Benicar is used for treating high blood pressure, alone or with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Olmesartan.
Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by inhibiting the action of a chemical transmitter (angiotensin II) and allowing the blood vessels to dilate (widen) and the kidneys to eliminate extra sodium and fluids. These actions combine to help lower blood pressure.
Generic name of Benicar is Olmesartan.
Benicar is also known as Olmesartan, Olmetec, Olmezest, Olmecip.
Brand name of Benicar is Benicar.
Take Benicar orally with or without food.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
If you overdose Benicar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store your medicine at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children and in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Benicar are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Benicar if you are allergic to Benicar components.
Do not take Benicar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Avoid machine driving.
Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment.
Be careful if you use salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.
Do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
Eighty-four patients treated with the conventional ARBs for more than 3 months were assigned randomly to receive either 20 mg of olmesartan (olmesartan medoxomil, OL group) or 20 mg of azilsartan (azilsartan, not azilsartan medoxomil, AZ group) once daily for 16 weeks. The practical efficacy on blood pressure was compared between the OL and AZ groups.
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These findings suggest that pressure overload by TAC induces prolonged ER stress, which may contribute to cardiac myocyte apoptosis during progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure.
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CS-866 is an angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist, the effects of which on systolic blood pressure (BP) and glucose/insulin metabolism are investigated under hyperlipidaemic conditions produced by cholesterol feeding. Thirty-two female Japanese White rabbits (two months old) were assigned randomly into a CS-866-treated group (n = 17) fed a food admixture that contained 0.03% CS-866 and 0.2% cholesterol, or into a control group (n = 15) fed a food admixture containing 0.2% cholesterol only. Systolic BP was measured by an ear-cuff method. Glucose and insulin metabolism was characterised quantitatively from the results of an intravenous glucose tolerance test by a minimal model technique reported previously. After six months treatment, systolic BP in the CS-866-treated group was lower than in the control group (105 +/- 14 mmHg versus 115 +/- 18 mmHg; P <0.05), as assessed by analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. No significant differences were seen in plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, or angiotensin-converting enzyme activity between the groups. Administration of CS-866 for six months did not affect either glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Other model parameters such as basal (steady-state) insulin and glucose concentration, first- and second-phase post-hepatic insulin delivery to glucose, and insulin clearance rate constant were unaffected. In conclusion, CS-866 treatment reduced systolic BP without affecting glucose/insulin metabolism under hyperlipidaemic conditions produced by cholesterol feeding.
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This was a subgroup analysis of a prospective, open-label study carried out in a multicenter, outpatient setting (e.g. the BeniSILVER [Benicar Efficacy: New Investigation Shows OM Treatment Increasingly Leads to Various Elderly Populations to Safe BP Reductions; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00412932] study). The study included 176 patients with a mean age of approximately 72 years; stage 1 hypertension, 60, stage 2 hypertension, 116, and ISH, 98.
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To evaluate the efficacy of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for use in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, we examined the effects of olmesartan medoxomil (olmesartan), an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) specific ARB, on the progression of nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. We used 2 doses of olmesartan, a sub-antihypertensive dose and an antihypertensive dose, to specifically examine whether the drug exerts beneficial effects on the kidney without lowering blood pressure. Olmesartan mixed in the diet at a concentration of 0.001% (approximately 0.6 mg/kg/day) or 0.01% (approximately 6 mg/kg/day) was administered for 19 weeks starting from 12 weeks of age, when the animals developed microalbuminuria. Lean non-diabetic rats served as controls. ZDF rats had hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and moderate hypertension as compared to lean control rats. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not affected by olmesartan, and blood pressure was lowered only by the high dose of olmesartan. Progressive proteinuria in ZDF rats was greatly (about 70%) suppressed by the high dose of olmesartan and moderately (about 30%) suppressed by the low dose that did not significantly lower blood pressure. ZDF rats exhibited hyperlipidemia and hypoalbuminemia, both of which were substantially corrected by treatment with olmesartan. The histological evidence of glomerular and tubular damage in the ZDF rats was also reduced by the drug. These results indicate that AT1 receptor blockade with olmesartan retards the progression of nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes without affecting glucose metabolism, and that this renal protective effect is at least partly independent of the antihypertensive effect of the drug.
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The 3-in-1 study was separated into 2 stages. Stage 1 is a four-period crossover study. 28 healthy subjects were equally randomized into four groups. Each group received the four following regimens in a sequence as Latin square (4 × 4) design: A: olmesartan medoxomil; B: HCTZ; C: test drug (new combined formulation); D: reference drugs (co-administration of separate tablets). In stage 2, half of 28 subjects were daily dosed with regimen C for 7 days. Blood and urine samples were obtained to receive pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and HCTZ, which were analyzed using the BE evaluation method. Tolerability was also assessed.
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This study showed that OLM/AML/HCTZ reduced blood pressure and significantly increased blood pressure control whilst improving patients' HRQoL. Achieving blood pressure control, amount of concomitant medication and dosage strength of antihypertensive impacted on patients' HRQoL.
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The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has proinflammatory effects that may contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. We used the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model to investigate the influence of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on antigen-specific immune responses and determine whether ARBs have preventive or therapeutic effects on the development of arthritis.
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Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated and more effective in reducing SeSBP than the dual-combination treatments.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Recent experimental data and retrospective analyses of clinical trials suggest that increased levels of angiotensin II can induce an arrhythmogenic atrial substrate, which favours the occurrence of AF. The purpose of the ANTIPAF (Angiotensin II Antagonist in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation) trial is to prove the principal concept that blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors with olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/day suppresses paroxysmal AF episodes during a 12-month follow-up. The ANTIPAF trial is the first placebo-controlled trial analysing the occurrence of AF as the primary study endpoint.
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The study is to investigate drug-drug interaction (DDI) between olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), to confirm bioequivalence (BE) of a new combined formulation and coadministration of separate local tablets, and to receive pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the new combined formulation after multiple doses in healthy Chinese subjects.
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In the intent-to-treat analysis (n = 348), at 24 weeks of follow-up, the mean ± SD changes from baseline in clinic systolic/diastolic BP were 21.2 ± 14.2/16.0 ± 8.8 mmHg (p < 0.001). The proportions of patients who achieved the goal BP for systolic, diastolic and both were 81, 80 and 75 %, respectively. Olmesartan medoxomil also significantly (p < 0.001) reduced systolic/diastolic BP measured at patients' homes by 17.7 ± 13.1/12.1 ± 7.9 mmHg from baseline (n = 109), and reduced mean 24-h, daytime and night-time ambulatory BP by 13.3 ± 16.3/7.6 ± 9.5 mmHg, 13.9 ± 17.4/8.0 ± 10.4 mmHg and 12.3 ± 18.1/6.8 ± 10.2 mmHg, respectively (n = 87). Seven (2.0 %) serious adverse events were reported during follow-up.
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Left ventricular hypertrophy in FFR may be less dependent on systemic elevations of BP and more dependent on the RAS and the sympathetic nervous system. Use of an AT1 receptor antagonist might be the most beneficial way to prevent progression of LVH through direct effects on tissue RAS and the sympathetic nervous system in FFR. As these changes occur in a rat model with hyperinsulinemia, insulin may have a role in promoting LVH by activating the local RAS and sympathetic nervous system activity.
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Double-blind, controlled trial, designed to investigate the effects of 2-months treatment with amlodipine and olmesartan on oxidized non-esterified fatty acids (ox-NEFA), and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine production in whole blood among 23 hypertensive subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
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The VIOS (Vascular Improvement with Olmesartan medoxomil Study) study is a randomized, parallel study to determine the relative effects of suppressing the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with the angiotensin receptor antagonist olmesartan medoxomil versus suppressing sympathetic drive with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol on remodeling of the subcutaneous small resistance vessel. Remodeling of small resistance vessels may be the earliest pathologic finding associated with hypertension. It may predate the onset of clinically apparent hypertension.
A prespecified subgroup analysis of an open-label, multicenter, single-arm, dose-titration study is presented. The efficacy and safety of 20-week treatment with an amlodipine (AML)/olmesartan medoxomil (OM)±hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) algorithm were assessed in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were uncontrolled by antihypertensive monotherapy. Eligible patients received AML/OM 5/20 mg for 4 weeks, followed by stepwise uptitration to AML/OM 5/40 mg, AML/OM 10/40 mg, AML/OM 10/40 mg+HCTZ 12.5 mg and AML/OM 10/40 mg+HCTZ 25 mg at 4-week intervals if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. The primary end point was the achievement of the seated cuff systolic BP (SeSBP) goal (<140 mm Hg, or <130 mm Hg for patients with T2DM) at week 12. Seated cuff BP was significantly reduced from baseline at all titration dose periods. At week 12, the cumulative SeSBP goal was achieved by 57.9% and 80.1% of patients in the T2DM and non-T2DM subgroups, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, with low rates of peripheral edema. In summary, switching to a treatment algorithm based on AML/OM±HCTZ after failed monotherapy was safe and improved BP control in patients with hypertension and T2DM.
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In this secondary analysis of a dose-titration study of patients with hypertension uncontrolled on prior monotherapy, blacks (n=234) and non-blacks (n=765) were switched to amlodipine (AML)/olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 5/20 mg, with uptitration every 4 weeks to AML/OM 5/40 mg and then AML/OM 10/40 mg to achieve a seated cuff blood pressure (SeBP) of <120/70 mm Hg. Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 and 25 mg could be added if SeBP was ≥125/75 mm Hg. The cumulative proportions of patients achieving systolic SeBP <140 mm Hg (<130 mm Hg if diabetic) at 12 weeks were 71.6% for blacks and 77.2% for non-blacks. Mean SeBP change from baseline in blacks (mean baseline BP: 153.0/93.7 mm Hg) ranged from -11.7/-6.1 mm Hg for AML/OM 5/20 mg to -23.6/-12.9 mm Hg for AML/OM 10/40 mg +hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (all P<.0001). Antihypertensive efficacy was maintained throughout the 24-hour dosing interval. An AML/OM-based regimen was effective in blacks with hypertension uncontrolled on prior monotherapy.
This study was designed to determine whether genetic polymorphisms of multidrug-resistant protein 2 (ABCC2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (SLCO1B1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) have an effect on olmesartan pharmacokinetics in Korean subjects. Sixty-eight healthy male volunteers who participated in previous pharmacokinetics studies of olmesartan medoxomil (single dose, 20 mg or 40 mg) were enrolled. All subjects were analyzed and grouped according to the genotypes of ABCC2, SLCO1B1, and ABCG2. The dose-normalized peak plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCt) values were analyzed. The dose-normalized mean C(max) and AUC(t) in the ABCC2 -24CT genotype group were higher than those in the -24CC genotype group [C(max,dn): CT 26.1 ± 6.5 (ng/mL)/mg versus CC 22.1 ± 6.7 (ng/mL)/mg, P = 0.010, AUC(t,dn): CT 178.7 ± 45.6 (hr·ng(-1)·mL(-1))/mg versus CC 149.9 ± 39.8 (hr·ng(-1)·mL(-1))/mg, P = 0.010]. The difference in AUC(t,dn) between the ABCC2 -1549GG and -1549GA genotype groups was statistically significant [GG 149.0 ± 41.0 (hr·ng(-1)·mL(-1))/mg versus GA 174.1 ± 43.3 (hr·ng(-1)·mL(-1))/mg, P = 0.019]. No significant differences were observed for any other single nucleotide polymorphism in ABCC2, SLCO1B1, or ABCG2. The ABCC2 -24CC genotype group exhibited lower systemic exposure of olmesartan than the -24CT genotype group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the other transporter genotype groups.
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Olmesartan, a novel angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, is excreted into both bile and urine, with minimal metabolism. Because olmesartan is a hydrophilic anionic compound, some transporters could be involved in its hepatic and renal clearance. In this study, we characterized the role of human drug transporters in the pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and determined the contribution of each transporter to the overall clearance of olmesartan. Olmesartan was significantly taken up into human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, and OAT3. We also observed its saturable uptake into human hepatocytes and kidney slices. Estimated from the relative activity factor method and application of specific inhibitors, the relative contributions of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to the uptake of olmesartan in human hepatocytes were almost the same, whereas OAT3 was predominantly involved in its uptake in kidney slices. The vectorial transport of olmesartan was observed in OATP1B1/multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 double transfectants, but not in OATP1B1/multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transfectants. ATP-dependent transport into membrane vesicles expressing human MRP2 and MRP4 was clearly observed, with K(m) values of 14.9 and 26.2 microM, respectively, whereas the urinary excretion of olmesartan in Mrp4-knockout mice was not different from that of control mice. We also investigated the transcellular transport of olmesartan medoxomil, a prodrug of olmesartan. Vectorial basal-to-apical transport was observed in OATP1B1/MRP2, OATP1B1/MDR1 double, and OATP1B1/BCRP double transfectants, suggesting the possible involvement of MRP2, MDR1, and BCRP in the limit of intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil. From these results, we suggest that multiple transporters make a significant contribution to the pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and its prodrug.
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Rats were treated with vehicle or olmesartan (0.5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) for up to 8 weeks after subtotal nephrectomy. The expression of oxidative lipids and the effect of olmesartan on lipid peroxidation were evaluated by Western blotting and immunostaining of renal tissue.
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Objective:To review the evidence of an association between olmesartan medoxomil and symptoms mimicking celiac disease.Data Sources:Literature was searched in PubMed (1965-November 2013) using the key words or MeSH terms olmesartan, enteropathy, celiac disease, sprue, and diarrhea. References from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Dipiro's Pharmacotherapy eighth edition textbook were also reviewed.Data Synthesis:There have been recent implications of olmesartan medoxomil being linked to symptoms mimicking celiac disease. Investigators first identified the association in 22 patients who presented with presumed refractory celiac disease. Upon further evaluation, it was discovered that these symptoms improved when olmesartan was discontinued. In response to this report, additional case studies have been published. DeGaetani et al also further analyzed patients with seronegative villous atrophy from the Celiac Disease Center and found that olmesartan accounted for 22% of previously unclassified sprue cases. Conversely, the authors of the ROADMAP trial, which compared olmesartan to placebo, found no significant differences in the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects.Conclusions:There is growing evidence supporting the association between olmesartan and sprue-like symptoms; however, further research is warranted. These symptoms can be life threatening and clinicians should be aware of the potential association.
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Our study showed that losartan had the most beneficial effect on SUA level among five ARBs, and that there was no significant difference in the unfavorable effects on SUA level among four ARBs other than losartan, at least during one year. These findings provide evidence of an effect of ARBs on SUA level, and support the benefit of the use of losartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 DM.
Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00649389.
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Olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg reduced mean SeDBP significantly more (-18.9 mmHg) than olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg (-15.8 mmHg) after 8 weeks of double-blind treatment (difference: -3.1 mmHg, p < 0.0001). Olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg also reduced mean SeSBP significantly more than olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg (-5.4 mmHg, p < 0.0001). As a result, BP goal rates at week 8 were significantly higher with olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg than with olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg (58.5% vs 44.3%; odds ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.32, 2.54). During phase B, mean BP reductions were greater in patients up-titrated from olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg to olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg than in those continuing on olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg (SeDBP: -9.3 mmHg vs -0.5 mmHg; SeSBP: -12.4 mmHg vs -0.5 mmHg). Similarly, mean BP reductions were greater in patients up-titrated from olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg to olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg than in those continuing on olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg (SeDBP: -8.0 mmHg vs -0.3 mmHg; SeSBP: -12.1 mmHg vs -0.4 mmHg). In patients not on goal at week 8, addition of HCTZ 12.5 mg to olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg or up-titration from olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg to olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg brought additional patients to goal at week 16 (38.8% vs 36.9%). All treatments were well tolerated.
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The current study suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers, alone or in combination with statin therapy, may not be suitable for management of clinical AVS.
The distributions of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide were best fitted using a two-compartment model with no lag time and first-order elimination. When analyzing hydrochlorothiazide kinetics, we found that TCHO and CL/F were correlated, while. HB and Ka influenced olmesartan medoxomil modeling. All evaluations indicated that the pharmacokinetic profiles of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide were adequately described using our PPK model.
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