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The primary outcome measure was the relative variation in incontinence episodes frequency (IEF) at the end of study compared to baseline. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (QoL) measures (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form [IIQ-SF], Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form [UDI-SF], Incontinence Quality of Life [I-QoL]), symptom scores (Urinary Symptom Profile [USP] questionnaire, International Consultation on Incontinence/World Health Organisation Short Form questionnaire [ICIQ-SF], the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II] questionnaire), 1-h pad test, and assessment of adverse events.
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Duloxetine has recently received a CLBP indication in Canada. The cost-effectiveness of duloxetine and other oral medications has not previously been evaluated for CLBP.
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To study the effect of duloxetine (Cymbalta), a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on pain symptoms in Parkinson Disease (PD).
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A total of 683 North American women 22 to 84 years old were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo controlled study. The case definition included a predominant symptom of SUI with a weekly incontinence episode frequency (IEF) of 7 or greater, the absence of predominant symptoms of urge incontinence, normal diurnal and nocturnal frequency, a bladder capacity of 400 ml or greater, and a positive cough stress test and stress pad test. After a 2-week placebo lead-in period subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo (339) or 80 mg duloxetine daily (344) as 40 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcome variables included IEF and an incontinence quality of life questionnaire. Van Elteren's test was used to analyze percent changes in IEF with a stratification variable of weekly baseline IEF (less than 14 and 14 or greater). ANCOVA was used to analyze incontinence quality of life scores.
Results on the 24-item HDRS, CGI, and CDRS suggest that duloxetine is efficacious in acute treatment of chronic nonmajor depressive disorder. Response and remission rates also differed significantly, favoring duloxetine treatment, but BDI, GAF, and social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale) did not. Duloxetine appears to be effective in acute treatment of nonmajor chronic depression.
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CSF monoamine biomarkers confirmed central NET activity for SEP-432 and duloxetine's dual reuptake inhibition.
Duloxetine hydrochloride ((S)-N-methyl-3-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-2-thiophenepropanamine hydrochloride) has been found to react with polymer degradation products or residual free acids present in the enteric polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) in dosage formulations to form succinamide and phthalamide impurities, respectively. The rate of formation of the impurities is accelerated by heat and humidity. The structures were deduced using molecular weights obtained from LC-MS experiments and confirmed by comparison of UV spectra, HPLC retention times, and electrospray mass spectra to independently synthesized material. It is proposed that polymer-bound succinic and phthalic substituents can be cleaved from the polymer, resulting in the formation of either the free acids or the anhydrides. It is postulated that the reaction is enabled by migration of either (1) the free acid or anhydride or (2) the parent drug through the formulation. The formation of these impurities was minimized by increasing the thickness of the physical barrier separating the enteric coating from the drug.
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Similar to the time-course for treating depression, several weeks of administration are required for serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors to produce anxiolytic effects. Previous studies with the schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm (a putative preclinical anxiety model) have shown that repeated administration of antidepressant drugs is necessary to produce a suppression of polydipsia, which is interpreted as an anxiolytic-like effect. The present study sought to expand past findings by evaluating the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and the 5-HT-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine in the schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm with rats. Dose combinations of the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with fluoxetine were also explored to determine whether α2 adrenoceptor antagonism could enhance the anxiolytic-like effects produced by an SSRI. Fluoxetine and duloxetine significantly reduced water intake over the course of daily administrations. Daily treatment with the combination of fluoxetine and yohimbine produced a significantly greater reduction in water intake than fluoxetine alone. The present results confirmed previous findings that inhibition of 5-HT reuptake reduces water consumption in this paradigm. The results for the α2 antagonist yohimbine (in combination with fluoxetine) also indicate that α2 adrenoceptor antagonism may significantly enhance anxiolytic-like effects of SSRIs.
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In this study, the enteric-coated delayed-release pellets of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX) were formulated using a fluidized bed coater. Three separate layers, the drug layer, the barrier layer, and the enteric layer, were coated onto inert core pellets. Among the three formulations (F1-F3), the dissolution profiles of formulation F2 were most similar to those of the marketed product, with similarity and difference factors of 83.99 and 3.77, respectively. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC, C(max), T(max), t(1/2), K(el), and MRT of DLX for the developed formulation (F2) did not differ significantly from those for the marketed product in beagle dogs, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. Our results demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution data resembled the in vivo performance of the drug. Therefore, this study has a positive scope for further scale up and development of the formulation for achievement of the generic product.
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Applying a retrospective cohort study design on a large U.S. healthcare claims database, we examined the dosing patterns of duloxetine and pregabalin among commercially insured patients with DPNP aged 18 to 64 who initiated (a 90-day medication gap) duloxetine or pregabalin therapy in 2006. Selected patients had continuous enrollment during the 12-month pre- and post-index periods. The index mediation was used to classified individuals into the duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts. Initial daily dose, average daily dose over the first post-index year, and average daily dose of the first several prescriptions were estimated and compared across the cohorts.
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The safety and tolerability of vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder was assessed. Tolerability was based on the nature, incidence and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during acute (6/8) week treatment in 11 randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled short-term studies in major depressive disorder: six with an active reference. Symptoms following discontinuation were assessed through the Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms checklist in three studies. Long-term (⩽52 weeks) tolerability was evaluated in five open-label extension studies. Patients (n =5701) were acutely treated with either placebo (n=1817), vortioxetine (5-20mg/day; n=3018), venlafaxine XR (225mg/day; n=113) or duloxetine (60mg/day; n=753). The withdrawal rate due to TEAEs during treatment with vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) was 4.5-7.8%, compared with placebo (3.6%), venlafaxine XR (14.2%) or duloxetine (8.8%). Common TEAEs (incidence ⩾5% and >2 × placebo) with vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) were nausea (20.9-31.2%) and vomiting (2.9-6.5%). For vortioxetine (5-20mg/day), the incidence of TEAEs associated with insomnia was 2.0-5.1% versus 4.0% for placebo, and with sexual dysfunction 1.6-1.8% versus 1.0% for placebo. Discontinuation symptoms as assessed by the mean Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms total score after abrupt discontinuation were comparable to placebo in the first and second week. Vortioxetine had no effect relative to placebo on clinical laboratory parameters, body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Vortioxetine showed no clinically relevant effect on ECG parameters, including the QTcF interval. In long-term treatment, no new types of TEAEs were seen; the mean weight gain was 0.7-0.8kg. Thus, vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) appears safe and generally well tolerated in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
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The study sample comprised 2499 pregabalin users and 1354 duloxetine users. Among pregabalin users, 48 (1.8%) had at least one potential pregabalin DCI; none had potential pregabalin DDIs. Among duloxetine users, 966 (71%) had at least one potential duloxetine DDI or DCI. The frequencies of potential DDIs and DCIs differed significantly between pregabalin and duloxetine users (p < 0.001). Potential duloxetine DDIs and DCIs were associated with a significant increase in mean health care costs in duloxetine users (p = 0.002). Potential pregabalin DDIs and DCIs were not associated with additional health care costs in pregabalin users.
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This was a flexible-dosed study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of duloxetine 30-120 mg once daily in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adult patients.
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Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Mean age of the subjects (n = 210) was 37.6 years, 50.5% were female, and 74.3% completed the 15 weeks treatment. Patients treated with duloxetine had significantly greater improvement compared to placebo on the HADS-A (mean change -6.6 vs. -4.9, respectively, P = 0.022). Improvement in anxiety was greater with duloxetine treatment at 7 weeks and continued through 15 weeks for both the HADS-A and the HAMA total score (0.01 ≤ P < 0.05). Compared with placebo, duloxetine was also associated with greater improvement on most secondary measures, but not on the SDS global functioning score. Nausea, dizziness, and somnolence occurred significantly more frequently as treatment-emergent adverse events with duloxetine treatment compared with placebo treatment.
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RCTs involving DLX are limited, with few direct comparisons to standard antidepressants.
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Previous studies reported increased heat pain thresholds and decreased ischemic pain thresholds in patients experiencing depression. The increased sensitivity to ischemic muscle pain was assumed to represent a model for the investigation of physical symptoms in the disease. Here, we explored how the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine influences experimental pain thresholds and tolerances in depressed patients during treatment. Twenty-two patients experiencing unipolar depression were included. Pain assessments were conducted unmedicated at baseline, after 1 week, and after 6 weeks of duloxetine treatment. We observed the expected clinical response of patients indicated by a significant reduction in the Montgomery Depression Rating Scale after 6 weeks. At baseline, we found increased heat pain thresholds in patients in comparison to controls while patients simultaneously rated augmented pain perception on the visual analog scale. In contrast, patients were significantly more perceptive to ischemic muscle pain at baseline. During treatment, the examined pain thresholds showed differential changes: Increased heat pain thresholds of patients normalized during treatment, whereas no significant change was observed for ischemic pain thresholds. Thus, our results might change the view on the paradox of pain perception in major depression because increased heat pain thresholds are associated with augmented pain perception in the disease.
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To evaluate treatment patterns and costs among patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) newly prescribed pregabalin or duloxetine in usual care settings.
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Significant improvements of estimated HAMD17 response and remission rates for duloxetine started at week 2 (P = 0.022 and P = 0.033, respectively). Time to HAMD17 response and remission were significantly shorter for duloxetine versus placebo (P 0.10 for all PH treatment-by-age interactions). The placebo-referenced duloxetine HR for time to 50% reduction in overall pain was 1.75 (P = 0.024) for patients with moderate to severe pain.
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Data from three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult patients with DPNP were pooled and stratified by age (<65, >or=65 years). Patients were randomized to duloxetine (DLX) 60 mg once-daily, 60 mg twice-daily, or placebo for 12 weeks, followed by a 52-week extension phase (re-randomization to routine care or DLX 120 mg/day). Intent-to-treat analyses were used for safety and efficacy assessment.
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Our results demonstrate that duloxetine can act as a local anesthetic and an analgesic drug via both local and systemic applications. Because duloxetine inhibits neuronal Na currents with high potency, it may exert its antihyperalgesic effects through inhibition of the spontaneous nerve impulses that result from peripheral injury, encompassing its actions on multiple central nervous system and peripheral targets.
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Among 30,844 duloxetine initiators, 21,000 were matched to venlafaxine initiators, 28,479 to SSRI initiators, and 22,714 to untreated patients. There were no cases of hepatic-related death or liver failure. IRs of other clinically significant hepatic injury without documented alternate etiologies were higher but not statistically significant among duloxetine initiators compared to initiators of venlafaxine (0.7/1000 person-years [PY] [95 % CI: 0.2 - 1.5] vs. 0.0/1000 PY [95 % CI: 0.0 - 0.3]) and SSRIs (0.4/1000 PY [95 % CI: 0.1 - 1.0] vs. 0.0/1000 PY [95 % CI: 0.0 - 0.3]). IRs were similar among duloxetine and untreated patients (0.5/1000 PY [95 % CI: 0.1 - 1.3] vs. 0.5/1000 PY [95 % CI: 0.1 - 1.5]). When hepatic outcomes were considered irrespective of alternate etiologies, similar results were observed.
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Patients (N = 514) received open-label duloxetine 60-120 mg/day for up to 34 weeks. Responders (N = 288) were randomly assigned to duloxetine or placebo during a further 52-week double-blind maintenance phase.
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Tolerability was evaluated by discontinuation rate (acceptable if ≤ 19%) due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and motor symptoms (UPDRS). Safety measures were TEAEs, the UKU side effect rating scale, vital signs, weight, laboratory tests, and ECG. Efficacy measures included HAMD-17, BDI, CGI-S, PGI-I, and pain VAS. QoL was measured by PDQ-39.
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Although no differences in the primary end points were found, a higher remission rate was seen with the early switch strategy. Our findings suggest that further investigations to reevaluate the conventional approach to antidepressant switch strategy would be worthwhile.
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PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database were searched using the terms 'venlafaxine' and 'fibromyalgia'. Results were classified as primary studies or review articles based on abstract review. References of review articles were evaluated to ensure no primary studies evaluating venlafaxine were overlooked. All clinical studies that investigated venlafaxine for the treatment of fibromyalgia were included and graded on strength of evidence.
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This article presents a brief review of the physiologic abnormalities seen in fibromyalgia, current theories of widespread pain, and treatment options, including emerging therapeutics, with a focus on the use of duloxetine to manage fibromyalgia symptoms. Major clinical trials that examine the efficacy and effectiveness of duloxetine to date are reviewed, and safety issues are discussed.
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The nocebo effect, when a harmless substance creates harmful effects in a person who takes it, is a clinically salient yet seldom studied phenomenon that may be associated with poorer treatment outcomes, perceived adverse events, and treatment discontinuation. The covert presence of nocebo responders in clinical trials may contribute to outcome variance in both placebo and active treatment arms for important primary and secondary endpoints. Nocebo effects are thought to be driven by expectancy and conditioning.
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Postmenopausal women with depression frequently have co-occurring symptoms of hot flashes (vasomotor symptoms), sleep disturbance, anxiety, and pain. Treatment strategies that target all of these symptoms together have not been investigated to date.