cozaar dosage strengths
The *2 and *3 alleles of CYP2C9, with decreased enzymatic activity, are highly polymorphic and contribute to inter-individual differences in pharmacotherapy of CYP2C9 substrates. Here, we sought for a simplified theoretical method to predict the pharmacokinetic changes with minimal in vivo data.
cozaar overdose treatment
The pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by acute hypoxia was significantly attenuated during losartan infusion, while Psa, SVR, CO, pH, PaCO(2), PaO(2) and base excess did not differ between groups. During room air, Ppa, PVR, Psa, SVR and CO values were not modified by saline or losartan infusion.
cozaar double dose
The potential for nasal delivery of losartan, a drug with poor oral bioavailability, was investigated using Calu-3 cells. Epithelial permeation of the drug with or without dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CD) and glycocholate was investigated. Possible transport mechanism of the compound and epithelial mucosal tolerance were screened. Reversibility of epithelial membrane perturbation was also investigated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) recovery over a 24-h period following drug formulation exposure. The permeability coefficient of losartan was 1.3 + or - 0.5 x 10(-6) cm s(-1). This flux was not significantly different from that of formulations containing DM-beta-CD (0.5 and 1.0%) or glycocholate (0.5%). However, the formulation with 1.0% glycocholate significantly increased losartan permeation 7-fold. Losartan flux across the cells was concentration-dependent. Serosal to mucosal permeation was significantly higher than mucosal to serosal permeation. Concentration-dependency, as well as polarity in transport indicated that the flux of the compound across Calu-3 cells was not limited to passive diffusion. Cells exposed to DM-beta-CD (0.5 and 1.0%) and glycocholate (0.5%) caused no significant change in TEER and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MDH). The results of the study showed that losartan may be a suitable drug candidate for nasal delivery.
Pertinent studies were selected through extensive searches of PubMed (1966 to 29 December 2007), Embase (1980 to 29 December 2007), and the Cochrane library (29 December 2007). Randomized clinical trials comparing telmisartan with losartan in patients with hypertension were selected using predefined criteria. The main efficacy measures were reduction in diastolic and systolic BP (DBP and SBP), and therapeutic response of DBP and SBP. The pooled estimates were carried out using RevMan version 4.2 software.
Women who suffered from preeclampsia (PE) have an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases later in life. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown, they may relate to an increased sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang-II) and endothelial dysfunction during a preeclamptic pregnancy, which may persist after PE. Recently, we showed vascular hypersensitivity to Ang-II and disturbed endothelial cell function in experimental PE in rats as compared to healthy pregnant rats.
cozaar 75 mg
Suppression of the formation of angiotensin II (A II) is thought to be a major contributor to the hemodynamic response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-inhibitor) therapy. However, during ACE-inhibitor treatment, A II plasma levels may also recover through tissue chymase. This study has attempted to verify the feasibility, safety and tolerability of a combined treatment using captopril (75 mg/day) and losartan (25 mg/day), and to ascertain its ability to reduce the formation and action of A II in the early post-infarction phase of reperfused anterior myocardial infarction (AMI).
cozaar generic name
Nineteen sheep underwent coronary ligation to create a moderate-sized anteroapical infarction. Post-MI day 2, sheep were randomized to therapy with ramipril (ACEI, n = 5) or ramipril plus losartan (CT, n = 6) or none (untreated, n = 8). Infarct size was similar between groups. At 8 weeks post-MI, myocytes were isolated from regions adjacent to and remote from the infarct to measure morphometric indices (cell volume, length, cross-sectional area, width) and parameters of contraction (% shortening and -dL/dt, rate of shortening) and relaxation (+dL/dt [rate of relengthening] and TR 70% [time for 70% relengthening]). Volume % collagen was measured from adjacent and remote regions. Adjacent myocyte volume was different between groups (2.5 +/- 0.1 x 10(4) microm(3) in CT, 3.0 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) microm(3) in ACEI, 3.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(4) microm(3) in untreated, analysis of variance [ANOVA] P =.001) as was length (158 +/- 4 microm, 161 +/- 9 microm, 189 +/- 8 microm, respectively, ANOVA P <.001). Adjacent cell volume and length in CT were lower than untreated (P <.05). Percent shortening and -dL/dt of isolated adjacent myocytes were improved with both ACEI (7.9 +/- 0.3%, -131 +/- 6 microm/sec, P <.05) and CT (7.7 +/- 0.3%, -144 +/- 8 microm/sec, P <.05) compared with no therapy (6.4 +/- 0.4%, -104 +/- 7 microm/sec), as was both +dL/dt and TR 70%. No between-group difference in volume % collagen was found in adjacent or remote regions.
cozaar name brand
Female pigs (n = 18, weighing 20-25 kg).
CYP2C9 is a polymorphic enzyme that metabolizes a number of clinically important drugs. In this study, catalytic activities of seven alleles found in Japanese individuals, CYP2C9*3 (I359L), *13 (L90P), *26 (T130R), *28 (Q214L), *30 (A477T), *33 (R132Q), and *34 (R335Q), were assessed using three substrates (diclofenac, losartan, and glimepiride). When expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system, the holo and total (apo and holo) CYP2C9 protein expression levels were similar among the wild type (CYP2C9.1) and six variants except for CYP2C9.13. A large part of CYP2C9.13 was present in the apo form P420. Compared with CYP2C9.1, all variants except for CYP2C9.34 exhibited substrate-dependent changes in K(m), V(max), and intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)). For diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, the intrinsic clearance was decreased markedly (by >80%) in CYP2C9.13, CYP2C9.30, and CYP2C9.33 and variably (63-76%) in CYP2C9.3, CYP2C9.26, and CYP2C9.28 due to increased K(m) and/or decreased V(max) values. For losartan oxidation, CYP2C9.13 and CYP2C9.28 showed 2.5- and 1.8-fold higher K(m) values, respectively, and all variants except for CYP2C9.34 showed >77% lower V(max) and intrinsic clearance values. For glimepiride hydroxylation, the K(m) of CYP2C9.13 was increased 7-fold, and the V(max) values of all variants significantly decreased, resulting in reductions in the intrinsic clearance by >80% in CYP2C9.3, CYP2C9.13, CYP2C9.26, and CYP2C9.33 and by 56 to 75% in CYP2C9.28 and CYP2C9.30. These findings suggest the necessity for careful administration of losartan and glimepiride to patients bearing these six alleles.
cozaar comp tablets
Two murine monoclonal antibodies were produced to losartan (DuP 753), a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Using a solid phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), each antibody was examined for its ability to bind to a set of losartan analogs that differ structurally in varying degrees. Both antibodies distinguished fine structural changes in the analogs, particularly at the R5 position of the imidazole ring. No cross-reactivity towards either antibody was observed with the natural ligand angiotensin II, the peptide antagonist saralasin, or the AT2 selective nonpeptide antagonist PD123177.
cozaar 50mg tablets
To investigate the effects of telmisartan on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and obesity.
Endogenous angiotensin II does not contribute to the acute local maintenance of basal peripheral vascular tone in healthy man except under conditions of renin-angiotensin system activation such as sodium depletion.
cozaar drug class
Sixty-eight drugs were selected for the analysis. For each drug, theoretical dissolution (R d) and absorption (R a) rates at estimated dosing intervals (1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 min) were calculated using the Noyes-Whitney formula and compartment analysis, respectively. The optimal thresholds for R d and R a (R dth and R ath) were estimated by comparing the results with those of previous drug interaction studies for six drugs. Four drug interaction risk categories for 68 drugs at each dose interval were defined according to the indices of dissolution and absorption against their thresholds.
cozaar low dose
The known angiotensin II (AngII) physiological effect of aldosterone synthesis and secretion is mediated by either Gq/11 proteins or βarrestin1 (βarr1), both of which can couple to its type 1 receptors (AT₁Rs), present in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa (AZG) cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relative potencies of all the currently used in the clinic AT₁R antagonist drugs (angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs, or sartans) at preventing activation of these two signaling mediators (G proteins and βarrs) at the AngII-bound AT1R and, consequently, at suppression of aldosterone in vitro. All ARBs were found to be potent inhibitors of G protein activation at the AT₁R. However, candesartan and valsartan were the most potent at blocking AngII-induced βarr activation at this receptor, among the tetrazolo-biphenyl-methyl derivatives, translating into excellent efficacies at aldosterone suppression in H295R cells. Conversely, irbesartan and losartan were largely G protein-selective inhibitors at the AT₁R, with very low potency towards βarr inhibition. As a result, they were very weak suppressors of βarr1-dependent aldosterone production in H295R cells. These findings provide important pharmacological insights into the drug class of ARBs and medicinal chemistry insights for future drug development in the field of AngII antagonism.
cozaar 20 mg
To evaluate the effect of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and the results of losartan intervention on platelet-aggregation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.
cozaar 50 mg
In type 2 diabetes the degree of albuminuria is strongly related to progression of diabetic renal disease, as well as to the risk for cardiovascular complications. If normoalbuminuria is maintained, the risk of diabetic nephropathy is very low. In individuals with microalbuminuria, the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate is closely related to the degree of albuminuria, and regression to normoalbuminuria slows down the rate of decline in renal function. Data from the LIFE-diabetes subgroup showed that levels of albuminuria well below what is usually defined as microalbuminuria, strongly predicted risk for cardiovascular complications. This indicates that when albuminuria is used as a risk predictor for cardiovascular events, so called normal values should be redefined. Traditional values for normo-micro-macroalbuminuria are primarily defined as predictors for the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy. In the LIFE-diabetes subgroup we found that reduction in albuminuria was more pronounced in losartan-based as compared with atenolol-based treatment. The benefit in favor of losartan was partly related to its major influence on albuminuria. Individuals with the highest baseline values of albuminuria had the greatest benefit in terms of reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on losartan as compared with atenolol. The level of albuminuria during treatment was closely related to the risk for cardiovascular events. We conclude that tiny amounts of albuminuria, well below traditional levels for microalbuminuria, predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reduction in albuminuria during treatment translates to reduction in cardiovascular events. Monitoring of albuminuria should be an integrated part of management of hypertension in diabetic as well as nondiabetic patients.
cozaar 5 mg
The present results indicate that the kallikrein-kinin system might not be a major factor in the cardio- and renoprotective effects of ACE inhibitors in rats with chronic renal failure.
cozaar 60 mg
MAP was 113 +/- 11 mmHg at baseline and decreased to 99 +/- 10 mmHg during the administration of Hct + Dox and to 92 +/- 10 mmHg during Hct + Dox + Los. This decrease in MAP was caused by a decrease in SVR (P = 0.0009). Pretreatment with Hct + Dox or Hct + Dox + Los had no effect on glomerular filtration rate or RBF. Infusion of L-NAME during the administration of Hct + Dox resulted in an augmented (P < 0.0001) increase in MAP (18%), SVR (61%) and RVR (70%) compared with those observed with placebo (8, 30 and 49%, respectively). This augmentation was abolished by losartan.
cozaar generic reviews
The expression of renal MT3-MMP mRNA in group B (1.37+/-0.96) was significantly stronger than those in group A (0.75+/-0.34, P<0.05) and in group C (0.75+/-0.30, P<0.05). The mRNA expression of renal TIMP2 in group B (0.73+/-0.37) was significantly increased as compared with group A (0.32+/-0.19, P<0.05) and group C (0.34+/-0.17, P<0.05), with a higher mRNA expression of renal TGFbeta1 in group B (0.53+/-0.20 vs 0.26+/-0.13 in group A and 0.29+/-0.15 in group C, P<0.05). UAE in group B (2.18+/-1.98 mg) was significantly higher than those in groups A and C (0.41+/-0.47 mg/d, P<0.05; 0.65+/-0.89 mg/d, P<0.05, respectively). The glomerular basement membrane thickness (532+/-108 nm) and the MM density (56.4+/-6.8) were significantly greater in group Bthan in the other two groups (P<0.05).
We investigate and compare the possible antitumor activity of clinically used angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; captopril, perindopril and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, losartan against hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosoamines (DENA) and promoted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)).
cozaar 25 mg
Losartan is a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Although the teratogenic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are well documented there are limited reports of losartan induced fetal toxicity. The authors report a case of incomplete ossification of skull bones, transient oliguria and feed intolerance in a newborn following in-utero exposure to losartan.
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of losartan and its active metabolite, E-3174, were studied in 8 stable, hypertensive continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Following a 1-week washout period, subjects received 100 mg of losartan orally for 7 days. On Days 1 and 7, hemodynamic and hormonal responses were determined, as were PK parameters on Day 7. Peritoneal equilibration testing was performed pre-Day 1 and on Day 7. AUC0-24 and t1/2 for losartan and E-3174 were 95 +/- 49.9 micrograms.min/mL and 176 +/- 82.1 micrograms.min/mL and 172.5 +/- 86.7 minutes and 628 +/- 575 minutes, respectively. These values are similar to those of normal subjects and subjects on hemodialysis. Peritoneal clearance of losartan and E-3174 was negligible. All subjects demonstrated a substantial reduction in blood pressure with at least a 10 mmHg drop in diastolic BP. Plasma renin activity (PRA) values increased, but aldosterone, endothelin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine values did not change following 7 days of losartan. Losartan was well tolerated in all study subjects.
A convenient and facile synthesis, in silico docking studies and in vitro biological evaluation of N-substituted 5-butylimidazole derivatives as potent Angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor type 1 (AT1) blockers (ARBs) has been reported in the current study. Our efforts have been directed towards the development of an efficient synthetic route allowing the facile introduction of substituents on the imidazole ring. In particular, a series of imidazole based compounds bearing the biphenyl moiety at the N - 1 position, a halogen atom at the C-4 and polar substituents such as hydroxymethyl, aldo or carboxy group at the C-2 position were designed and synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for binding to human AT1 receptor and for ANG II antagonism in vitro on isolated rat uterus. Among them, 5-butyl-1-[[2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]imidazole-2-carboxylic acid (30) exhibited higher binding affinity compared to the other analogues tested (-log IC(50) = 8.46). The latter analogue was also found to be the most active in the rat uterotonic test (pA(2) = 7.83). Importantly, the binding affinity was higher to that of losartan (-log IC(50) = 8.25) indicating the importance of carboxy group at the C-2 position. Experimental findings are in good agreement with docking studies, which were undertaken in order to investigate ligand/AT1 receptor interactions.