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Exacerbations are a major cause of disability, hospital admissions, and increased healthcare costs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the clinical outcomes of outpatients with moderate to severe exacerbated COPD and their related costs.
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Susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial agents of 858 strains of staphylococci was determined. Tested strains belonged to the following species: S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. simulans, S. warneri, S. cohnii, S. xylosus and S. intermedius. The antibiotics were: penicillin G, amoxycillin, augmentin, oxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, dibekacin, amikacin, gentamicin, sisomycin, netilmicin, doxycycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, josamycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, rifampin, fusidic acid, fosfomycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, cotrimoxazole, and vancomycin. The ATB system was used, with the criteria for categorization recommended by the Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing Committee. Penicillin-resistance, that was found in all species, was high for hospital-acquired strains (67 to 75%) but also for some other strains (32% for S. simulans). Oxacillin-resistance varied across species (0% for the least prevalent hospital strains, 6% for S. epidermidis and 28% for S. haemolyticus). All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. For some drugs, resistance was a characteristic of the species: resistance to fosfomycin was often found for S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and S. capitis; resistance to trimethoprim was common for S. simulans, and S. haemolyticus. S. haemolyticus was the most resistant species, a fact that justifies routine identification of this pathogen in clinical specimens.
The beta-lactamases obtained from culture supernatants and cell extracts of 26 clinical strains and 5 reference strains of Nocardia farcinica were partially characterized. The enzymes exhibited two patterns on isoelectric focusing (IEF). beta-Lactamases from the majority of the 31 strains (87%) including the 5 reference strains exhibited two major bands with pIs of 4.56 and 4.49. The remaining strains had two similar major bands but with slightly higher pIs. Culture supernatants and cell extracts exhibited identical patterns. The two sets of enzymes were functionally indistinguishable by substrate and inhibitor profiles and lack of inducibility. By disk testing, ampicillin, amoxicillin, ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and imipenem were highly synergistic with cefotaxime. The enzymes were primarily penicillinases and hydrolyzed cephalosporins at rates of < or = 12% of those for penicillins. N. farcinica beta-lactamases were susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid and BRL 42715, exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.025 to 0.045 micrograms/ml (0.12 to 0.22 microM) and 0.05 to 0.1 micrograms/ml (0.31 to 0.63 microM), respectively, less susceptible to tazobactam, and least susceptible to sulbactam, cloxacillin, and imipenem. The beta-lactamases of N. farcinica are believed to mediate penicillin resistance and may play a secondary role in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. The close similarity among N. farcinica beta-lactamases and their distinct differences from beta-lactamases of other Nocardia species support the taxonomic identity of this species.
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High resolution genotyping of HLA loci A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 was performed in 75 AC DILI cases and 885 controls.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that is often encountered in urinary tract infection (UTI) worldwide and has shown varied antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This study was therefore designed to ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the organism in Jos. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa generated from urine samples by the Microbiology laboratory of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) was compiled for a period of three years (July 2001-June 2004). Additional information was obtained from the records department of the hospital. Samples were collected, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. The rate of isolation of P. aeruginosa from urine samples was found to be 4.6% (n=127) from 12,458 samples. From male population 34% (n=43) were isolated and 66 % (n=84) were recovered from females population with a significant (P < 0.05) gender difference. All the 100 % isolates of P. aeruginosa were resistant to penicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid. while 67% were sensitive to augmentin, sensitivity to ofloxacin was 92%, ciprofloxacin 92% and cefuroxime (86%). The resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa from urine against antibiotics was extremely high. Prophylactic antibiotic medication against UTI should be carefully weighed against this undesirable possible outcome (resistance). Susceptibility testing should be adopted as a basic routine laboratory procedure in hospitals and clinics in order to guide appropriately on the right choice of antibiotics. Finally, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and cefuroxime should be considered on isolation of P. aeruginosa from UTI, especially in the absence of a sensitivity report as well as for prophylactic options.
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To explore the possibility of designing empiric antibiotic therapy for symptomatic UTI in patients at Aga Khan University Hospital by looking at the trends of UTI, common pathogens isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
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A 9-year-old male Jack Russell Terrier with a history of travel to Thailand was presented with chronic lethargy, weight loss, unilateral anterior uveitis, pancytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and proteinuria. Numerous trypomastigotes were found on a blood smear, and using molecular methods the parasite was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. After initial response to treatment, the dog experienced a relapse with central neurologic signs 88 days after initial presentation and died. Antibodies to T evansi were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a card agglutination test (CATT/T evansi), and PCR analysis of CSF for T evansi was positive. Findings at necropsy included marked non-purulent meningoencephalitis. Chronic infection with T evansi in a dog that returned to Germany following international travel highlights the risk associated with introduction of foreign animal diseases to Europe and the possibility of these infections becoming endemic. Detection of chronic infection and curative therapy of trypanosomiasis are challenging, and infection is usually fatal in the dog.
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Antimicrobial therapy remains a controversial issue in nonsevere exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Ampicillin was generally twice as active as amoxicillin against 2440 consecutive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from five medical centers. When beta-lactamase inhibitors were added to the penicillins, there was a significant increase in susceptibility. The magnitude of the increased susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam (A-S) and amoxicillin-clavulanic (A-C) acid varied with the species and types of beta-lactamases elaborated. Although cross-susceptibility and cross-resistance between ampicillin and amoxicillin was nearly complete, major differences were documented between A-S and A-C with 6.7% of our consecutive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The clinical significance of these findings remains uncertain, but they may help explain some of the discrepancies occasionally observed by clinical microbiologists with the combination drugs.
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The diagnosis of sinusitis is difficult and there are few controlled studies of customary therapies. In particular, the possible role of topical intranasal steroid as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment has not been evaluated.
Histopathologic examination and direct immunofluorescence were consistent with a diagnosis of LABD. Therapy with dapsone controlled the disease but, after sun exposure, there was a worsening of the illness.
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Community-acquired bacterial respiratory tract infections are among the most common health disorders requiring medical care and are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and direct and indirect costs. Recent increases in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance have resulted in reduced susceptibility of the most common respiratory tract bacterial pathogens to a number of antimicrobials. Amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium extended release (ER) tablets (Augmentin XR, GlaxoSmithKline) is a new formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate that retains activity against betalactamase-producing organisms whilst increasing the activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae through elevated and sustained plasma amoxicillin concentrations. The bilayer tablet provides immediate release of clavulanate and both immediate and sustained release of amoxicillin to maintain therapeutic concentrations of amoxicillin over longer periods of the dosing interval. In clinical trials of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), amoxicillin/clavulanate ER was shown to have excellent bacteriological and clinical success rates, even in patients infected with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and was found to be generally well tolerated. Amoxicillin/clavulanate ER is approved in the US for the treatment of patients with ABS or CAP caused by beta-lactamase-producing pathogens (ie, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus) and S. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin (penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration = 2.0 microg/ml).
Our results indicate that cefuroxime axetil twice a day is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate three times a day in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis but produces fewer adverse effects.
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The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in patients with respiratory tract infections. Overall 514 specimens including 370 throat swabs and 114 sputum specimens were examined. The 78 strains isolated basing on morphological and biochemical characteristics were classified as Moraxella catarrhalis. The sensitivity of the strains to antibiotics was also estimated. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation from the throat swabs (15.9%) was higher than from the sputum (13.2%). Selected 25 specimens of sputum were tested simultaneously by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method was more sensitive (84% positive findings) than qualitative method (60% positive findings). Resistance to ampicillin was found in 52 (66.7%) strains of M. catarrhalis determined mainly by beta-lactamase production (over 70% strains were producers of beta-lactamase). All strains were sensitive to ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation was higher in autumn-winter period than in summer (May-September). We conclude that M. catarrhalis, beside Streptococcus pyogenes (20.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.1%), are the most frequently isolated bacteria in patients with respiratory tract infections.
Although perianal streptococcal dermatitis (PSD) is well known in children, it has only rarely been documented in adults. The incidence and necessity for treatment may be underestimated. We have retrospectively identified adult patients with perianal streptococcal dermatitis.
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Three hundred seventeen patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of acute maxillary sinusitis were enrolled at nine centers and were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (n = 157) or amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg three times daily (n = 160). Patients were assessed for both clinical and bacteriologic responses once during treatment (5 to 7 days) and twice after treatment (1 to 3 days and 4 weeks). Bacteriologic assessments were based on needle aspirates of the maxillary sinus obtained pretreatment and, when possible, at the first posttreatment visit.
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This study explores the effects of cefditoren (CDN) versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) on the evolution (within a single strain) of total and recombined populations derived from intrastrain ftsI gene diffusion in β-lactamase-positive (BL⁺) and β-lactamase-negative (BL⁻) Haemophilus influenzae. DNA from β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates (DNA(BLNAR)) and from β-lactamase-positive, amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) (DNA(BLPACR)) isolates was extracted and added to a 10⁷-CFU/ml suspension of one BL⁺ strain (CDN MIC, 0.007 μg/ml; AMC MIC, 1 μg/ml) or one BL⁻ strain (CDN MIC, 0.015 μg/ml; AMC MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) in Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM). The mixture was incubated for 3 h and was then inoculated into a two-compartment computerized device simulating free concentrations of CDN (400 mg twice a day [b.i.d.]) or AMC (875 and 125 mg three times a day [t.i.d.]) in serum over 24 h. Controls were antibiotic-free simulations. Colony counts were performed; the total population and the recombined population were differentiated; and postsimulation MICs were determined. At time zero, the recombined population was 0.00095% of the total population. In controls, the BL⁻ and BL⁺ total populations and the BL⁻ recombined population increased (from ≈3 log₁₀ to 4.5 to 5 log₁₀), while the BL⁺ recombined population was maintained in simulations with DNA(BLPACR) and was decreased by ≈2 log₁₀ with DNA(BLNAR). CDN was bactericidal (percentage of the dosing interval for which experimental antibiotic concentrations exceeded the MIC [ft>MIC], >88%), and no recombined populations were detected from 4 h on. AMC was bactericidal against BL⁻ strains (ft>MIC, 74.0%) in DNA(BLNAR) and DNA(BLPACR) simulations, with a small final recombined population (MIC, 4 μg/ml; ft>MIC, 30.7%) in DNA(BLPACR) simulations. When AMC was used against the BL⁺ strain (in DNA(BLNAR) or DNA(BLPACR) simulations), the bacterial load was reduced ≈2 log₁₀ (ft>MIC, 44.3%), but 6.3% and 32% of the total population corresponded to a recombined population (MIC, 16 μg/ml; ft>MIC, 0%) in DNA(BLNAR) and DNA(BLPACR) simulations, respectively. AMC, but not CDN, unmasked BL⁺ recombined populations obtained by transformation. ft>MIC values higher than those classically considered for bacteriological response are needed to counter intrastrain ftsI gene diffusion by covering recombined populations.
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The antimicrobial spectrum and in vitro potency of the most frequently prescribed orally administered cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate are reviewed. These beta-lactam agents have been widely used in the outpatient arena for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract and other mild-to-moderate infections. The data presented here were obtained from critical review articles on each of these compounds. Cephalexin and cefaclor were among the least potent and had the narrowest antimicrobial spectrums against the pathogens evaluated. In contrast, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime were highly active against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and retained some activity against penicillin-intermediate strains, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was the most active against S. pneumoniae, including most penicillin nonsusceptible strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir were the most potent compounds against methicillin (oxacillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cefpodoxime was the most potent compound against Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime were also active against Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. In summary, orally administered "3rd-generation" or extended spectrum cephalosporins exhibited more balanced spectrums of activity against the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for outpatient respiratory tract and other infections when compared with other widely used oral cephalosporins of earlier generations or amoxicillin alone.
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Department of Medical Microbiology University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is emerging as an important pathogen. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rarely causes nasal septal abscess.
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The interaction between an infectious agent (EBV) and amoxicillin could precipitate the severe skin reaction. Patch test and delayed intradermal reading with amoxicilllin were an useful tool for the diagnosis of the etiological agent in this reaction. The negative response to other beta-lactams, suggests that the aminobenzyl group of the side chain of amoxicillin plays a predominant role in this reaction.