Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
Elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of critical importance in oral and maxillofacial surgery because control is very difficult once infection of an oral tumor or oral wound with MRSA is established.
This was a prospective, cluster-randomized, nonblinded trial initiated at 3 LTCFs. During year 1, units were stratified by type of care and randomized to intervention or control. In year 2, all units were converted to intervention consisting of universal decolonization using intranasal mupirocin and a chlorhexidine bath performed twice (2 decolonization-bathing cycles 1 month apart) at the start of the intervention period. Subsequently, after initial decolonization, all admissions were screened on site using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and those MRSA positive were decolonized, but not isolated. Units received annual instruction on hand hygiene. Enhanced bleach wipe cleaning of flat surfaces was done every 4 months.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening plays a great role in preventing infections in surgical patients. This study aims to evaluate clonality, virulence and resistance of MRSA in pre- and post-liver transplantation (LT) patients. Nasal and groin swabs of 190 patients were collected. PCR for virulence genes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, microarray, PFGE, multilocus sequence typing and MIC were performed. MRSA carriers were detected in 20.5 % (39/190) of the patients. However, only three colonized patients developed infections post-LT. Sixty-nine MRSA isolates were identified, and the most frequent SCCmec type was type II (29/69; 42.0 %). Most isolates (57/69; 82.6 %) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and harboured the lukD, lukE, clf and fnbA genes as determined by PCR. Five sequence types (ST) were identified among nine clones; 36.2 % (25/69) isolates belonged to a predominant clone (ST105 and SCCmec type II) that was susceptible to TMP/SMX, mupirocin and chlorhexidine, which had 87.9 % similarity with the New York/Japan clone. The array showed virulence difference in isolates of the same clone and patients and that colonized isolates (pre-LT patients) were less virulent than those post-LT and those infected. Therefore, despite the high frequency of MRSA colonization, infection due to MRSA was uncommon in our LT unit. MRSA isolates presented great diversity. Isolates of the same clone expressed different virulence factors by array. Colonizing isolates pre-LT expressed less virulent factors than post-LT and infecting isolates.
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We evaluated the efficacy of pre-operative Staphylococcus aureus (SA) screening and chlorhexidine chest scrub in decreasing the incidence of empyema after major pulmonary resections.
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Staphylococcal biofilms were grown in 54 sheep frontal sinuses over 8 days: Each sinus was randomized to (1) no intervention, (2) single mupirocin flush, (3) regular 12-hourly mupirocin flushes for 5 days, (4) Citric Acid Zwitterionic Surfactant (CAZS) via hydrodebrider, (5) gallium nitrate, (6) CAZS with gallium nitrate, (7) CAZS with mupirocin, and (8) saline regular flushes. Sheep were sacrificed and the sinus mucosa harvested 1 or 8 days after treatment to assess treatment and any biofilm regrowth. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to confirm the presence or absence of biofilms, and the extent of biofilm reduction was quantitated using fluorescent in situ hybridization and colony forming unit counts.
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Whole-body washing with antiseptic solution has been widely used as part of eradication treatment for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but evidence for the effectiveness of this measure is limited.
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A single brief treatment course of intranasal mupirocin was effective in reducing nasal S aureus carriage for up to 1 year. When S aureus was recovered after nasal decolonization, the new isolate was as likely to represent colonization with a new strain as reisolation of the original strain. Staphylococcus aureus hand carriage was significantly decreased 6 months after therapy, further implicating the nares as the primary reservoir site for hand carriage.
The James H. Quillen Veterans' Affairs Medical Center in Mountain Home, Tennessee, included a 324-bed acute-care hospital, a 120-bed nursing home, and a 525-bed domiciliary. Colonizations and infections with MRSA were endemic, and mupirocin ointment was commonly used.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently (42%) isolated micro-organism during bacteraemic episodes in haemodialysis patients. Nasal carriage of S. aureus is of major importance in determining the risk of subsequent infections. Indeed, nasal carriage of S. aureus is highly prevalent in uraemic patients from the onset of maintenance dialysis therapy. The strains isolated simultaneously from the nares and the hands are usually the same. Likewise, infecting S. aureus strains and those isolated from nasal surveillance cultures obtained in the same patient are usually similar. S. aureus infections in haemodialysis patients are thus mostly to be considered as auto-infections. The nares are therefore an elective site for the prevention of S. aureus infections in haemodialysis patients. This has been demonstrated with oral rifampin, and more recently with nasal mupirocin, which is highly effective. Long-term application of nasal mupirocin (e.g. once per week) is cost-effective and is only rarely associated with the emergence of mupirocin-resistance in S. aureus.
In Arm 1, 16 patients received 10 doses of mupirocin, 18 received six doses (twice daily for 3 d), and 7 received six doses (thrice daily for 2 d). In the second arm, all patients received 10 doses of mupirocin (twice a day for 5 d). Overall, 89.5% patients who received 10 doses of mupirocin remained decolonized for at least four weeks after surgery versus 68.0% of patients who received six doses (p=0.016). There was no difference between arms 1 and 2 for those given mupirocin twice daily for 5 d.
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Jusque dans les années 1990, l’infection par le staphylocoque doré méthicillinorésistant (SARM) était peu courante chez les enfants du Canada. Au moyen d’un formulaire de déclaration de cas standardisé, des médecins traitants ont signalé les enfants hospitalisés à cause d’une infection par le SARM dans les hôpitaux canadiens par l’entremise du Programme canadien de surveillance pédiatrique au cours d’une période de 24 mois (2008 à 2010). Des 155 cas déclarés, 70 % avaient quatre ans ou moins, et environ le tiers présentait un problème de santé sous-jacent. Les infections cliniques les plus courantes touchaient la peau et les tissus mous (69 %), les voies respiratoires inférieures (12 %) ainsi que les os et les articulations (10 %). Près du tiers avait eu des contacts avec le milieu de la santé au cours de l’année précédente, et dans 18 % des cas, un membre de la famille était atteint d’une SARM connue. Chez 65 % des patients, le traitement initial se limitait à une bêta-lactamine, tandis que dans 22 % des cas, il incluait la vancomycine. Aucun enfant de cette cohorte n’est décédé, mais 14 % ont dû être hospitalisés aux soins intensifs. Des 143 déclarations d’isolats individuels, on a signalé que 93 % étaient susceptibles au triméthoprim-sulfaméthoxazole, 63 % à la clin-damycine et 50 % à la mupirocine.La présente étude portait seulement sur les enfants hospitalisés à cause d’une infection par le SARM. Elle n’est peut-être pas représentative des enfants traités en consultations externes ou des enfants de certaines régions du Canada où les infections par le SARM sont peut-être plus endémiques. Il serait peut-être important de poursuivre une surveillance ciblée pour déterminer les risques et les pratiques thérapeutiques au sein de ces populations.
In patients with demonstrable carriage of S. aureus, topical decolonization resulted in fewer SSI than in patients receiving perioperative oral antibiotics. Antibiotics should be reserved for clinically suspected and swab-proven infections rather than being prescribed empirically. Further efforts should be directed toward optimizing endogenous risk factor control for all patients presenting for MMS.
Nous avons inclus tous les articles rédigés en anglais répertoriés sur MEDLINE qui répondaient aux critères de recherche suivants : « hémodialyse », « insuffisance rénale chronique » et « infection bactérienne ». L’accent a été mis sur les articles portant sur des études s’étant tenues au Canada, en incluant des comparaisons aux pronostics et aux standards internationaux lorsque possible.
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The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased dramatically over the last decade, and is now affecting approximately 25% of patients. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that persistent infection with MRSA results in an increased rate of decline in FEV1 and shortened survival. Currently, there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an effective and safe treatment protocol for persistent MRSA respiratory infection in CF.
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Five media were evaluated to determine their selectivity for Bifidobacterium sp. in hen and rabbit caecal samples. The colonies arising on the plates inoculated with the caecal samples were Gram stained and screened for the presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Rogosa agar modified by the addition of cysteine-hydrochloride (0.05% w/v), Beeren's agar (with 5 ml/l of propionic acid as a selective agent), BS 2 agar (containing per one litre sodium propionate 15 g, lithium chloride 3 g, paromomycin sulphate 50 mg, neomycin sulphate 200 mg), and Wilkins-Chalgren agar (MW) modified by the addition of acetic acid (1 ml/l) and mupirocin (100 mg/l) were selective for Bifidobacterium sp. from rabbit caecal samples. In contrast, only MW medium was suitable for the isolation and enumeration of bifidobacteria in hen caecal samples. In conclusion, the results suggest that MW agar showed the greatest selectivity. A further advantage of this medium is its case of preparation. Therefore this agar could contribute to the study of the effects of the ingestion both probiotics and prebiotics. Finally, it could be noted that the bifidobacteria selective media should be chosen in respect of the animal species origin of the sample tested.
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We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of articles without language restriction.
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We assessed the incidence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on admission, the rate of acquisition during the hospital stay and the relationship with subsequent infection in a digestive disease unit. The efficacy of a program of nasal carriage eradication with mupirocin was evaluated simultaneously. Over one year 484 patients were studied prospectively on admission for nasal and stool carriage of MRSA, then every week for nasal carriage. Nearly 70% (68.8%) of patients had chronic liver diseases. Nasal carriers were assigned to a five-day course of intranasal mupirocin ointment. One hundred and seventeen (24.2%) patients were MRSA positive, 57 (11.8%) of which were carriers on admission and 60 (12.4%) acquired carriage. Of these, 86 were treated with mupirocin with a success rate of 98.8% and 25.9% of them recolonized. Fourteen patients were retreated, to allow eradication in 71.4% of cases. Seventy percent of these became carriers again. One high-level mupirocin-resistant strain was isolated before treatment and seven during or after treatment. Hospital stay and stool carriage were independently associated with reacquisition (P = 0.0105 and P = 0.0462, respectively). Molecular analysis showed identity between the strains isolated from infection samples and from nasal swabs during the same week. For every patient who became recolonized, nasal strains isolated before and after eradication were the same in 70% of cases. Mortality during hospital stay was independently associated with age (P = 0.0081), MRSA nasal carriage (P = 0.02631), MRSA infection (P < 0.0001) and liver disease (P = 0.0017). This study did not show a change in the prevalence rate of infection in the unit during treatment with mupirocin. This treatment should only be attempted once due to the risk of emergence of high-level resistant strains.
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To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of gentamicin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (GS-MRSA) seen at a paediatric teaching hospital.
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By the end of the application period, the patient's ulcer was fully closed.
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Mutation frequencies to resistance against mupirocin and rifampicin were determined for planktonic cultures and for biofilms generated using either a novel static biofilm model or by continuous flow. DNA microarray analysis was performed to detect differences in transcriptional profiles between planktonic and biofilm cultures.
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We present a case report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus secondary infection of the skin after CO2 laser resurfacing. We discuss the possible etiologies of this patient's infection, her postoperative management, and preoperative suggestions for possibly preventing infection.
A 490-bed, tertiary-care university hospital.
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The study has established that a small section of experienced staff nurses perceive MRSA to be out of control and they are not overly concerned about its management.
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Peritonitis and exit-site infections (ESI) are major causes of morbidity in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The application of topical mupirocin to exit sites reduces such complications, and prolongs life in PD. Since the year 2000, this topical treatment has been used in our hospital on new PD patients. We analysed the results of this protocol, and studied the effects of comorbidities on the incidence of peritonitis.
To investigate the colonizing features of S. aureus in adults with AD and in their contacts, and the effect of an antimicrobial treatment of the patients and their partners.
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