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Irbesartan inhibits the activity of angiotensin II (AII) via specific, selective noncompetitive antagonism of the AII receptor subtype 1 (AT1) which mediates most of the known physiological activities of AII. In patients with mild to moderate hypertension, once daily administration of irbesartan 150 or 300 mg, with or without adjunctive antihypertensive agents, provides effective 24-hour BP control. Irbesartan reduced BP to a similar extent to enalapril and atenolol and to a significantly greater extent than losartan. The combination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide resulted in additive antihypertensive effects. The drug is effective in the elderly and dosage adjustment is not required in these patients or in those with renal or hepatic failure. Preliminary studies evaluating the efficacy of irbesartan in patients with heart failure have produced encouraging results. Irbesartan is very well tolerated and neither the frequency nor the pattern of adverse events differed from those seen in placebo recipients, although headache was significantly more frequent with the latter. Similarly, the incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between irbesartan and enalapril in patients who received either drug as monotherapy. Headache, upper-respiratory tract infection and musculoskeletal pain were the most common complaints. Thus, irbesartan is an effective therapy for patients with mild to moderate hypertension and had an adverse event profile similar to that of placebo in clinical trials. On this basis it would appear to be an effective therapeutic option in this indication.
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2,739 participants with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy with at least 1 year of blood pressure measurements available.
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This study shows that the population attending Spanish HT centers have high prevalence of microalbuminuria. The addition of irbesartan to the usual treatment in poorly controlled hypertensive patients significantly improved BP control, and reduced microalbuminuria both in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Our study confirms that similar results can be obtained in normal clinical practice as in controlled clinical trials.
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To evaluate the impact of postoperative ACE inhibitor or ARB use on the incidence of post-CTS atrial fibrillation.
Hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors contribute to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The presence of LVH is an important independent risk factor for total mortality and for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Direct cardiac effects of LVH include an increased risk of developing of congestive heart failure, an increased risk of arrhythmic events, and a reduced coronary flow reserve, promoting myocardial ischemic episodes. In addition, hypertension may promote the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. The prognostic implications of LVH underscore the importance of diagnostic procedures. The electrocardiogram has a high specificity to identify patients with LVH but the sensitivity is fairly low. Echocardiography provides higher sensitivity and also gives important information, such as the pattern of left ventricular geometry, which is of prognostic importance, and the presence of diastolic dysfunction, which is an early abnormality in the evolution of hypertensive LVH. Reversal of LVH appears to improve prognosis. Reduction of blood pressure is one important component in the regression of LVH. Important quantitative differences exist between drug classes in the reversal of cardiac hypertrophy despite similar antihypertensive effects, suggesting other factors to be of importance in the regression of left ventricular mass. LVH is reduced more by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors than by other antihypertensive drug classes, suggesting an effect on structural myocardial changes beyond that provided by the reduction of blood pressure. Recent data suggest that angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs) have quantitatively similar effects on left ventricular mass as do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. A comparative trial of the AIIRA irbesartan and the beta-blocker atenolol demonstrated that despite similar reductions in blood pressure, the reductions attained in left ventricular mass with irbesartan were progressive and numerically greater than those attained with atenolol. Taken together, these findings provide circumstantial evidence for an important role of angiotensin II acting on angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors in the development or maintenance of cardiac hypertrophy. Confirmation of the favorable effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and AIIRAs on left ventricular mass in larger trials, including those assessing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, will be of major importance in the future treatment of hypertension.
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In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should be prioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency.
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Baseline mean blood pressure was 162/ 104 mmHg, and mean left ventricular mass index was 157 g/m2 for men and 133 g/m2 for women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were similar in both treatment groups. Both irbesartan (P < 0.001) and atenolol (P< 0.001) progressively reduced left ventricular mass index, e.g. by 26 and 14 g/m2 (16 and 9%), respectively, at week 48, with a greater reduction in the irbesartan group (P = 0.024). The proportion of patients who attained a normalized left ventricular mass (i.e. < or = 131 g/m2 for men and < or = 100 g/m2 for women) tended to be greater with irbesartan (47 versus 32%, P = 0.108).
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It is well known that angiotensin II (Ang II) can facilitate the effects of sympathetic neurotransmission. In the present study, using various experimental models, we investigated the inhibitory effects of several Ang II subtype 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists on this Ang II-induced facilitation. We compared the sympatho-inhibitory potencies of the AT1 blockers with their respective potencies regarding inhibition of the direct vasoconstrictor effects of Ang II. In the isolated mesenteric artery, we investigated the effects of Ang II in the presence and absence of losartan, irbesartan and telmisartan on stimulation-induced vasoconstrictor responses. In the pithed rat, we studied the effect of AT1 blockade on the sequelae of electrical stimulation of the thoracolumbar sympathetic outflow (presynaptic AT1 blockade) as well as on dose-response curves elicited by exogenous Ang II (postsynaptic AT1 blockade). Additionally, we compared the sympatho-inhibitory of irbesartan in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In the isolated mesenteric artery, Ang II (10 nM) significantly enhanced stimulation-induced vasoconstrictor responses. The enhancement could be antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by losartan (1 nmol/l to 1 mumol/l), irbesartan (0.1 nmol/l to 0.1 mumol/l) and telmisartan (0.01 nmol/l to 0.01 mumol/l). The sympatho-inhibitory potency was telmisartan > irbesartan > losartan. In the pithed normotensive rat, the stimulation-induced increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as well as the Ang II-elicited DBP response were dose-dependently reduced by all the AT1 receptor blockers investigated. The order of potency with respect to sympatho-inhibition was eprosartan > valsartan = candesartan = embusartan = telmisartan > losartan > irbesartan (comparison of doses which at 2 Hz reduced delta DBP by 20 mmHg, differences significant at P < 0.05). The order of potency regarding inhibition of the Ang II-induced DBP increase was candesartan > embusartan = valsartan = eprosartan = telmisartan > irbesartan > losartan (comparison of the antagonist concentration, in the presence of which twice the agonist concentration, in the presence of which twice the agonist concentration is needed to cause the same effect [pA2 values], differences significant at P < 0.05). In the pithed SHR and the normotensive WKY rat the sympatho-inhibitory potency of irbesartan did not differ significantly between both strains. It can be concluded that all AT1 receptor antagonists appear to possess sympatho-inhibitory properties, which may be of potential interest in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Our findings suggest differences in pre- and postsynaptic inhibition between the various compounds, since for eprosartan and losartan the sympatholytic doses and postsynaptic inhibitory doses differed far less than for the other AT1 receptor antagonists.
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In daily practice, nephropathy is diagnosed in a high percentage of type 2 diabetics, including those in whom blood pressure is well controlled. The aim of the present study was to reduce albuminuria in these patients by changing over antihypertensive treatment to the AT, blocker irbesartan. 9,838 general practitioners recruited a total of 38,016 type 2 diabetics aged at least 18 years to an open observational study: In the majority of cases, current antihyprertensive treatment was discontinued and patients given 300 mg (a small percentage received 150 mg or 75 mg) irbesartan, either as monotherapy or in combination with 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). The primary target outcome for efficacy was the 6-months normalization rate in patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria; secondary target parameters included the change in protein excretion (grades: negative, 20 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg), normalisation of the systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and responder and blood pressure normalization rates. The target criterion for tolerability was the number of patients with adverse events (AE).
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Reversibility of the systemic and renal alterations induced by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester(L-NAME) was assessed by treatment with irbesartan and enalapril (30 and 10 mg/kg per 24 h, respectively) alone or in combination.
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Myocardial infarction (MI) may induce severe alterations of the cardiac contractile function that may, in turn, lead to heart failure (HF). The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling following MI. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers effectively prevent left ventricular (LV) remodeling. However, it has not been elucidated whether the preventive effect of AT1R-blockers on LV remodeling is mediated through the UPS pathway. In the present study, with the use of cardiac morphometric parameters, haemodynamic measurements and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that post-ischemic HF rats exhibited a significant increase in ventricular remodeling and irbesartan was effective in reversing cardiac remodeling. The expression of TNF-α, ubiquitin protein and 20S proteasome were significantly increased in the MI control group and irbesartan was shown to dose-dependently inhibit the expression of TNF-α, ubiquitin protein and 20S proteasome. In conclusion, it was hypothesized that UPS signaling is involved in ventricular remodeling following MI and the mechanism underlying the effect of irbesartan on ventricular remodeling may be associated with the downregulation of the expression of TNF-α, ubiquitin protein and 20S proteasome.
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Although the results do not support increased efficacy of combined treatment, they provide intriguing evidence of the importance of RAS expression in determining patient response and tumour growth potential and suggest that components of the RAS could be used as biomarkers to aid in patient selection.
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This is a randomized, controlled and double-blinded intervention study. A total of 82 HD patients from six Danish HD centres will be treated for a year with an ARB (irbesartan) or placebo. The inclusion criteria are urine output > 300 ml/day, dialysis vintage < 1 year and LV ejection fraction > 30%. The primary outcomes are change in RRF, LV hypertrophy, arterial stiffness and intra-dialytic haemodynamics.
Previous studies reported that RAS inhibitors prevented atrial fibrillation by improving atrial electrical and structural remodeling. However, the effect of RAS inhibitors on the substrates of atrial fibrillation (AF) underlying hyperthyroid is unclear.
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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have become established as a major class of antihypertensive on the basis of their powerful effects on blood pressure (BP), excellent tolerability and pleiotropic end-organ-protective effects. However, individual ARBs vary in antihypertensive efficacy, which may be important to clinical outcome. Several strategies are available to ensure that BP reductions with ARBs are at least as great as that which can be achieved with other antihypertensive classes. Firstly, several newer ARBs, including irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan and olmesartan, have been reported to provide equivalent antihypertensive efficacy to amlodipine and greater efficacy than either losartan, valsartan or both. Secondly, increases in dose may improve the antihypertensive efficacy of agents such as valsartan, although clinical studies are necessary to provide characterisation of new, higher-dose monotherapies. Thirdly, fixed dose combinations with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) increase the antihypertensive effect of all ARBs. It is likely that differences in efficacy between newer and older ARBs will in some cases be sustained in combination therapy, such that the most potent ARBs and HCTZ will provide another tier of control. The future use of ARBs is likely to involve a growing emphasis on compound-specific data, with regard to the antihypertensive efficacy and pleiotropic protective actions of agents.
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Irbesartan can increase ACE2 mRNA expression in the myocardium, which might be one of the mechanisms underlying its effect in improving the cardiac function in diabetic rats.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a monocarboxypeptidase which metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to generate Ang-(1-7), has been shown to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and injury but the mechanism remains elusive. Irbesartan has the dual actions of angiotensin receptor blockade and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation. We hypothesized that irbesartan would exert its protective effects on ACE2 deficiency-mediated myocardial fibrosis and cardiac injury via the PPARγ signaling.
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Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States, accounting for about 50% of all new cases. Although we previously established the renoprotective benefits of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with coexisting hypertension and type 1 diabetes, evidence of the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes is less clear. We conducted the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) to determine whether the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) irbesartan slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. In this randomized, controlled trial, we found that irbesartan was associated with a 20% reduction in the risk for the primary composite end point (doubling of the baseline serum creatinine concentration, development of end-stage renal disease, or death from any cause) compared with placebo (P =.02) and a 23% reduction compared with amlodipine therapy (P =.006). These results were not explained by differences in the BP that was achieved. In a separate study, losartan was shown to reduce the risk for progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy has also been demonstrated to slow the progression to overt nephropathy when initiated early in the course of type 2 diabetic renal disease (ie, in patients with microalbuminuria). Based on these studies, ARBs are clearly effective in protecting against the progression of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. This protection is independent of their BP-lowering effect. Preclinical studies with the newest ARB, olmesartan medoxomil, suggest that this agent may provide renoprotective benefits as well.
After a 3-week, single blind, placebo lead-in period, 426 subjects were randomized to receive either irbesartan 150 mg or valsartan 80 mg for 8 weeks.
Angiotensin II (AII) has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and insulin resistance. In addition, the administration of selective AII type 1 receptor blockers has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. However, only a few studies have addressed the molecular mechanisms involved in this association. Furthermore, in a previous study we illustrated that obese Zucker rats (OZR) present increased serine 994 (Ser994) phosphorylation of hepatic insulin receptor, and this event seems to be implicated in the regulation of the intrinsic IRK in this model of insulin resistance.
Hypertension (HTN) management guidelines stress the importance of effective blood pressure (BP) control to prevent progression to adverse cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes.
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We studied the ability of different ARBs to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in continuous culture and in quiescent cells stimulated to proliferate by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin. We also investigated whether the antiproliferative effects of ARBs depended on their ability to block angiotensin II receptors or activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma).