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In our 3 year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, undertaken at 65 academic medical centres or outpatient clinics in North America, we enrolled men aged 48-82 years who had low-volume, Gleason score 5-6 prostate cancer and had chosen to be followed up with active surveillance. We randomly allocated participants in a one-to-one ratio, stratified by site and in block sizes of four, to receive once-daily dutasteride 0·5 mg or matching placebo. Participants were followed up for 3 years, with 12-core prostate biopsy samples obtained after 18 months and 3 years. The primary endpoint was time to prostate cancer progression, defined as the number of days between the start of study treatment and the earlier of either pathological progression (in patients with ≥1 biopsy assessment after baseline) or therapeutic progression (start of medical therapy). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00363311.
5-α Reductase inhibitors for BPH treatment reduced PSA and prostate volume significantly when the patients were treated for 1 year. Administration of dutasteride is considered to be more effective in reducing PSA and prostate volume. Therefore, dutasteride should not be considered equivalent to finasteride in the reduction rate of PSA. The intensity of dutasteride must be reevaluated in comparison with finasteride.
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Dutasteride did not significantly impact the studied variables in these non randomized and small sample size settings.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of acute urinary retention (AUR) and surgery after initiating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) therapy and to compare the 2 currently available 5ARIs, dutasteride and finasteride, in a real-world, managed care setting. This study constitutes the first direct comparison of therapeutic outcome between a mono 5ARI (finasteride) and a dual 5ARI (dutasteride).
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To review all of the steps involved in hair transplantation surgery and to provide an overview of medications used in conjunction with transplantation to help prevent hair loss.
Dutasteride is a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor that inhibits both types 1 and 2 isozymes of 5alpha-reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate and other tissues. Dihydrotestosterone is the primary cause of prostate growth and has been proven to play a key role in the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Dutasteride has been investigated in three multicenter studies involving 4325 men aged 50 years and above with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Data from these two-year, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that dutasteride 0.5 mg once daily reduced the risk of both acute urinary retention and the need for benign prostatic hyperplasia-related surgical intervention, improved benign prostatic hyperplasia-related symptoms, decreased prostate volume and increased maximum urinary flow rates with a low incidence of generally mild to moderate adverse events.
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CombAT is an ongoing, 4-yr, multicentre, randomised, double-blind study in 4844 men aged >or=50 yr with clinical diagnosis of BPH, IPSS >or=12, prostate volume >or=30 cm(3), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 1.5-10 ng/ml, and Q(max) >5 and or=125 ml.
Conversion of Te to androgenic (Te-->DHT) or estrogenic (Te-->E(2)) products directs GH secretion. SUBJECTS AND LOCATION: Healthy older men (N = 42, ages 50-79 yr) participated at an academic medical center.
To evaluate histologic change in human prostate samples treated with dutasteride and to elucidate direct effects of dutasteride on human prostate tissue, the present study was conducted by using a xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient (super-SCID) mice, although it is well known that dutasteride reduces prostate volume.
FDC therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin, plus lifestyle advice, resulted in rapid and sustained improvements in men with moderate BPH symptoms at risk of progression with significantly greater symptom and QoL improvements and a significantly reduced risk of BPH progression compared with WW plus initiation of tamsulosin as per protocol.
The objectives of this study were to develop a novel solid dutasteride formulation with improved physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability, and to examine the correlation between its in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) nanostructures with or without hydrophilic additives were manufactured using the supercritical antisolvent process. The dutasteride-loaded HP-β-CD nanoparticles formed aggregates with a mean particle size of less than 160 nm and a specific surface area greater than 100 m(2)/g. Increases in the supersaturation and dissolution rate for dutasteride were dependent on the type of additive; increases in maximum solubility and extended supersaturation were observed in dutasteride-loaded HP-β-CD nanostructures with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, whereas the dissolution rate was the highest for nanostructures containing d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In rats, the oral bioavailability of dutasteride increased with the supersaturation induced by the HP-β-CD nanostructures. In addition, compared with the in vitro drug release rate, the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were more closely correlated with in vitro parameters related to supersaturation (solubility). Further, the bioavailability of the dutasteride-loaded HP-β-CD nanostructures with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was similar to that of the commercially available soft gelatin capsule (Avodart®). In conclusion, preparation of dutasteride-loaded HP-β-CD nanostructures using the supercritical antisolvent process affords a viable alternative solid dosage form for dutasteride.
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To describe the clinical outcomes of prostate cancer survivors who were treated with high-dose testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) for the relief of hypogonadal symptoms.
Of 101 retrieved articles, 23 were included in the present meta-analysis. EjD was significantly more common with alpha-blockers (ABs) than with placebo (OR:5.88; P < 0.0001), in particular, considering Tamsulosin (OR:8.58; P = 0.006) or Silodosin (OR:32.5; P < 0.0001), with Tamsulosin associated with significantly lower risk of EjD than Silodosin (OR:0.09; P < 0.00001). Conversely, Doxazosin and Terazosin were associated with a risk similar to placebo. Meta-regression showed that EjD was associated with IPSS and with Qmax both before and after treatment with ABs, while multivariate analysis demonstrated that EjD was independently associated with the improvement of IPSS (adj.r:0.2012; P < 0.0001) and Qmax (adj.r:0.522; P < 0.0001). EjD was significantly more common with 5ARIs as compared with placebo (OR:2.73; P < 0.0001). Both Finasteride (OR 2.70; P < 0.0001) and Dutasteride (OR 2.81; P = 0.0002) were associated with significantly higher risk of EjD than placebo. EjD was significantly more common with combination therapy as compared with ABs alone (OR:3.75; P < 0.0001),or with 5ARIs alone (OR:2.76; P = 0.02).
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5-alpha reductase inhibitors can reduce the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) but can be associated with significant side effects. A library of nomograms which predict the risk of clinical endpoints relevant to dutasteride treatment may help determine if chemoprevention is suited to the individual patient.
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For this retrospective analysis, medical/pharmacy claims data from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2006, were analyzed for EP patients aged > or =65 years who were treated with dutasteride or finasteride. Analysis of average monthly costs over each patient's 1-year follow-up period incorporated total charges for EP-related medical care, including physician, inpatient and outpatient hospital care, emergency department, and other ancillary services.
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Initial biopsy material from 146 men registered in Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study treated with dutasteride (73/146, 50%) and as placebo (73/146, 50%) were reviewed, and ERG and SPINK1 immunohistochemistry was performed. ERG- and SPINK1-negative cancer samples were evaluated for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Frequency of ETS gene aberrations in both groups was correlated with cancer progression including prostate-specific antigen progression, Gleason progression, and progression-free survival by logistic analysis, pairwise differences, and chunk likelihood ratio tests for the genotype groups.
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Retrospective analysis of 886 men with negative baseline prostate biopsy and positive 2-year repeat biopsy in the Reduction by Dutasteride of PC Events (REDUCE) study. Acute and chronic inflammation and tumor volume were determined by central pathology. The association of baseline inflammation with 2-year repeat biopsy cancer volume was evaluated with linear and Poisson regressions controlling for demographics and laboratory variables.
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Dual-SRD5A inhibition with dutasteride is associated with increased intrahepatic lipid accumulation.
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Considered together, these data demonstrate dutasteride to be well-tolerated.
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Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence.
Initially, carriers of the AD-protective AKR1C3 2 G allele had higher levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol relative to the precursor 3α,5α-androsterone than C allele homozygotes. AKR1C3 2 G allele carriers exhibited greater increases in heart rate and stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol than C allele homozygotes. The genotype effects on sedation were observed only in heavier drinkers. The only effect of the SRD5A1 SNP was to moderate HR. There were no interactive effects of the two SNPs.
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We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, α-blocker; group B, α-blocker+statin; group C, α-blocker+dutasteride; group D, α-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication.
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An extensive search using PubMed and Scopus was performed including the following key words: "5ARI", "finasteride", "dutasteride", "prostate cancer", "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "PSA", "kinetics", "PSA derivatives".
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The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.
Dutasteride was effective compared with placebo in the treatment of symptomatic BPH among Chinese patients. The efficacy data from trials involving subjects of different ethnic origins showed some similarities. Dutasteride was generally well tolerated during the study period.
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Our main outcome measure was diagnosis of PED beginning after first 5α-RI exposure, continuing for at least 90 days after stopping 5α-RI, and with contemporaneous treatment with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I). Other outcome measures were erectile dysfunction (ED) and low libido. PED was determined by manual review of medical narratives for all subjects with ED. Risk of an adverse effect was expressed as number needed to harm (NNH).
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The enzyme steroid 5α reductase (S5α R) catalyzes the conversion of Δ⁴-3-ketosteroid precursors--such as testosterone, progesterone and androstenedione--into their 5α-reduced metabolites. Although the current nomenclature assigns five enzymes to the S5α R family, only the types 1 and 2 appear to play an important role in steroidogenesis, mediating an overlapping set of reactions, albeit with distinct chemical characteristics and anatomical distribution. The discovery that the 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is the most potent androgen and stimulates prostatic growth led to the development of S5α R inhibitors with high efficacy and tolerability. Two of these agents, finasteride and dutasteride, have received official approval for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and are being tested for prevention of prostate cancer. Finasteride is also approved for male-pattern alopecia and has been shown to induce very limited side effects. Over the last decade, converging lines of evidence have highlighted the role of 5α-reduced steroids and their precursors in brain neurotransmission and behavioral regulation. Capitalizing on these premises, we and other groups have recently investigated the role of S5α R in neuropsychiatric disorders. Our preliminary data suggest that S5 R inhibitors may elicit therapeutic effects in a number of disorders associated to dopaminergic hyperreactivity, including psychotic disorders, Tourette syndrome and impulse control disorders. In the present article, we review emerging preclinical and clinical evidence related to these effects, and discuss some of the potential mechanisms underlying the role of S5α R in the pathophysiology of mental disorders.
Deferral of blood donors taking teratogenic drugs is critical. From March 2008 to January 2009, we analysed stored blood specimens from donors who had taken teratogenic drugs and whose blood was transfused to women of childbearing age to determine the plasma concentration at the time of donation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 167 specimens were examined. The numbers of specimens exceeding the quantification limit were 7, 39, 4, 2 and 1 for finasteride, isotretinoin, acitretin, etretinate and dutasteride, respectively. Finasteride was beyond the recommended drug deferral period in one specimen. These results may help create practical deferral policies.
This report details the clinical and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response of a man with untreated PCa treated with T therapy for 2 years.