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Doxepin tablets have recently been approved in the United States in doses of 3 and 6 mg for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep maintenance.
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All the available ophthalmic antibiotics have strengths and weaknesses. There is not yet a magic bullet that would successfully treat all infections without harm to the host. The challenges of the future are the same as the challenges of the past: to battle bacterial infections with the least toxic, least expensive, lowest dosing frequency antibiotic and yet clear the infection more quickly. The war between humans and bacteria seems like a hopeless one because of the sheer numbers of bacteria, their incredible ability to adapt, and their unembarrassed penchant for reproduction. And yet the ingenuity and tenacity of humans cannot be overlooked. Already more than 10,000 fluoroquinolone agents have been developed and tested since the original discovery of nalidixic acid in 1962. With the newer agents soon to be available, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, clinicians will be armed with the most potent antimicrobial agents yet. The not too distant future is also bright with agents coming from research of quorum sensing and genomics. Only time will tell how these newer agents will compare with the current ophthalmic antibiotics.
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The objective of this study was to characterize clinical isolates of C. difficile obtained from various regions in Korea with regard to their toxin status, molecular type, and antimicrobial susceptibility.
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Endophthalmitis is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cataract surgery. This article presents an overview of endophthalmitis prophylaxis and the use of intracameral antibiotics. It highlights available intracameral antibiotics with respect to pharmacology, spectrum of activity, dosage and preparation, safety, and efficacy profiles, as well as toxic anterior segment syndrome risks to better define the potential use of these medications in the prevention of endophthalmitis.
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DATA ON PROCUREMENT PRICE AND AVAILABILITY WAS COLLECTED FROM THREE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS IN THE STATE: the federal (central) government, state government and Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). Overall a total of 83 public facilities, 68 primary care, 10 secondary cares and 5 tertiary care facilities were surveyed. Data was also collected from private retail (n = 40) and chain pharmacies (n = 40) of a leading corporate house. Prices were compared to an international reference price (expressed as median price ratio-MPR).
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Routine use of disk diffusion tests for detecting antibiotic resistance in Legionella pneumophila has not been described. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation of MIC values and inhibition zone diameter (MDcorr) in clinical L. pneumophila isolates.
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To describe the plasma concentration-time profile of moxifloxacin after intravenous and enteral administration in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to provide a pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with regard to pneumonia.
The aim of the present investigation was to prepare a colloidal ophthalmic formulation to improve the residence time of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin-loaded poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanosuspensions were prepared by using the solvent evaporation technique. The nanosuspensions were characterised physically by using different techniques like particle size, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, and XRD analysis. In vitro and ex vivo studies of nanosuspensions were carried out using a modified USP dissolution apparatus and all-glass Franz diffusion cells, respectively. The antibacterial activities of the nanosuspension and marketed formulations were performed against S. aureus and P. aeroginosa. The moxifloxacin-loaded PLGA nanosuspensions showed uniform particle size, ranging between 164-490 nm with negative zeta potential for all batches. The percentage entrapment efficiency of the drug-loaded nano-suspension was found to be between 84.09 to 92.05%. In vitro drug release studies suggest that all of the formulations showed extended drug release profiles and follow Korsemeyer-Peppas release kinetics. In vitro corneal permeability was found to be comparable with that of the marketed formulation across isolated goat cornea, indicating the suitability of the nanosuspension formulation in the ophthalmic delivery of moxifloxacin. The optimised nano-suspension was found to be more active against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa compared to the marketed eye drops.
Moxifloxacin is a very effective and safe treatment for patients with CAP and is highly accepted by physicians and patients because of rapid symptom improvement and good tolerability.
DOTS and DOTS-Plus are both effective at preventing the acquisition of MDR-TB in Taiwan.
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We evaluated the ability of the new VITEK 2 version 4.01 software to identify and detect glycopeptide-resistant enterococci compared to that of the reference broth microdilution method and to classify them into the vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2 genotypes. Moreover, the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing with agents with improved potencies against glycopeptide-resistant enterococci was determined. A total of 121 enterococci were investigated. The new VITEK 2 software was able to identify 114 (94.2%) enterococcal strains correctly to the species level and to classify 119 (98.3%) enterococci correctly to the glycopeptide resistance genotype level. One Enterococcus casseliflavus strain and six Enterococcus faecium vanA strains with low-level resistance to vancomycin were identified with low discrimination, requiring additional tests. One of the vanA strains was misclassified as the vanB type, and one glycopeptide-susceptible E. facium wild type was misclassified as the vanA type. The overall essential agreements for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were 94.2% for vancomycin, 95.9% for teicoplanin, 100% for quinupristin-dalfopristin and moxifloxacin, and 97.5% for linezolid. The rates of minor errors were 9% for teicoplanin and 5% for the other antibiotic agents. The identification and susceptibility data were produced within 4 h to 6 h 30 min and 8 h 15 min to 12 h 15 min. In conclusion, use of VITEK 2 version 4.01 software appears to be a reliable method for the identification and detection of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci as well as an improvement over the use of the former VITEK 2 database. However, a significant reduction in the detection time would be desirable.
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In this study the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of moxifloxacin in Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) administrations of 5 mg kg(-1) b.wt. were investigated. The concentrations of moxifloxacin in the plasma were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection on samples collected at frequent intervals after drug administration. Following intravenous injection, the decline in plasma drug concentration was bi-exponential with half-lives of (t(1/2)(alpha)) 0.22+/-0.10h and (t(1/2)(beta)) 2.49+/-0.26h for distribution and elimination phases, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady-state (V(dss)) was 1.02+/-0.14 l kg(-1) and the total body clearance (Cl(tot)) was 0.32+/-0.11 l kg(-1)h(-1), respectively. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin at the same dose the peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 2.38+/-0.43 and 2.11+/-0.36 microg ml(-1) and were obtained at 1.47+/-0.26 and 1.83+/-0.16h (T(max)), respectively, the elimination half-lives (T(1/2el)) were 3.14+/-0.42 and 2.63+/-0.44h, respectively, and AUC(0-24) were 15.87+/-2.35 and 14.52+/-2.37 microg ml(-1)h(-1), respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities were 96.36+/-11.54% and 86.79+/-12.64%, respectively. In vitro plasma protein binding percent was 32%. We concluded that moxifloxacin might be clinically interesting alternative for the treatment of most sensitive bacterial infections in Muscovy ducks.
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Resistant isolates were selected by serial passages on brain heart infusion agar containing increasing concentrations of antibiotics (from the MIC upwards).
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In a previous study (L. G. Garcia et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:3700-3711, 2012), we evaluated the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent small-colony variants, respectively) of the parental COL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and the pharmacodynamic profile of the intracellular activity of a series of antibiotics in human THP-1 monocytes. We have now examined the phagocytosis and intracellular persistence of the same strains in THP-1 cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and measured the intracellular activity of gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin in these cells. Postphagocytosis intracellular counts and intracellular survival were lower in PMA-activated cells, probably due to their higher killing capacities. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin showed a 5- to 7-fold higher potency (lower static concentrations) against the parental strain, its hemB mutant, and the genetically complemented strain in PMA-activated cells and against the menD strain in both activated and nonactivated cells. This effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with N-acetylcysteine (a scavenger of oxidant species). In parallel, we observed that the MICs of these drugs were markedly reduced if bacteria had been preexposed to H(2)O(2). In contrast, the intracellular potency of oritavancin was not different in activated and nonactivated cells and was not decreased by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, regardless of the phenotype of the strains. The oritavancin MIC was also unaffected by preincubation of the bacteria with H(2)O(2). Thus, activation of THP-1 cells by PMA may increase the intracellular potency of certain antibiotics (probably due to synergy with reactive oxygen species), but this effect cannot be generalized to all antibiotics.
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Cushing's syndrome (CS) is common after oral steroid use and has also been reported following topical or inhaled use, but it is extremely uncommon after intranasal administration. In this paper, we present the case of a child who developed CS after intranasal application of combined moxifloxacin-dexamethasone eye drops for epistaxis for a period of 3 months. CS caused by ocular preparations of steroids has not been reported previously. This case report highlights the fact that even eye drops can contain high doses of steroids and can lead to CS especially in children and especially if used intranasally. Ocular steroid drops should not be used intranasally. To minimize gastrointestinal absorption and therefore the risk of CS, nasal sprays should be preferred over nasal drops for intranasal steroid application.
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Metronidazole and tetracycline-based second-line quadruple therapy, widely used for Helicobacter pylori infection, often ends up in failure due to antibiotic resistance and poor compliance in Korea. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of moxifloxacin-based triple therapy as an alternative second-line treatment for H. pylori infection.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake and the release of antibiotics from a newly synthesized drug delivery hydrogel soft contact lens (SCL) using an ion ligand mechanism.
Thirty rabbits were divided into 2 similar groups. In Group A (15 rabbits, 30 eyes), hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (C-flex, Rayner Intraocular Lenses, Ltd.) presoaked for 24 hours in commercially available solutions of gatifloxacin 3 mg/mL or moxifloxacin 5 mg/mL were implanted after evacuation of the crystalline lens. Group B (15 rabbits, 30 eyes) had topical preoperative and postoperative cataract prophylaxis with gatifloxacin 3 mg/mL or moxifloxacin 5 mg/mL; IOLs that were not presoaked were also implanted after evacuation of the crystalline lenses. In both groups, aqueous humor samples were taken 4, 8, or 12 hours after IOL implantation (5 eyes at each time point) to determine the antibiotic concentrations. Clinical examinations were performed 24 hours postoperatively.
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Three studies that enrolled 2255 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between patients given moxifloxacin and those given other antibiotics with regard to clinical success rate [1667 patients, odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.09, p = 0.18], bacteriological success rate (bacteriological success rates: 1502 patients, OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.18, p = 0.45) or mortality (2207 patients, OR = 1.96, 95% CI 0.79-4.88, p = 0.15). Significantly, more overall adverse events (AEs) were associated with the use of moxifloxacin than with other antibiotics (2207 patients, OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.00-1.45, p = 0.04). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of drug-related AEs, serious AEs or serious drug-related AEs between patients given moxifloxacin and those given other antibiotics.
Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
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This case report demonstrates that C indologenes can cause VAP in a trauma ICU patient.
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Subjects included inpatients on clozapine therapy at a state psychiatric facility.
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Transconjunctival penetration often results in needle bore contamination; bacteria are included in an injected solution. Fifteen minutes of exposure to 2 topical antibiotics had a minimal effect on bacterial contamination and no significant effect on many common pathogens.
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Mean preoperative visual acuity was 0.7 ± 0.9 LogMAR in both groups 1 and 2, while mean postoperative visual acuity was 0.05 ± 1.00 LogMAR in both groups. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure averaged 13.2 ± 2.0 and 13.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, respectively, in the first group, while preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure was 14.9 ± 2.1 and 14.3 ± 2.0, respectively, in the second group. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity changes and intraocular pressure changes were not significantly different between 2 groups. There was no single case of corneal edema. In the first group, preoperative pachymetry was 523 ± 44 and postoperative pachmetry was 536 ± 45 μm, while in the second group preoperative pachymetry was 527 ± 43 and postoperative pachymetry was 543 ± 42 μm. Preoperative and postoperative pachymetry changes were not significantly different between 2 groups. Mean preoperative macular thickness in the first group was 188 ± 7.73 μm, while it was measured as 189 ± 7.75 μm postoperatively. In the second group, mean preoperative macular thickness was 188 ± 8.89 μm, while it was 189 ± 9.61 μm postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) measure changes were not significantly different between the 2 groups. No study-related adverse events were noted.
Twenty-five adult patients from a cardiothoracic/mixed surgical ICU were enrolled. Moxifloxacin was given as a standard dose (400 mg once daily). Therapy was successfully switched to enteral administration on day 5 in 16 patients. A rich data sampling schedule was performed after intravenous (day 4) and enteral (day 8) administration. Moxifloxacin concentrations were analysed by HPLC. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using NONMEM VII. Simulated concentration-time profiles were evaluated for their probability of attaining PK/PD target values relevant for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).
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This study demonstrates that deferasirox does not prolong the QT/QTc interval at both therapeutic and supratherapeutic plasma concentrations. It is, therefore, not expected that deferasirox has a negative effect on cardiac repolarization in patients under treatment with this medication.