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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)
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Artane

Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax

 

Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.

Description

Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.

Dosage

Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane 10 mg

The purpose of our studies was to determine the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on conditioned avoidance responding in the rat. Rats were trained to avoid or escape an electric shock delivered to the feet in a discrete trial procedure. The muscarinic receptor agonists pilocarpine and [2-ethyl-8-methyl-2,8-diazaspiro(4. 5)decane-1,3-dione] hydrochloride (RS86) and the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine all decreased the percentage of avoidance responses at doses that produced less than approximately 30% response failures. Similar results were obtained with the antipsychotic drugs haloperidol, trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and clozapine. However, the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam did not decrease avoidance responding up to doses that produced ataxia. On the other hand, oxotremorine and arecoline decreased avoidance responding only by producing response failures, whereas aceclidine produced intermediate changes. The muscarinic receptor antagonists scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, and benztropine were without effect when administered alone but antagonized the decreases in avoidance responding produced by pilocarpine and RS86. Scopolamine had little effect on the decreases in avoidance responding produced by haloperidol. The newer muscarinic receptor partial agonists or agonist/antagonists [R-(Z)-(+)-alpha-(methoxyimino)-1-azabicyclo[2.2. 2]octane-3-acetonitrile] hydrochloride, talsaclidine, milameline, and xanomeline also produced dose-related decreases in avoidance responding. Our results demonstrate that muscarinic receptor agonists can decrease avoidance responding in a manner similar to dopamine-receptor antipsychotic drugs, suggesting that muscarinic receptor agonists may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of psychosis.

artane user reviews

Segmental craniocervical dystonia is characterized by blephalospasm and oromandibular dystonia and is also called Meige syndrome. The current treatment strategy including botulinum toxin (BTX) injections has not yet attained an acceptable level. We describe a long-term favorable response of a novel combination therapy with aripiprazole (ARP), trihexyphenidyl (THP), and BTX in three patients with segmental craniocervical dystonia. The symptoms of three patients responded promptly to the combination therapy with ARP 3-6 mg daily, THP 2-8 mg daily, and BTX. Although the patients were required to receive a BTX 50-100 IU injection every 3-6 months, their symptoms were kept in a satisfactory condition for up to 2 years without any adverse effects. ARP possesses the potential for dramatically improving dystonia. THP has the possibility to enhance the efficacy of ARP and prolong the effective period of BTX. It may be an important requisite to give all three agents together for a successful treatment. The combination therapy with ARP, THP, and BTX was well-tolerated and useful in controlling the symptoms of segmental craniocervical dystonia, however, the reason why this combination therapy succeeded is unknown. A further long-term follow-up is required to monitor the delayed neurological adverse effects.

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The aim of this study was to assess trihexyphenidyl in reducing overall dystonia, improving upper limb function, and achieving goals in children with dystonic cerebral palsy. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted with 16 participants at a tertiary children's hospital. Assessments were performed at baseline, week 12, and week 28. The primary outcome measure was the Barry-Albright Dystonia scale for global assessment of dystonia. Secondary measures included the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, and Goal Attainment Scale. A total of 14 children (88%) completed the study. Mean baseline Barry-Albright Dystonia score was 18.4 (95% confidence interval, 15.5-21.2). There were no significant treatment effects as measured by change in outcome scores. There were significant order effects for both the Goal Attainment Scale and performance aspect of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Side effects were common. Larger experimental trials with more narrowly defined functional levels are indicated.

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A 55-year-old woman with known retinitis pigmentosa for 25 years was progressively clumsy in gait and activities of daily living over the past 30 years. She was able to manage house work and social activities, but she developed swallowing disturbance associated with involuntary neck muscle spasm for 2 weeks, which brought her to our clinic on September 7, 1990. General physical examination was normal except for dry skin. Neurological examination was compatible with sensory-dominant polyneuropathy, showing distal dominant sensory impairment together with absent vibration sense and areflexia in lower limbs, but no gross muscular weakness. There were neck dystonia and bilateral poor visual acuity due to secondary optic atrophy of retinitis pigmentosa. The former responded to the combination of tiapride and trihexyphenidyl. She was admitted twice for further evaluation. Complete blood count and blood chemistry tests including lipids were all within normal limits, and so was cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate and lactate before and after exercise loading were also normal. Malignancy workup was negative. To our surprise, serum vitamin E level turned out very low (1.89 micrograms/ml), normal range being 4.7-20.3 micrograms/ml. Oral vitamin E administration test by 2g of alpha-tocopherol showed abnormal absorption curve followed fast clearance in serum. Stool was occasionally positive for fat corpuscles by Sudan III staining, but 99Tc-HSA leakage into the intestines was not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane medication class

The highly selective cardiac-M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist methoctramine shows a number of concentration-dependent biochemical responses. At micromolar concentrations it interacts allosterically with the mAChR and has 'agonist-like' effects on the phosphoinositide and cyclic AMP second messenger systems. Direct stimulation or inhibition of second messenger systems has been reported to modulate cellular homoeostasis and differentiation. This study showed that methoctramine was toxic, in micromolar concentrations, to the human neuroblastoma cell lines SK-N-SH, LAN-5 and SH-EP1, the last being a clone that does not contain muscarinic receptors. The selective M2 mAChR antagonists 11-{2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl}-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-6)(1-4)benzodiazepine-6-on (AF-DX 116) and gallamine, as well as the selective M1 and M3 antagonists pirenzepine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-n-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP), had no toxic effects. Lithium provided significant protection against methoctramine toxicity, whereas carbamylcholine, pertussis toxin and forskolin had no influence on its toxicity. At micromolar concentrations, the clinically used, non-selective mAChR antagonists ethopropazine, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl and orphenadrine displayed toxicity similar to that of methoctramine. Methoctramine, ethopropazine, benztropine and trihexyphenidyl enhanced significantly [(3)H]thymidine uptake at subtoxic concentrations. These results demonstrate that (a) the toxicity of methoctramine is by way of non-muscarinic mechanism, (b) some anticholinergic drugs commonly used in clinical medicine have toxic properties similar to those of methoctramine and (c) at subtoxic micromolar concentrations anti-muscarinic drugs have some trophic properties.

artane drug abuse

The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.

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The authors examine 18 cases of early dystonic syndromes and review all the pediatric cases published previously in order to determine the evolutive and epidemiological characters of these intolerance reactions. These unrecognized manifestations normally occur within the first 24 hours of treatment and disappear within a few hours when the treatment is discontinued. The use of diazepam and trihexyphenidyl accelerates the regression of the disorders. The doses of metoclopramide were mostly above the recommended doses, 60% of the cases correspond to doses in excess of 0.5 mg/kg per day or 0.2 mg/kg in a single dose. In the absence of overdosage, dystonic reactions occur essentially in female subjects aged over 9 years. For this part of the population, the possible occurrence of such a reaction should be mentioned to the family when the drug is prescribed.

artane drugs

Clozapine (CLZ), an atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), produces minimal extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and has significant advantages for treating both positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. CLZ has been established as a discriminative cue in the drug discrimination paradigm and in generalization tests the CLZ cue is more selective for atypical, rather than typical, APDs. However, greater selectivity for atypical antipsychotics has been demonstrated with a lower (1.25 mg/kg) CLZ training dose in rats [Psychopharmacology, 149 (2000) 189], rather than the traditional, higher training dose (5.0 mg/kg). It is therefore of interest to evaluate the properties mediating the 1.25 mg/kg CLZ discriminative cue. In the present study, rats were trained to discriminate either 1.25 mg/kg (N=7) or 5.0 mg/kg (N=7) CLZ from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol (0.1-0.4 mg/kg) did not substitute for either CLZ cue, whereas the atypical antipsychotic melperone (0.37-3.0 mg/kg) provided full substitution in both groups (>80% CLZ-appropriate responding). The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.04-0.16 mg/kg), and the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 (0.03-1.0 mg/kg) did not produce substitution in either group. (+)-8-OH-DPAT combined with haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) engendered only partial substitution (>60% CLZ-appropriate responding) for both CLZ cues, and M100907 combined with haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg doses) failed to provide substitution in either group. Trihexyphenidyl (0.18-6.0 mg/kg), a muscarinic M(1)-preferring receptor antagonist, engendered full substitution for the 1.25 mg/kg CLZ cue, but only partial substitution for the 5.0 mg/kg CLZ cue. These results provide evidence that antagonism at the muscarinic M(1) receptor is sufficient to provide 1.25 mg/kg CLZ-like discriminative stimulus effects.

artane medication uses

In a shock escape T-maze task, rats were trained to turn right following one drug treatment and left following a second drug treatment. The specific drug and dose conditions were the only discriminative cues available to the animals. The number of training sessions before criterion performance indicated the discriminability of the two training conditions. Drug vs no drug training showed that discriminability was proportional to dosage for low doses, but was constant over a range of higher doses. Such an asymptote of discriminability was observed with scopolamine, atropine, benactyzine and Ditran (JB 329), and was shown not to result from tolerance. High dose vs low dose discriminations involving scopolamine were learned very slowly if both doses were within the asymptotic range; this indicates that similar discriminable effects were produced by high and low doses. To compare various drugs, substitution tests were administered to trained rats. The four antimuscarinic drugs generally substituted for one another but did not mimic and were not mimicked by drugs in other pharmacological classes. Some exceptions to this pattern were noted. The discriminable effects of scopolamine were partially antagonized by physostigmine. The results indicate that the antimuscarinic drugs share discriminable actions probably produced by their anticholinergic actions. The asymptote of action at high doses appears genuine, possibly reflecting receptor saturation.

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1. The influence of pharmacological pretreatment (pyridostigmine, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated PANPAL, on soman-induced cholinergic and stressogenic effects as well as on the efficacy of antidotal treatment (HI-6 plus obidoxime) in rats was studied. 2. PANPAL prophylaxis significantly decreased soman-induced cholinesterase inhibition in blood, brain and diaphragm as well as stressogenic effects of soman (an increase in plasma corticosterone level and liver tyrosine aminotransferase activity). 3. PANPAL pretreatment did not improve the efficacy of HI-6 in combination with benactyzine on soman-induced anticholinesterase and stressogenic effects. 4. These findings confirm that PANPAL prophylaxis can improve prognosis of soman poisoning especially by protection of cholinesterases.

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Diagnosis of dystonia is not difficult by recognizing the pattern of clinical presentation. Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) and Wilson disease are important in differential diagnosis because of their specific treatment. The most common are the focal dystonias, including blepharospasm and spasmodic torticollis. Dystonia comprises mobile involuntary movements and abnormal postures, the latter is better described as hypokinetic disorder. The pathogenesis of dystonia is now being clarified, and includes abnormal neuroplasticity caused by the relative excess of dopamine in the matrix compartment of the striatum, the possible primary lesion being the striosome. In a dopa-responsive dystonia model, dopaminergic projection is more deficient to the striosome than to the matrix, which could produce imbalance between the direct versus. indirect pathway activities. The treatment options include trihexyphenidyl, minor tranquilizers, botulinum toxin injection, and deep brain stimulation.

artane generic name

A 20-year-old psychiatric patient receiving haloperidol treatment developed acute-onset fever, rigidity, and mental changes. Subcutaneous apomorphine was given alone for treatment. The patient had rapid clinical improvement after the treatment. Serial blood examinations showed decline and subsequent normalization of the creatine phosphokinase levels.

artane max dose

The plasma protein binding of the alpha 1-adrenergic blocking agent prazosin was investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) and equilibrium dialysis (ED) measurements. The interaction of prazosin with human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP) results in pronounced negative extrinsic Cotton effects at 255 nm and a smaller negative band at 285 nm which are associated with the binding of prazosin to only one site of the protein. Various basic drugs, and warfarin also, at 50 microM displace prazosin 10 microM from its binding site on alpha 1-AGP and reduce the CD-spectra at 255 nm by 26% (disopyramide), 52% (mepivacaine), about 70% (verapamil, biperiden), and 90-100% (trihexyphenidyl, warfarin). (+/-)-Propranolol reduces the CD-spectra by 76%, its (-)-isomer by 89%, and the (+)-isomer by 65%. ED experiments indicated that the binding of prazosin to alpha 1-AGP is saturable with an association constant of 48 000 M-1 and 0.85 binding sites per protein molecule. Displacement of prazosin from alpha 1-AGP by the same drug as used for the CD experiments at displacer/prazosin ratios of 5 resulted in comparable reductions of the fraction bound as obtained by the CD experiments. Prazosin was also highly bound to human serum albumin (600 microM) with about 80-85% bound at prazosin concentrations from 1-100 microM. Since prazosin binding to human serum is only slightly higher (80-90%) it is concluded that prazosin binding in serum is largely mediated by the albumin fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane generic

Rats were trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg CLZ from vehicle in a two-choice drug discrimination task.

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We report observations on the treatment of 66 patients with presumed dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). Forty-seven of these patients had hereditary disease; 19 had disease of sporadic occurrence. Initial diagnostic confusion with "cerebral palsy" or "spastic diplegia" existed in 16 patients. Several patients benefited from anticholinergic medications and a few from carbamazepine. Levodopa was the most effective treatment in all cases. In the majority, there was an excellent response, with continued long-term clinical stability on levodopa therapy for as long as 10 to 22 years. Four men with sporadic disease and 1 woman with a sister affected with adolescent-onset parkinsonism had similar initial treatment response, but developed "wearing-off" and a less satisfactory response to levodopa within the first few years of treatment. This indicates that some patients with clinical syndromes suggestive of DRD may not have an excellent prognosis on long-term levodopa treatment and may represent misclassified cases of childhood-onset parkinsonism.

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Our study confirmed an association between memory disorders and some drugs, such as benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. However, other drugs, such as benzodiazepine-like hypnotics, newer anticonvulsants, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, isotretinoin and ciclosporin were significantly associated with memory disorders, although this was not described or poorly described in the literature. Taking account of the limits of this study in the FPVD (under-reporting, notoriety bias etc.), the case/noncase method allows assessment and detection of associations between exposure to drugs and a specific adverse drug reaction, such as memory disorders, and could thus generate signals and orientate us to further prospective studies to confirm such associations.

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We report 2 uncomplicated pregnancies in 1 woman with early-onset, sporadic, primary generalized dystonia (DYT1 negative) treated with high dosage trihexyphenidyl and review the literature on antidystonic agents and pregnancy.

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In three studies of comparable design, 47 schizophrenics received anticholinergic anti-Parkinsonism (AP) medications for two to four weeks along the course of neuroleptic treatment. Clinical ratings during the AP phase were contrasted against the preceding and following two-week periods on neuroleptic alone, and these changes were analysed for a total of 27 psychopathology dimensions and for clusters of seven positive and seven negative symptoms. Schizophrenics overall exhibited significant exacerbation of total psychopathology, and positive but not negative symptoms. Only those with a predominantly positive syndrome when drug-free were susceptible to AP therapeutic reversal. However, other subgroup analyses revealed worsening of total psychopathology and positive symptoms among catatonic, schizophreniform, chronic, and good outcome cases, but negative symptoms alone were significantly increased among paranoids. The results were not supportive of a positive-negative dichotomy of schizophrenia, but instead suggested a tripartite model: a distinct paranoid group and a division of the non-paranoids into a positive and a negative type.

artane pediatric dosing

Experiments employing ultrasound technique showed that nonselective blockade of central muscarinic cholinoceptors with amizyl significantly increases the number and lifespan of rats highly resistant to acute massive blood loss. This pretreatment increased individual resistance of the circulatory system to posthemorrhagic hypoxia (blood pressure and portal blood flow rate). Preliminary blockade of central nicotinic cholinoceptors and peripheral muscarinic cholinoceptors with cyclodol and methacin, respectively, had no effect on the percentage of rats highly and low resistant to acute blood loss. Preliminary blockade of peripheral muscarinic cholinoceptors with methacin prevented the decrease in the cardiac output in low resistant animals during the posthemorrhagic period.

artane drug class

In rats made cataleptic with haloperidol (5.32 micromol/kg), the bar test was used to assess the possible synergism between the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl (THP) and selective adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor antagonists. Neither catalepsy intensity nor latency were affected by a subthreshold dose of THP (0.33 micromol/kg). The selective adenosine A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-xanthine (DPCPX) (5.15 micromol/kg) caused a small, but significant reduction of catalepsy intensity that remained unchanged when combined with THP. DPCPX had no effect on catalepsy latency, either alone or combined with THP. In contrast, an equimolar dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-a]-[1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) (5.15 micromol/kg) produced a significant reduction of catalepsy intensity and increased catalepsy latency. Both effects were potentiated when ZM 241385 was combined with THP. The synergism was more evident when rats were pretreated with a subthreshold dose of ZM 241385 (1.55 micromol/kg) that was unable to modify catalepsy parameters when applied alone, but produced a significant reduction in catalepsy intensity and an increase in catalepsy latency when administered with THP. Catalepsy was unaffected by a combination of equimolar, subthreshold doses of DPCPX (1.55 micromol/kg) and ZM 241385 (1.55 micromol/kg). These findings indicate that the anticataleptic effect of anticholinergics is enhanced only by the selective blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

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artane dosage 2015-05-14

1. The influence of pharmacological pretreatment (pyridostigmine, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated PANPAL, on soman-induced cholinergic and stressogenic effects as well as on the efficacy of antidotal treatment (HI-6 plus obidoxime) in rats was studied. 2. PANPAL prophylaxis significantly decreased soman-induced cholinesterase inhibition in blood, brain and diaphragm as well as stressogenic effects of soman (an increase in plasma corticosterone level and liver tyrosine aminotransferase activity). 3. PANPAL pretreatment did not improve the efficacy of HI-6 in combination with benactyzine on soman-induced anticholinesterase and stressogenic effects. 4 buy artane . These findings confirm that PANPAL prophylaxis can improve prognosis of soman poisoning especially by protection of cholinesterases.

parkinson drug artane 2017-03-25

Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing buy artane , and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia.

artane drug abuse 2017-05-29

Rats with the Parkinsonian syndrome induced by administration of acetyl choline and proserine into the rostral part of both caudate nuclei manifest an increased electrical activity (EA) in this part. Tremor, oligokinesia and rigidity are characterized by the appearance of paroxysmal EA with high amplitude of slow and rapid waves. The data obtained allow to conclude that neuropathophysiological basis of the Parkinsonian syndrome is the formation of the generator of pathologically enhanced excitation (GPEE) in the caudate nuclei. Some peculiarities of the GPEE activity in tremor and akinetic rigidity syndromes were observed. Intrarostral administration of dopamine or intraperitoneal administration of cyclodol resulted buy artane in the inhibition of GPEE and disappearance of clinical manifestations of Parkinsonian syndrome.

artane 6 mg 2016-12-22

A 41 year old man with parkinsonism and pyramidal signs is described. He was non-responsive to levodopa and dopamine receptor agonists but dramatically responded to trihexyphenidyl. In this patient, brain buy artane MRI showed bilateral hyperintensities along the corticospinal tracts on T2 weighted images. PET studies showed a decrease in (18)F-6-fluorodopa uptake in the putamen contralateral to the more affected limbs and normal D(2) receptor binding in the putamen. The PET and MRI findings and responsiveness to antiparkinsonian agents suggested degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, striatal output pathways, and corticospinal tracts.

artane medication dystonia 2015-01-19

We have previously proposed that the reciprocal hindlimb scratching (RHS) of mice elicited by intrathecal injection of muscarinic agents is mediated by M1 muscarinic receptors. In this study, benzhexol potently inhibited pilocarpine-induced RHS (ID50 = 0.5 ng), methoctramine did not fully block RHS and RS 86 neither produced nor blocked RHS. These data (1) differentiate the three muscarinic agents using this buy artane in vivo endpoint, (2) substantiate binding studies characterizing benzhexol and methoctramine as putative M2 and M2 antagonists, respectively, and (3) further support using RHS for studying muscarinic agents.

artane pediatric dosage 2017-01-09

Sixty cases of Parkinson's disease combined with GAB were randomly divided into a combined acupuncture and medication buy artane group (group A) and a medication group (group B), 30 cases in each group. In both groups, Madopar basic doses were same, and anticholinergic agents such as Artane were stopped. In group A, Tolterodine was orally taken for 1 mg, twice a day; Baihui (GV 20), Sishengcong (EX-HN 1) and Yintang (EX-HN 3) were punctured with electroacupuncture, once a day. In group B, Tolterodine was orally taken for 2 mg, twice a day. After 6 weeks, the changes of urination and UPDRS III scores were observed, and the adverse reactions were recorded in both groups.

artane overdose symptoms 2016-02-07

In order to facilitate direct comparisons of anticholinergic drug effects on activity, nine drugs were buy artane tested in one laboratory using a standardized procedure.

artane maximum dose 2016-08-02

Using a radioreceptor technique, we assayed serum trihexyphenidyl levels in patients with dystonia being treated chronically with high dosage. We found a significant correlation between buy artane total daily dose and the daily lowest (trough) serum levels. There was no relationship between serum levels and therapeutic response or toxicity. Toxicity was more closely related to patient age than to serum level. Although levels may be useful to monitor patient compliance, they cannot be used to judge adequacy of therapy.

artane pill sizes 2017-10-20

A 27-year-old man presented with a sporadic, nonprogressive, right-sided, segmental movement disorder that had started at the age of 2 years. Ballistic movement overflow myoclonus was diagnosed clinically and by surface electromyography. Special investigations did not detect anything except atrophy of the left temporal lobe on CT scan. The movement intensity was attenuated by alcohol but was minimally affected by high doses of oral propranolol (320 mg buy artane daily), clonazepam (36 mg daily), or trihexyphenidyl (32 mg daily). High-dose intravenous biperidine (10 mg) resulted in dramatic improvement, but with unacceptable side effects. The possible role of a cholinergic disturbance in generating myoclonus is discussed.

artane drug classification 2017-10-08

An electromyographic buy artane method was used to study the effect of combination therapy with L-dopa and trihexyphenidyl on tremor in thirty patients suffering from extrapyramidal motor system disease. In this method tremor activity was measured and documented so that the course of the disease could be followed objectively. L-dopa alone was slightly more effective against tremor than was trihexyphenidyl alone. The combination of the two drugs was more effective than either drug used alone, and its side-effects were mild and definitely fewer than had been reported with L-dopa combined with a decarboxylase inhibitor. Good control of tremor with L-dopa and trihexyphenidyl was obtained clinically and verified electromyographically.

artane cost 2016-09-01

Patients on psychotropic medications have buy artane been clinically observed to have higher rates of abnormal colonic architecture resulting in difficult colonoscopies. This study aims to determine if a correlation between use of psychotropic medications and colonic architectural change seen on colonoscopy exists.

artane 10 mg 2017-01-01

We mainly found a flexion-extension tremor of the wrist with a frequency range of 4.7-6.7 Hz. There was no significant difference between the conditions. Mean onset age was 43±2.4 years. Medication included trihexyphenidyl, propranolol, primidone, and botulinum toxin. We found a positive family history in two patients and an injury prior to symptom onset in another two patients. Comparison of onset age, frequency range, family history, and injuries prior to onset revealed that our findings are very similar to previous buy artane findings on primary bowing tremor and primary writing tremor.

artane medication class 2016-01-08

There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully buy artane treated with reboxetine.To the best of our knowledge, this article is the first report of an atypical antipsychotic medication-induced NE treated with reboxetine.Reboxetine may be an effective treatment for risperidone-induced NE. Further research is required to confirm our finding and apply this treatment for NE caused by other neuroleptics.

artane medication uses 2017-01-05

Thirteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease of recent onset (mean age 63·2 years) and a group of 10 young healthy volunteers (mean age 26·1 years) underwent a series of neuropsychological tests for assessment of memory, learning ability and mental processing speed before and during treatment with trihexyphenidyl. Retesting after anticholinergic exposure (mean of 2 weeks for patients and 1 week for controls) revealed in young healthy controls the same pattern and Crestor Generic Launch magnitude of decline in memory function as in Parkinson patients. Non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease of recent onset thus do riot seem to be selectively vulnerable to cognitive side-effects of anticholinergic treatment.

artane drug 2016-04-20

Varying doses of scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl and benztropine were administered to rats or guinea-pigs by themselves or in combination with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol for 24 days. All animals were then challenged with 0.75 mg/kg apomorphine and assessed for stereotypic behavior following a 96 h drug free interval. Animals treated with haloperidol alone exhibited behavioral hypersensitivity to apomorphine challenge. Animals treated with both an antimuscarinic agent and haloperidol exhibited a significant reduction in behavioral responsiveness relative to animals treated with only Periactin Cyproheptadine Pills haloperidol. This reduction was directly proportional to the antimuscarinic dose administered. A non-significant trend toward hyposensitivity was observed in animals who had been treated with antimuscarinic agents alone. These results suggest that the development of behavioral hypersensitivity may reflect CNS alterations in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic activity.

artane y alcohol 2015-11-01

We present an interim report of an ongoing, single-blind study of the effectiveness and safety of bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel) in 15 patients, 14 of whom had severe idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Stages 4 and 5 on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale). The patients had never received levodopa, amantadine, or bromocriptine. Gradually increasing doses of bromocriptine were assessed: Initial daily dosage was 1.25 mg, with weekly increments of 1.25 mg/day until either the clinical response was satisfactory or a maximum of 15 mg/day was reached. The patients were on no other antiparkinsonian agents, except trihexyphenidyl HCl (Artane). Response to treatment was scored on the Columbia Scale. The patients discussed in this report had been in the Pamelor 15 Mg study for varying times, ranging from 1 month to 3 years. Only one patient who entered this study dropped out because his response to bromocriptine was unsatisfactory; he had taken the drug for 2 weeks. No serious adverse reactions were noted with the gradually increasing dosage regimen. Response on the whole was very satisfactory; patients improved by at least two stages on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. Improvement began within 48 h of onset of treatment with 1.25 mg daily. The preliminary results of this study indicate that low-dose bromocriptine as a first-line drug in severe Parkinson's disease is definitely warranted.

artane medication 2017-10-24

We studied two patients with nonfamilial olivopontocerebellar atrophy with skeletal myoclonus. Palatal or skeletal myoclonus is probably not a coincidental finding but another manifestation Cardura Pediatric Dose of the underlying disease. In both cases, the myoclonus was suppressed by administration of trihexyphenidyl, indicating a cholinergic disorder.

artane 2mg tablet 2015-03-18

Reports about chronic-onset dementia due to ACA have been rare. Here we described five patients with chronic dementia induced by ACA. We examined their clinical Sinequan Tablets aspect, neuropsychological aspect, and neuroradiological aspect in detail. Our study suggests the possibility of ACA-induced chronic-onset dementia in PD patients.

artane generic name 2016-10-26

The study provides some evidence that a large Detrol La Dosage number of the patients may not be well informed about the specific role of BenzhexoI in their treatment and that that some of their assumptions may portend danger for their health and outcome. Health workers may also have neglected to educate them. There is a need to intensify patient education in our clinics.

artane brand name 2017-01-09

A patient with spasms of the neck, occurring when he turned his head to the Zantac Drug left, responded to treatment with benzhexol. Cerebral blood flow imaging demonstrated reduced uptake in the right corpus striatum compared with the left. The study demonstrates the presence of an abnormality in the basal ganglia; it also illustrates response to drug treatment. Cerebral blood flow imaging may be useful in the detection of basal ganglia abnormalities in spasmodic torticollis and assist in the selection of cases which should be targeted for treatment with drugs.

artane tab 2015-12-17

Blepharospasm is a relatively frequent cranial dystonia which may be seen either alone or related to orofacial-mandibular dystonia (Meige's syndrome). In its maximum degree it can cause functional blindness.Twelve patients with blepharospasm (4 essential and 8 Meige's syndrome) who had been previously treated unsuccessfully with drugs (trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, carbamazepine, lithium, baclofen, lisuride, imipramine, clonazepam and butyrophenones) were treated for 12 months with periocular injections of botulinum toxin (BOTOX). A "low" dose of 12,5 U per eye was employed. With this dose, eleven out of twelve patients experienced significant improvement which lasted from five Minipress Capsules to fifteen weeks. The only nonresponder obtained complete relief upon duplicating the dose. The only side effect was uni or bilateral ptosis in six patients which improved completely in seven to twenty one days. One patient developed a peripheral facial palsy with complete remission in nineteen days. No systemic side effects were noted. There was only one desertion from this study due to depression enhanced by prolonged (21 days) ptosis. All patients (including the deserter) agreed that treatment with BOTOX provided more relief than any other previous therapeutic method. Our results confirm those obtained by others but a more prolonged study is needed to better evaluate long term effects.

artane 20 mg 2017-12-07

Certain drugs may induce or worsen heat-related illnesses. During a heat wave, special attention should be given to those most at risk, and the importance of preventive measures should be emphasized.

artane medication dosage 2015-03-11

We have reported a case of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism PARK6 with a 30-year history. She developed tremor of right lower limb at the age of 23. At the age of 28, she received a clinical diagnosis of early-onset Parkinson's disease. She showed clinical improvements by the treatment with trihexyphenidyl, but symptoms showed slow progression over the subsequent years. L-DOPA therapy was introduced at the age of 42, and five years later, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia developed. Dystonia, diurnal fluctuation and sleep benefit were absent. She carried a homozygous missense mutation in PINK1 gene, and was diagnosed as PARK6. The brain MRI did not show apparent abnormality. 18F-FDG-positron emission topography (PET) displayed normal uptake in the brain, suggesting normal glucose metabolism. PET imaging with a dopamine D2 receptor ligand 11C-raclopride revealed that postsynaptic 11C-raclopride uptake was normal in the bilateral putamen. After the introduction of pramipexisol, she showed clinical improvements. L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia disappeared with the gradual tapering and withdrawal of L-DOPA. In this PARK6 case, postsynaptic D2 receptors of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons were thought to be maintained despite a long disease history.

artane windows reviews 2017-11-20

Use of antipsychotic medications is associated with changes to colonic architecture. This could predispose such a patient to difficult colonoscopy and therefore increase colonoscopy-associated risks. Medication history should be elicited prior to colonoscopy.

artane drugs 2017-08-31

A rare case of death due to benzhexol toxicity is reported in a 48-year-old schizophrenic male with a resolving empyema and underlying patchy, mild bronchopneumonia. Toxicological analysis revealed the benzhexol blood and liver concentrations to be 0.12 mg/l and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. Gastric contents contained 0.4 mg of benzhexol. Other drugs were not detected. It is suggested that for fatalities to occur following benzhexol intoxication, secondary contributory factors, which probably further alter the patient's conscious state, are necessary.

artane 2 mg 2016-06-23

The therapeutic effect of Parkinson' s disease combined with GAB treated with combined therapy of Tolterodine with low dose and electroacupuncture is superior to that of complete dose of Tolterodine with oral administration, with less adverse reactions. And it also can improve the motor symptom of Parkinson's disease patients.

artane 4 mg 2016-03-24

Alterations in complex I activity, one of the enzymatic units of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, have been demonstrated in different tissues from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Subsequently, we showed that the chronic administration of levodopa can cause alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in rats, which suggests that the observed deficit in complex I activity in PD might be, at least in part, related to chronic levodopa therapy. Our study assessed the in vitro effects of different antiparkinsonian agents on complex I activity in rat brain. As previously reported, both levodopa and dopamine inhibit complex I activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the two major metabolites of dopamine, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as well as 3-O-methyl-dopa, had little or no effect on complex I activities. Bromocriptine, pergolide, trihexyphenidyl, molindone, and clozapine were all without significant inhibitory effects on mitochondrial function. Although vitamin C and deprenyl did not alter complex I activity, they did prevent the inhibitory effect of both levodopa and dopamine on complex I activity. This work indicates that among the different and usual antiparkinsonian agents, only levodopa and dopamine induced reductions in complex I activity. It also indicates that vitamin C and deprenyl are both effective in preventing the levodopa-induced complex I inhibition. This latter finding provides further support to the use of antioxidants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors as therapeutic strategies in attempts to slow the progression of PD.