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All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009.
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A postpartum patient had a unilateral breast infection that responded to cephalosporin treatment. During therapy, the contralateral breast developed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The patient was hospitalized and treated successfully with intravenous vancomycin. Obstetricians should be alert to this possibility when treating patients with postpartum mastitis.
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One hundred and forty-five MRSA and 178 MSSA from clinical specimens from seven hospitals in different regions of China, 70 MRSA from superficial sites of patients and 106 MRSA from environmental samples from an ICU were collected and screened for the presence of the qacA/B gene. The qacA/B-positive isolates and 72 randomly selected qacA/B-negative control isolates were further characterized by MLST, spa typing and detection of toxin genes, as well as antimicrobial and chlorhexidine susceptibility. SCCmec typing was conducted for MRSA. PFGE was conducted for qacA/B-positive isolates.
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Coccidial parasites of the genus Isospora cause intestinal disease in several mammalian host species. These protozoal parasites have asexual and sexual stages within intestinal cells of their hosts and produce an environmentally resistant cyst stage, the oocyst. Infections are acquired by the ingestion of infective (sporulated) oocysts in contaminated food or water. Some species of mammalian Isospora have evolved the ability to use paratenic (transport) hosts. In these cases, infections can be acquired by ingestion of an infected paratenic host. Human intestinal isosporiasis is caused by Isospora belli. Symptoms of I. belli infection in immunocompetent patients include diarrhea, steatorrhea, headache, fever, malaise, abdominal pain, vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss, blood is not usually present in the feces. The disease is often chronic, with parasites present in the feces or biopsy specimens for several months to years. Recurrences are common, Symptoms are more severe in AIDS patients, with the diarrhea being more watery. Extraintestinal stages of I. belli have been observed in AIDS patients but not immunocompetent patients. Treatment of I. belli infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole usually results in a rapid clinical response. Maintenance treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is needed because relapses often occur once treatment is stopped.
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Mean patient age plus or minus standard deviation of the 4 groups was 53 +/- 41 for nalidixic acid, 23 +/- 34 for cephalexin, 55 +/- 35 for cotrimoxazole and 47 +/- 35 months for cefixime, respectively. In children less than 2 years old specific gravity was higher in the morning (1.021 +/- 0.0006 versus 1.0008 +/- 0.0004 at 8 a.m. and 2 p. m., respectively, p <0.05). In contrast, in children older than 4 years the specific gravity was higher in the afternoon and evening hours (1.019 +/- 0.003 versus 1.007 +/- 0.003 at 2 p.m. and 8 a.m., respectively, p <0.05). The percentage of patients who demonstrated growth inhibition in all 3 samples of the test day was 7%, 6%, 69% and 44% for nalidixic acid, cephalexin, cotrimoxazole and cefixime, respectively (p <0.001 for cotrimoxazole and cefixime versus nalidixic acid and cephalexin. Divided into morning, noon and evening, the percentage of samples that demonstrated growth inhibition was 85.7%, 21.4% and 7.1% for nalidixic acid, 37.5%, 12. 5% and 6.3% for cephalexin, 100%, 92.3% and 76.9% for cotrimoxazole and 100%, 77.7% and 55.5% for cefixime, respectively. A direct correlation was found between specific gravity and growth inhibition (r = 0.55, p <0.001).
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Reviewing a total of 26 uncontrolled, 2 controlled and one postmarketing studies including more than 11,000 patients, good efficacy and safety of nitroxoline could be confirmed. In the four unpublished controlled studies a total of 234 patients were treated orally with nitroxoline and 232 with controls. The safety of nitroxoline was very good and comparable to the controls (adverse events 9.4% vs 7.8%; p = 0.360). In the mMITT set (at least one outcome result), in the PP set (test of cure outcome) and in the modified PP set (missing test of cure rated failure) more than 90% of the patients showed eradication of bacteriuria with nitroxoline, which also met statistical non-inferiority compared to the controls (10% non-inferiority margin) in all three evaluation sets. The clinical efficacy was similar between the two treatment groups.
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Thirty-one cases of human listeriosis seen from 1971-1999 were reviewed. cases were grouped as follows: Group I composed of 14 patients were studied in the period 1971-1984; and group II composed of 17 cases studied in the period 1985-1999. We tried to assess changes in the incidence, clinical findings and outcome in both periods. The incidence of listeriosis remained constant along the years, 1.2 cases/20,000 discharges. The mean age of the patients significantly increased along the years (55 11 years versus 68 12 years; p 0.002). 77% of cases had one or more underlying diseases predisposing to listeriosis. We observed an increasing number of listeriosis in patients without chronic diseases in recent years. Listeriosis presented as meningitis or primary sepsis. Mortality was 61% and was strictly associated with the severity of the underlying disease. Patients with meningoencephalitis and seizures had a worse prognosis. We did not observe differences in mortality of patients who were treated with beta-lactam monotherapy in comparison with those who were treated with beta-lactam/aminoglucoside combination. Cotrimoxazole was uniformly successful treatment of human listeriosis in this series.
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If 10% to 100% of HIV-infected patients are identified and linked to care, a CD4 count threshold for ART initiation of 0.350 x 10(9) cells/L would reduce severe opportunistic diseases by 22,000 to 221,000 and deaths by 25,000 to 253,000 during the next 5 years compared with ART initiation at 0.250 x 10(9) cells/L; cost increases would range from $142 million (10%) to $1.4 billion (100%). Either ART initiation strategy would increase long-term survival by at least 7.9 years, with a mean per-person life expectancy of 3.8 years with no ART and 12.5 years with an initiation threshold of 0.350 x 10(9) cells/L. Compared with an initiation threshold of 0.250 x 10(9) cells/L, a threshold of 0.350 x 10(9) cells/L has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1200 per year of life saved.
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections. Since antibiotics are given empirically, it is necessary to assess the distribution and susceptibility of the microorganisms in each case.
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SNH demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against 103 hospital-associated MRSA isolates. Combinations of sub-MIC levels of SNH and oxacillin or netilmicin significantly improved the in vitro antibacterial activity against MRSA compared with either drug alone. The SNH-based combinations showed promise in combating MRSA.
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the disease melioidosis, which is prevalent in tropical countries and is intractable to a number of antibiotics. In this study, the antibiotic co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was assessed for the post-exposure prophylaxis of experimental infection in mice with B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relative Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders. Co-trimoxazole was effective against an inhalational infection with B. pseudomallei or B. mallei. However, oral co-trimoxazole delivered twice daily did not eradicate infection when administered from 6h post exposure for 14 days or 21 days, since infected and antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to infection following relapse or immunosuppression. These data highlight the utility of co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis both of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and the need for new approaches for the treatment of persistent bacterial infection.
Patient compliance and drug efficacy and side-effects were compared in two groups of patients with symptoms of acute lower urinary tract infections. One group was treated with trimethoprim, one tablet (300 mg) once a day, and the other with co-trimoxazole, two tablets (160 mg trimethoprim, 800 mg sulphamethoxazole) twice a day; both treatments were prescribed for seven days. Patient compliance was significantly greater with trimethoprim: corrected percentage compliance rates were 97.5 per cent for trimethoprim and 79.1 per cent for co-trimoxazole (p<0.05). Trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole were of equivalent effectiveness in the control of symptoms. Side-effects were more frequent with co-trimoxazole, but the difference was not significant.
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Healthcare claims from the province of Manitoba, Canada for the period February 1996 to March 1999 were examined to identify episodes of pyelonephritis in non-pregnant females between 18 and 65 years of age treated with TMP-SMX or a fluoroquinolone. Patient variables were identified based on healthcare claims review and data from Statistics Canada. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of receipt of a fluoroquinolone.
It is widely believed that thoracotomy is necessary to obtain biopsy specimens adequate for the histopathologic demonstration of pulmonary Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). We report five patients with WG who were diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy (TBB). In three cases, a diagnosis of WG was made by TBB alone. In the other two patients, subsequent open lung biopsies confirmed the TBB findings but did not add essential diagnostic information. Our experience suggests TBB may be appropriate as the initial diagnostic procedure in selected cases of suspected WG. This approach requires an understanding of the diverse histologic features of WG and the correlation of clinical and pathologic data.
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This study of Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutations in patients with AIDS who have P. carinii pneumonia compares the change in the prevalence of such mutations in the United States, where sulfa-drug prophylaxis is widespread, to that in China, where it is infrequent. The DHPS gene from 145 US patients presenting during 1983-2001 and from 15 Chinese patients presenting during 1998-2001 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and was sequenced. In the United States, 40% of patients had DHPS mutations; 38% received sulfa-drug prophylaxis. Mutation prevalence increased to 70% during 2000-2001, from 25% during 1994-1995 (P<.01). In China, 7% of patients had DHPS mutations; none received sulfa-drug prophylaxis. The prevalence of P. carinii DHPS mutations has markedly increased in the United States but remains low in China.
The study included 912 children, 482 (53%) with pneumonia and 430 (47%) controls. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli were seen in 79 (16%) of the 482 children with pneumonia and 51 (12%) of the 430 healthy controls. Nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were seen in 85 (18%) of children with pneumonia and 54 (13%) of healthy controls. Neither gender, nutritional status, season, previous hospital admission nor antibiotic use was associated with carriage with gram-negative bacilli. However, pneumonia was associated with increased carriage, whereas concomitant colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae was associated with decreased carriage with gram-negative bacilli. Only 36% of all Escherichia species and 76% of all Klebsiella isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole; 90% of all Acinetobacter species were susceptible to gentamicin.
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The resistance to beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics of 133 nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from December 1995 to February 1996 from children attending seven day-care centers in southwestern Greece was studied. Reduced susceptibility to one or more anti-microbial agents was found in 70 isolates (53%), as follows: penicillin, 17% intermediate, 12% resistant; cefotaxime, 10.5% intermediate, 1.5% resistant; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8% intermediate, 35% resistant; chloramphenicol, 27% resistant; tetracycline, 29% resistant; and erythromycin/clindamycin, 19% resistant. Eighty-seven percent of penicillin-intermediate or -resistant strains belonged to serogroups/serotypes 19, 21, and 23. Fifty-six percent of the antibiotic-resistant pneumococci were multiply resistant, including serogroup 6 strains that were penicillin-susceptible but resistant to all non-beta-lactam drugs tested, as well as serogroup 23 strains resistant to penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The high incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci and the divergent and unique resistance patterns found in this study underline the need for global surveillance of S. pneumoniae to document the evolution and spread of resistant strains and to guide therapy.
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Nitrofurantoin was cost-minimizing when the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance exceeded 12% among uropathogens or the prevalence of TMP-SMX resistance exceeded 17%. On 2-way sensitivity analysis, variables that had a significant impact on our cost-minimization threshold included cost of antibiotics and probability of clinical cure with antibiotics.
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Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment.
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The pharmacokinetic parameters of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were measured in 12 newborn infants of less than 3 days postnatal age, following a single or repeated intravenous injection. The mean half-lives for SMZ and TMP were 16.5 hours and 19.0 hours, respectively. The mean volumes of distribution were SMZ 0.48 L/kg and TMP 2.7 L/kg. The mean drug clearances were SMZ 0.65 ml/minute and TMP 3.31 ml/minute. From these data the recommended loading dose is SMZ 10 mg/kg with TMP 3 mg/kg, and the maintenance dose is SMZ 3 mg/kg with TMP 1 mg/kg twice daily. No adverse side effects were seen during treatment, and the bilirubin-binding capacity of albumin were not changed at therapeutic concentrations of the antimicrobial drugs.
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The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a new epidemic of major proportions. Risk factors include homosexuality, intravenous drug abuse, Haitian descent, and multiple transfusion in the presence of hemophilia A. The etiology of AIDS remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence implicating a transmissible infectious agent and/or multiple antigenic exposures inducing a loss of immunoregulation. In a high-risk patient, the features of weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy, and fever should arouse suspicion of AIDS. Diagnostic confirmation includes demonstration of reduced numbers of T lymphocytes with reversal of helper-suppressor T-lymphocyte ratio, presence of unusual opportunistic infections, and a progressive downhill course. The most common infection in AIDS is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Treatment failures with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) are common; pentamidine isethionate (Lomidine) may be more effective in eradicating the infection. In spite of initial improvement, recurrences of P carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections are common. In addition, other protozoan, viral, fungal, and atypical mycobacterial infections are frequent in patients with AIDS. Finally, rare neoplasms such as Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, including primary lymphoma of the brain, are also being recognized as complications. At present there is no specific therapy for AIDS, and the disease is usually fatal. Continued research will hopefully result in immunomodulation techniques and specific vaccines to combat this serious epidemic.
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In this study, we report the presence of the SXT element and Class I integron in Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated from Varanasi, India. Isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole, trimethoprim and/or streptomycin, furazolidone and ampicillin. None contained plasmids. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5 and dfrA15, in the Class I integron and SXT, an integrative conjugative element containing dfr18, sulII and strAB, in three and six of the isolates respectively. Conjugation experiments, followed by PCR analysis of transconjugants, provided evidence for the transferable nature of intSXT and associated antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SXT ICE, dfr18, sulII, strAB and aadA5 genes in environmental V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains from Varanasi, India, that had been isolated before 1992.