Many antibiotics regarded as emerging contaminants have been frequently detected in soils and groundwater; however, their transport behaviors in soils remain largely unknown. This study examined the transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), in saturated porous media. Laboratory columns packed with quartz sand was used to test the effects of solution pH and ionic strength (IS) on their retention and transport. The results showed that these two antibiotics behaved differently in the saturated sand columns. In general, SMZ manifested a much higher mobility than CIP for all experimental conditions tested. Almost all SMZ transported through the columns within one pore volume in deionized water (i.e., pH=5.6, IS=0), but no CIP was detected in the effluents under the same condition after extended column flushing. Perturbations in solution pH (5.6 and 9.5) and IS (0 and 0.1M) showed no effect on SMZ transport in the saturated columns. When pH increased to 9.5, however, ~93% of CIP was eluted from the sand columns. Increase of IS from 0 to 0.1M also slightly changed the distribution of adsorbed CIP within the sand column at pH 5.6, but still no CIP was detected in the effluents. A mathematical model based on advection-dispersion equation coupled with equilibrium and kinetic reactions successfully simulated the transport of the antibiotics in water-saturated porous media with R(2)=0.99.
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Regenerative endodontics aims to re-establish a functional pulp-dentin complex. First, the root canal system is disinfected primarily by irrigants and medicaments. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP), a commonly used intracanal medicament, has been shown to be directly toxic to stem cells at concentrations greater than 0.1 g/mL. Thus, its complete removal is a crucial step in regenerative endodontic procedures. We hypothesized that currently used irrigation techniques do not completely remove TAP from root canal system.
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Among 45 eligible patients, Salmonella spp. was identified in 32 (71%) and Shigella spp. in 13 (29%). The highest antimicrobial sensitivity rates were observed for ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone (n=44, 98% for both) whereas the greatest resistance rate was seen for ampicillin (n=20, 44%). Seven (16%) of the women were pregnant.
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To estimate the risks of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) among the population aged ≥ 65 years associated with antibiotic exposure and care home residence.
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These findings strengthen further the role of Aeromonas spp. as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment.
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All strains of S. sonnei were susceptible to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) while 15 out of 123 strains of S. flexneri were resistant. All of the 15 resistant strains displayed common mutations in the gyrA and parC genes and formed eight distinct groups with unique molecular characteristics. Notably, 10 isolates showed mutations at codon 87 of gyrA, and the other 5 were qnrS-positive. Two strains were positive for the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. Importantly, this is the first report of qnrS- and aac(6')-Ib-cr-positive Shigella in China, the qnrS-positive S. flexneri serotypes 1a, 2a and 4c and the aac(6')-Ib-cr-positive S. flexneri serotypes 2a and 4c worldwide.
To compare treatment failure rates for the two major acute otitis externa (AOE) pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by topical therapy with ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% (CDex) or neomycin 0.35%/polymyxin B 10,000 IU/mL/hydrocortisone 1% (Cort) based on clinical and microbiological failure in patients positive for these pathogens at baseline.
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The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.
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Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen is ubiquitous to different environments including the agroecosystem. The organism poses serious public health problem. Therefore, an attempt has been made to gain further insight to their antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes and the virulence genes.
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To examine the effect of restricting ciprofloxacin on the resistance of nosocomial gram-negative bacilli, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antipseudomonal carbapenems.
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Multi-drug-resistant Enterococci colonizing the intestinal tract of hospitalized patients are the major source of infection as well as nosocomial spread. Despite worldwide increasing rate of multidrug resistant Enterococci colonization and infection among hospitalized patients, there is scarcity of data from resource limited setting. The present study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus species from intestinal tracts of hospitalized patients in Jimma, Ethiopia.
To describe the etiology and bacterial susceptibility of the first episode of UTI in children presenting with fever to the emergency room.
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Disc diffusion method (NCCLS) was used to detect the resistant patterns of 88 initial SMA isolates resistant to 12 antibiotics isolated from a local hospital in the past 4 years. PCR was used to detect the 7 aminoglycosides modifying enzymes genes (AME) against amikacin and gentamicin. Metal-beta-lactamases (MBLs) were screened by synergic method, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were detected by double-disk synergy test.
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The clinical characteristics of patients with colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia have been documented, but those of patients with bacteraemia caused by other Acinetobacter species remain unknown. Previous exposure to colistin has been shown to be associated with the emergence of colistin resistance, but may be not the only predisposing factor. In the current study, we highlight the risk and outcome of patients without previous exposure to colistin who acquired colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (ColRAN) bacteraemia. This 11-year single-centre retrospective study analysed 58 patients with ColRAN bacteraemia and 213 patients with colistin-susceptible A. nosocomialis (ColSAN) bacteraemia. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined with an agar dilution method. The clonal relationship of ColRAN isolates was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A conjugation mating-out assay was conducted to delineate the potential transfer of colistin resistance genes. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for ColRAN bacteraemia. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was independently associated with ColRAN bacteraemia (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.45-6.37; p 0.003). Patients with ColRAN bacteraemia had higher APACHE II scores, but the two groups showed no significant differences in 14-day mortality (10.3% vs. 10.3%) or 28-day mortality (15.5% vs. 15.0%). ColRAN isolates had greater resistance than ColSAN isolates to all antimicrobial agents except for ciprofloxacin (0% vs. 6.6%). There were 16 different ColRAN pulsotypes, and two major clones were found. Colistin resistance did not transfer to colistin-susceptible A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis. These results show that COPD is an independent risk factor for acquisition of ColRAN bacteraemia. The mortality rates were similar between patients with ColRAN and ColSAN bacteraemia.
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Forty two patients were studied. The mean age and SEM for males was 8.2 + 0.5 years and females with 7.9 + 0.8 years. The age range was two to fifteen years UTI was caused predominantly by Staphylococcus aureus in 67.9%, Klebsiella species (17.9%) and Pseudomonas (14.2%). There was high in vitro resistance of these organisms to nalidixic acid and ampicillin but sensitive to cefotaxime, ceftriazone and ciprofloxacin.
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The study included 53 patients with nocardial infection, 43 of them had underlying immunodeficiency. The most common clinical form was pulmonary nocardiosis with and without dissemination (60%), followed by skin and soft tissue infection (21%), bacteremia (11%) and pertonitis (5%). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazile was detected in 15% of isolates; to imipenem in 5% and to ciprofloxacin in 65%. Overall mortality was 25% (13/53), mainly observed in patients with pulmonary involvement (37.5%).
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To investigate antibacterial resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained at the Salmaniya Medical Complex in Bahrain.
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A reservoir-based device constructed of a completely biodegradable elastomer can enable several new implantation and insertion options for localized drug therapy, particularly in the case of urological therapies. We performed an in vitro performance evaluation of an implantable, bio-resorbable device that supplies short-term controlled release of ciprofloxacin-HCl (CIP). The proposed device functions through a combination of osmosis and diffusion mechanisms to release CIP for short-term therapies of a few weeks duration. Poly(glycerol-co-sebacic acid) (PGS) was cast in a tubular geometry with solid drug powder packed into its core and a micro-machined release orifice drilled through its wall. Drug release experiments were performed to determine the effective release rate from a single orifice and the range of orifice sizes in which controlled zero-order release was the main form of drug expulsion from the device. It is demonstrated that PGS is sufficiently permeable to water to allow the design of an elementary osmotic pump for drug delivery. Indeed, PGS's water permeability is several orders of magnitude larger than commonly used cellulose acetate for elementary osmotic pumps.
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Salmonella species can be rarely isolated from periprosthetic joint infections, however when present, are usually part of a severe septic clinical picture.
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Altogether, 206 patients were enrolled (CHC, 106; NPH + AMX, 100). Patients were > or =1 year of age, had AOE >2 days with at least mild symptoms, and gave informed consent. All were evaluable for safety, and 151 were evaluable for efficacy.
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In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescens isolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The blaKPC, blaSPM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaGES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting.
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A complete review of the medical records of the two cases of Comamonas acidovorans keratitis.
Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Salmonella spp. may lead to treatment failures. The use of ciprofloxacin for extraintestinal and serious intestinal Salmonella infections in children is controversial and therefore the clinical relevance of these strains is not significant. Consequently little is know about the quinolone resistance of strains Salmonella of our paediatric population. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype in paediatric patients.
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Wild mushroom extracts were applied to different multiresistant micro-organisms (Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), combined with commercial antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazol, levofloxacin). Microdilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The results obtained showed higher synergistic effects against MRSA than against E. coli. Mycena rosea and Fistulina hepatica were the best extracts for synergistic effects against MRSA. The efficiency of Russula delica extract against E. coli 1 (resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfasoxazole) and E. coli 2 (resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin) was higher than that of Leucopaxillus giganteus extract; nevertheless, the latter extract exhibited better synergistic effects against ESBL E. coli.