Ren2 rats exhibited increases in systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, kidney cortical tissue total NADPH oxidase activity and subunits (Rac1, p67(phox), and p47(phox)), ROS and 3-nitrotyrosine, as well as reductions in podocyte protein markers; each of these parameters improved with nebivolol treatment along with increases in renal endothelial NO synthase expression.
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English-language articles identified were reviewed. Animal studies and studies in patients for a primary diagnosis of coronary artery disease were excluded.
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At a concentration of 10-5 M nebivolol leads to a reduction of vascular tone by -8.5+/-3.4% (n=11; P=0.016) vs. +2.6+/-1.9% (n=11; n.s.) in presence of its solvent DMSO. Nebivolol (10-5 M) reduces hydroxyl radical-induced vasoconstrictions by 53+/-10% (n=11; P<0.001). Stimulation of the NO synthase by L-arginine saturation potentiates this effect.
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To find out whether selective beta-adrenoblocker nebivolol can be used for heart rate (HR) control in patients with chronic tachysystolic atrial fibrillation.
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Slow coronary flow (SCF) is the phenomenon of slow progression of angiographic contrast in the coronary arteries in the absence of stenosis in the epicardial vessels in some patients presenting with chest pain. There are no definite treatment modalities for patients with SCF. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of nebivolol in patients with slow coronary flow by monitoring its effects on endothelial function and different markers of inflammation. Forty-two patients (16 females, 26 males; mean age, 55 +/- 10) with slow coronary flow (SCF) were included in the study. After baseline assessment, the patients were administered nebivolol 5 mg once daily. After 12 weeks of nebivolol therapy, the biochemical and ultrasonographic examinations were repeated. Chest pain relief was detected in 38 patients after treatment (90%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and high sensitive CRP were significantly decreased after nebivolol therapy. Among brachial artery dilation variables that reflect endothelial function, basal resistive index (RI), post-flow mediated dilation RI, and post-nitrate mediated dilation RI were significantly decreased after therapy. Nebivolol is effective at improving endothelial function in patients with SCF. It controls chest pain, decreases CRP, and has favorable effects on brachial artery dilation variables in patients with coronary slow flow.
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Twenty patients with mild to moderate hypertension taking daily 5 mg of nebivolol were assessed by using Doppler echocardiography before and after 6-week drug treatment period. The results were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant value.
Chronic treatment with β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) agonists increases mortality and morbidity while βAR antagonists (β-blockers) decrease all-cause mortality for those at risk of cardiac disease. Levels of sympathetic nervous system βAR agonists and βAR activity increase with age, and this increase may hasten the development of age-related mortality. Here, we show that β-blockers extend the life span of healthy metazoans. The β-blockers metoprolol and nebivolol, administered in food daily beginning at 12 months of age, significantly increase the mean and median life span of isocalorically fed, male C3B6F1 mice, by 10 and 6.4%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither drug affected the weight or food intake of the mice, indicating that induced CR is not responsible for these effects, and that energy absorption and utilization are not altered by the drugs. Both β-blockers were investigated to control for their idiosyncratic, off-target effects. Metoprolol and nebivolol extended Drosophila life span, without affecting food intake or locomotion. Thus, βAR antagonists are capable of directly extending the life span of two widely divergent metazoans, suggesting that these effects are phylogenetically highly conserved. Thus, long-term use of β-blockers, which are generally well-tolerated, may enhance the longevity of healthy humans.
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Atherosclerosis is an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A good arterial compliance has been suggested to protect large vessels from atherosclerosis. Arterial compliance is diminished in patients with essential hypertension. The influence of verapamil (calcium-antagonist) and nebivolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) on the vessel-wall properties of the common carotid artery were investigated. The two drugs improved compliance of the common carotid artery. Results from other studies on arterial compliance and antihypertensive drugs are also discussed.
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The annual mortality rates in the placebo and beta-blocker arms were: (i) CIBIS-II (n = 2647), 13.2% vs. 8.8% (relative risk reduction 34%, 95% CI: 19-46, P < 0.0001) and MERIT-HFs (n = 2002), 14.8% vs. 8.6% (relative risk reduction 42%, 95% CI: 24-56, P < 0.0001); (ii) COPERNICUS (n = 2289), 19.7% vs. 12.8% (relative risk reduction 35%, 95% CI: 19-48, P = 0.0014) and MERIT-HFs (n = 795), 19.1% vs. 11.7% (relative risk reduction 39%; 95% CI: 11-58, P = 0.0086); (iii) SENIORS-SHF (n = 1359), 11.3% vs. 9.7% (relative risk reduction 16%, NS) and MERIT-HFs (n = 985), 14.8% vs. 10.1% (relative risk reduction 32%, 95% CI: 2-53, P = 0.038). The effects on the other outcomes assessed were similar. Analyses indicated fewer discontinuations from randomized treatment on beta-blockers compared with placebo in COPERNICUS and the MERIT-HFs subsets.
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We showed that nebivolol acts as ER agonist in neuronal cell lines, and suggest oestrogen-like neuroprotective effects mediated by nebivolol.
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This post hoc analysis of pooled data from 2 previously published registration studies was conducted to further evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of nebivolol in patients with mild to moderate (stage 1-2) hypertension.
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Antihypertensive agents may, even within the same class, exert variable effects on arterial stiffness variables. Nebivolol could have a better impact than atenolol on arterial stiffness, by increasing the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase plasma renin activity (enhancing the production of angiotensin II via non-ACE-related pathways) whereas aliskiren does not, potentially affecting central hemodynamics differently. We compared the effects of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors (quinapril and aliskiren) and 2 beta-blockers (atenolol and nebivolol) on arterial stiffness variables. Treatment-naïve patients (n = 72; 68.1% males; age, 47.6 ± 10.6 years) with uncomplicated stage I-II essential hypertension were randomly assigned to quinapril, aliskiren, atenolol, or nebivolol for 10 weeks. Central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), central pulse pressure (PP), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at baseline, 2, and 10 weeks. The same measurements were performed in 20 normotensive subjects (65.0% males; age, 40.0 ± 8.9 years). Peripheral and central systolic and diastolic BP, peripheral PP, and PWV were significantly and similarly reduced by all agents. However, PWV continued to decline between the second and last visit in patients on quinapril and aliskiren but did not change in those on nebivolol or atenolol. Central PP and AIx decreased in patients on quinapril, aliskiren, and nebivolol but did not change in those taking atenolol. The decrease in central PP and AIx did not differ between patients on quinapril, aliskiren, and nebivolol. Despite similar reductions in peripheral BP, atenolol is less effective than nebivolol and RAAS inhibitors in improving central pulsatile hemodynamics. Aliskiren exerts similar effects on markers of arterial stiffness as quinapril. The clinical relevance of these differences remains to be established.
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Although β blocker (BB) has constituted one of the mainstays of evidence-based therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the comparative efficacy of different BBs remains uncertain. We sought to determine the comparative effectiveness of nonselective BB carvedilol and the most frequently prescribed β1-selective BBs (bisoprolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol) in patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 7,863 patients were selected from the prospective national AMI registry, and patients were divided into carvedilol group (n = 6,231) and β1-selective BB group (n = 1,632) at hospital discharge. The primary end point was all-cause death or MI during follow-up. During a mean follow-up of 243 ± 144 days, all-cause death or MI occurred in 94 patients (1.5%) in the carvedilol group versus 31 patients (1.9%) in the β1-selective BB group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.22, p = 0.32). This result was consistent across various risk subgroups. The risks of all-cause death, cardiac death, and MI were also similar between the groups. After propensity-score matching, no difference was observed in the rate of all-cause death or MI (1.7% in the carvedilol vs 1.9% in the β1-selective BB group, adjusted hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.46, p = 0.55). In conclusion, no differences in the risk of all-cause death or MI were observed between the carvedilol and β1-selective BB groups in contemporary practice of the treatment for AMI.
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After 3-month nebivolol therapy, rate-pressure product decreased (P < 0.0001). No significant change of left ventricular mass index, relative wall thickness and midwall shortening was detected. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and stroke volume were both marginally increased. Nebivolol increased Em (P < 0.0001), reduced E/Em ratio (from 9.0 +/- 1.6 to 8.2 +/- 1.1, P < 0.0001) and enhanced CFR (from 2.07 +/- 0.2 to 2.20 +/- 0.2, P = 0.003), because of increased hyperemic coronary flow velocity (P < 0.001). CFR increase remained significant (P < 0.001) after normalizing resting and dipyridamole coronary velocities for the respective rate-pressure product. The increase of normalized CFR induced by nebivolol was related with E/Em ratio decrease (r = -0.65, P < 0.002).
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Despite their proven mortality and morbidity outcomes benefits, beta-blockers remain substantially underused in patients with cardiac conditions. Reluctance to prescribe beta-blockers may be owing to concerns about tolerability with the traditional drugs in this class. Beta-blockers with vasodilatory properties, such as carvedilol and nebivolol, may overcome the tolerability and metabolic issues associated with traditional beta-blockers. Because endothelial dysfunction, the pathophysiologic hallmark of hypertension, may be heightened in populations with difficult-to-treat hypertension (e.g., elderly patients, African American patients), a vasodilating beta-blocker may be a particularly appropriate choice for these patient groups.
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Three groups were created: the control group, the low dose group, and the high dose group, with 20 rats in each group and 70% hepatectomy was performed in all rats. Immediately after partial liver resection, 2 mL physiological saline solution was administered to the control group via oral gavage, 0.5 mg/kg nebivolol was administered via oral gavage to the low dose group and 2 mg/kg nebivolol was administered via oral gavage to the high dose group. On the 1(st) and 5(th) days after liver resection, 10 subjects were sacrificed from each group, and liver weights and the mitotic count and Ki-67 were measured.
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The effect of nebivolol (0.1 nmol/l to 10 micromol/l) upon the developed peak tension was tested in endomyocardial biopsies from human nonrejecting transplanted hearts. Tension was recorded at steady state using a mechanoelectric force transducer.
Nebivolol, a beta blocker with 3-10 times more beta1 cardioselectivity than metoprolol, has caused hypotension and bradycardia in overdose. We report a nebivolol-induced cardiac arrest in the setting of a polydrug ingestion, successfully resuscitated with intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) and high-dose insulin (HDI).
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Nebivolol, a beta-blocker, has been widely used for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases; but has drawbacks like poor solubility and bioavailability requiring frequent dosing. The present study attempts to overcome these issues through nanoparticulate delivery system using widely used carrier Eudragit(®) RS100. The solvent evaporation (single emulsion) technique was used for developing nanoparticles. The impact of formulation and process variables on particle size and entrapment efficiency was studied to optimize the formulation. The physico-chemical characterization confirmed the particle size in nano range with smooth and spherical morphology. Further, Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies confirm compatibility of drug-polymer combination. The in vitro drug release study of the prepared nanoparticles showed prolongation of drug release with reduced burst release in comparison with pure drug powder.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pravastatin and nebivolol in the atherosclerotic process including inflammation and oxidative stress in rat aorta.
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Beta-blockers improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but their different pleiotropic properties may influence their cardiovascular effects. This open-label study compared the effects of long-term treatment with nebivolol versus carvedilol on LV ejection fraction (LVEF), in hypertensive CHF patients. Secondary end points were to assess the effect of the 2 beta-blockers on exercise capacity and clinical outcome.