vs. 7 patients, respectively). No patient in the corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil group doubled serum creatinine nor developed end-stage renal disease, as compared with 7 (significant) and 3 (not significant), respectively, in patients treated with other immunosuppressive regimens. Renal survival (100, 80, and 72% at 5 years) and the number of patients achieving clinical remission (86, 50, and 25%) were significantly higher in patients treated with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil as compared with patients treated with other immunosuppressive regimens and untreated patients, respectively. Thus, immunosuppressive treatments, particularly corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil, can be beneficial in C3 glomerulonephritis.

cytoxan 600 mg 2016-01-20

One of the hallmark features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common adult primary brain tumor with a very dismal prognosis, is buy cytoxan the accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) segregate into two primary categories: thymus-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) that develop from the interaction between immature T cells and thymic epithelial stromal cells, and inducible Tregs (iTregs) that arise from the conversion of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells into FoxP3 expressing cells. Normally, these Treg subsets complement one another's actions by maintaining tolerance of self-antigens, thereby suppressing autoimmunity, while also enabling effective immune responses toward non-self-antigens, thus promoting infectious protection. However, Tregs have also been shown to be associated with the promotion of pathological outcomes, including cancer. In the setting of GBM, nTregs appear to be primary players that contribute to immunotherapeutic failure, ultimately leading to tumor progression. Several attempts have been made to therapeutically target these cells with variable levels of success. The blood brain barrier-crossing chemotherapeutics, temozolomide, and cyclophosphamide (CTX), vaccination against the Treg transcriptional regulator, FoxP3, as well as mAbs against Treg-associated cell surface molecules CD25, CTLA-4, and GITR are all different therapeutic approaches under investigation. Contributing to the poor success of past approaches is the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme overexpressed in GBM, and critically involved in regulating tumor-infiltrating Treg levels. Herein, we review the current literature on Tregs in brain cancer, providing a detailed phenotype, causative mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis, and strategies that have been used to target this population, therapeutically.

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No differences have been found in clinical or magnetic resonance imaging recurrence of disease activity amongst the groups. Interestingly, no disease reactivation was observed only in one buy cytoxan patient treated for 6 months with monthly pulses of cyclophosphamide.

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Full-dose adjuvant chemotherapy may be given to patients with ESBC regardless of the day-before buy cytoxan ANC, without significantly increasing the risk of CIFN. The chemotherapy regimen is the most significant predictor for CIFN.

cytoxan dosage 2016-06-01

Premenopausal women who buy cytoxan had surgically removed breast cancer with histologically confirmed N + and HR+ were included in the trial. The AC consisted of six cycles of taxotere, adriamycin, cytoxan or taxotere, epirubicin and cytoxan with the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive TMX 20 mg/day for 5 years or up to menopause or TMX 20 mg/day for 5 years plus goserelin (GOS) 3.6 mg injection per month for 2 years. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS).

cytoxan 125 mg 2016-07-20

A 68-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with left otitis media with effusion and left uveitis more than 5 months before admission. He was urgently admitted to our hospital for progressive deterioration of his renal function [serum creatinine(Cr) 7.59 mg/dL] with proteinuria and urinary red blood cell casts, inflammation, and anemia. Additionally, his serum proteinase 3 antinuclear antibody (PR3-ANCA) level, determined by using the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method, had increased to more than 3,500 U/mL. Hemodialysis (HD) was initiated on the third day after admission and renal biopsy was performed on the eighth day. The histological findings showed necrotic cellar crescents, hence, he was diagnosed as granulomatosis with polyangiitis on the basis of the clinical criteria. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was administered from the 11th day. Thereafter, the administration of oral prednisolone (PSL) was started, and plasma exchange was initiated for the purpose of RP3-ANCA removal. In his clinical course, PSL was tapered as soon as possible because of the development of steroid psychosis, and we started intravenous cyclophosphamide on the 25th day instead of tapering the PSL. Subsequently, his renal function improved even without HD, and he was discharged on the 49th day. Although his PR3-ANCA level was still high after discharge, the administration of azathioprine led to a decrease in the PR-3 ANCA levels. About 2 years after discharge, the PR3-ANCA level decreased to 10.0 buy cytoxan U/mL, and there has been no sign of GPA recurrence.

cytoxan 1000 mg 2016-02-27

Recently, haploidentical transplantations have been performed with unmanipulated BM or PBSC. This buy cytoxan approach is becoming more widely adopted with the use of PTCY. However, there is limited evidence about this approach in children. We present 15 children who received 16 haploidentical HSCT with unmanipulated BM or PBSC using PTCY for GVHD prophylaxis. Post-transplant CY(50 mg/kg IV) was given on the third and fifth day, and CsA or tacrolimus with MMF or MP was also used for GVHD prophylaxis. All patients engrafted at a median of 16 and 18 days for neutrophil and thrombocyte recovery, respectively. Grades II-III acute GVHD developed in seven patients, and mild chronic GVHD was found in two patients. Two patients died within the first 100 days due to sepsis (TRM 12.5%). Eleven patients are currently alive, with a median follow-up of 12 months (range 6-22 months). The 12-month OS and DFS were 75 ± 10.8% and 68.8 ± 11.6%, respectively. Our results with these high-risk patients are encouraging for haploidentical HSCT in pediatric patients. Future studies should continue to assess haploidentical HSCT, including comparison of other modalities, in a primary pediatric population.

cytoxan dosing schedule 2017-03-10

Prospective analysis was performed of 49 consecutive patients treated with TC for stage I-IIB breast cancer from March 2010 to June 2011. Premedication was administered with granisetron, dexamethasone, and chlorpheniramine. Patient charts were reviewed for completion rate and adverse events. Two-tailed Fisher exact buy cytoxan test was used to evaluate adverse events between prior cyclophosphamide and prior docetaxel.

cytoxan 25mg tablets 2016-09-09

Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a DNA alkylating agent, which is widely used with other chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of various types of cancer. It can be used not only as a chemotherapeutic but also as an immunomodulatory agent to inhibit IL-10 expression and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. Immunotherapy based on FAPα, as a tumor stromal antigen, typically induces specific immune response targeting the tumor microenvironment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a previously unreported CY combination strategy to enhance the limited anti-tumor effect of a DNA vaccine targeting FAPα. The results suggested CY administration could promote the percentage of splenic CD8(+ )T cells and decrease the proportion of CD4 (+) CD25 (+) Foxp3 buy cytoxan (+ )Tregs in spleen. In tumor tissues, levels of immunosuppressive cytokines including IL-10 and CXCL-12 were also reduced. Meanwhile, the CY combination did not impair the FAPα-specific immunity induced by the DNA vaccine and further reduced tumor stromal factors. Most importantly, FAP-vaccinated mice also treated with CY chemotherapy showed a marked suppression of tumor growth (inhibition ratio =80%) and a prolongation of survival time. Thus, the combination of FAPα immunotherapy and chemotherapy with CY offers new insights into improving cancer therapies.

cytoxan maximum dose 2015-11-25

CD37 has gathered renewed interest as a therapeutic target in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, CD37-directed antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have not been explored. Here, we identified a novel anti-CD37 antibody, K7153A, with potent in vitro activity against B-cell lines through multiple mechanisms including apoptosis induction, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The antibody was conjugated to the maytansinoid, DM1, a potent antimicrotubule agent, via the thioether linker, N-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), and the resulting ADC, IMGN529, retained the intrinsic antibody activities and showed enhanced cytotoxic activity from targeted payload delivery. In lymphoma cell lines, IMGN529 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest after internalization and lysosomal processing to lysine-N(ε)-SMCC-DM1 as the sole intracellular maytansinoid metabolite. IMGN529 was highly active against subcutaneous B-cell tumor xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice with comparable or better activity than rituximab, a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone, or bendamustine. In human blood cells, CD37 is expressed in B cells at similar levels as CD20, and IMGN529 resulted in potent and specific depletion of normal and CLL B cells. These buy cytoxan results support evaluation of the CD37-targeted ADC, IMGN529, in clinical trials in patients with B-cell malignancies including NHL and CLL.

buy cytoxan cyclophosphamide 2017-07-19

Triple-negative [estrogen receptor (ER)-/progesterone receptor (PR)-/HER2-] breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼ 15% of overall breast cancer and associated with a poor prognosis. There is a short of standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for TNBC. A number of studies have shown that TNBC might be sensitive to cisplatin and carboplatin on the basis that dysfunction of BRCA1 and its pathway is associated with buy cytoxan a specific DNA-repair defect, but data of adjuvant setting about this is limited.

cytoxan iv dosage 2015-03-28

The institutional review board approved this study; informed consent was obtained. Between buy cytoxan August 2010 and December 2012, 48 women (mean age, 46.4 years; range, 29-65 years) with breast cancer were enrolled and treated with an anthracycline-taxane regimen. DCE MR imaging was performed before and after the first cycle of chemotherapy, and the pathologic response was assessed after surgery. Tumor size and volume, PRM characteristics, and pharmacokinetic parameters (K(trans), kep, and ve) on MR images were assessed and compared according to the pathologic responses by using the Fisher exact test or the independent-sample t test.

cytoxan generic name 2016-09-17

In the preparation room, depending on the sampling spot and analyte, median concentrations ranged from 5 to 267 pg cm(-2) and buy cytoxan from 2 to 368 pg cm(-2) before and after implementation of the measures, respectively. In the outpatient clinic, median concentrations ranged from 5 to 5310 pg cm(-2) and from <0.2 to 574 pg cm(-2) before and after implementation of the measures, respectively. Depending on the sampling spot, median contamination of the outpatient clinic with cyclophosphamide and platinum was reduced by 57-99% and 61-98%, respectively.

cytoxan capsules 2016-04-12

These findings Imodium Drug Use demonstrate that neem oil is capable of attenuating the mutagenic activity of various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens.

cytoxan 10 mg 2015-07-16

Childhood-onset LN seems to be more severe than is late-onset Duphaston Syrup LN.

cytoxan oral tablets 2015-09-10

CTX, DEHP, and MEHP all caused shrinkage, development retardation and quantitative reduction of spermatogenic cells with and mitochondrial swelling vacuolar changes. The damage of Aggrenox Authorized Generic spermatogenic cells increased significantly with the increment of DEHP and MEHP doses and exposure time. Both DEHP and MEHP treatments resulted in significantly increased cell apoptosis index (AI) in close correlation with the exposure doses and duration (P<0.01). DEHP and MEHP treatments also significantly increased serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and decreased testosterone levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05).

cytoxan pill dosage 2017-12-23

Although the International Prognostic Index (IPI) is considered as the current standard prognostication system for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), prognostic heterogeneity is suggested to exist among the patients within the same IPI risk group. Hence, we investigated the pattern of distribution and prognostic impact of five IPI factors within the same IPI score. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 387 patients newly diagnosed Glucotrol Tablet as pathologically proven DLBCL between February 2002 and February 2010. We classified patients to IPI risk scores and categorized them according to the combinations of IPI. Then, we explored the frequency of five IPI factors and analyzed the correlation between these subgroups and efficacy outcomes: complete response (CR), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Survival estimates by IPI score in this cohort corresponded to the classic IPI. Elevated serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the most prevalently distributed factor throughout the scores, and patients with elevated serum level of LDH tended to have lower CR, inferior EFS, and/or OS irrespective of IPI scores. Particularly, among the subgroups of IPI score of 2, elevated serum level of LDH was significantly associated with inferior CR (73.1 vs 95.2 %), 3-year EFS (57 vs 87 %), and 3-year OS (58 vs 82 %). In addition, the higher serum level of LDH, particularly above 2,000 IU/L, was significantly correlated with the inferior survival outcomes (3-year EFS 78.0 vs 58.5 vs 45.5 vs 20.0 %, 3-year OS 86.0 vs 66.2 vs 58.2 vs 40.0 %). In conclusion, among five factors of IPI, elevated serum level of LDH seems to be the most frequently distributed and, more importantly, the most relevant IPI factor with the highest prognostic impact. These findings still warrant further validation in larger cohorts.

cytoxan drug class 2015-09-26

404 patients with early stage FL Famvir 500mg Dosage treated between 1980 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Two of three patients had stage I disease. Based on clinical characteristics, first line treatments were radiotherapy (RT) (48% of patients), chemotherapy (CT) (16%), combined chemo-and radiotherapy (CRT) (16%) or observation (OBS) (15%). Survival was modeled with Kaplan-Meier methodology. Multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox model.

cytoxan 100 mg 2016-07-03

LEVEL Crestor Prescription Cost IV, treatment study.

cytoxan reviews 2017-09-25

We report a 14-year-old Indian boy who Cost Of Retrovir presented with a history of weight loss, fever, facial edema, and a relapsing papulovesicular eruption on the face and limbs for 1 year. Histopathology of the skin showed dense lymphoid infiltrate from dermis to subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemistry of this lymphoid infiltrate was CD3, CD8, CD56, CD57, Granzyme B, TIA, and Epstein Barr virus LMP1. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with the diagnosis of hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell lymphoma. The child responded remarkably to oral steroids but relapsed on tapering doses. CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, Vincristine, and Prednisolone) chemotherapy was initiated in view of systemic involvement to which he showed some response, however, the disease relapsed again. He then had a rapidly progressive disease and ultimately succumbed to his illness. This is the first case of hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell lymphoma being reported from this subcontinent.

cytoxan dosing 2016-01-03

Thirty-nine patients (20 females, 19 males) with relapsing-remitting MS at median age of 40 years (range 25-63) were included in this study. As a stem cell mobilization they received either granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone (10 μg/kg s.c. daily; n = 1) or cyclophosphamide (CY; 2.0 g/m(2) i.v. on days 1-2) followed by G- Casodex Dosage CSF (n = 38).