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To assess the proportion of NSAID users receiving co-therapy and strategies to improve adherence.
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The efficacy of selective cox-2 inhibitors in postoperative pain reduction were usually compared with conventional non-selective conventional NSAIDs or other types of medicine. Previous studies also used selective cox-2 inhibitors as single postoperative dose, in continued mode, or in combination with other modalities. The purpose of this study was to compare analgesic efficacy of single preoperative administration of etoricoxib versus celecoxib for post-operative pain relief after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
To determine the risk of thromboembolic cardiovascular events associated with the use of etoricoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor.
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Concurrent treatment with etoricoxib at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg reduced the anticonvulsant potency of phenytoin. The protective effects of diazepam against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions was significantly increased and the mortality rate was reduced by concurrent treatment with etoricoxib (10 mg/kg p.o.) when compared with diazepam groups. No neurotoxic effect was observed with etoricoxib (10 mg/kg p.o.) and it had no impact on motor coordination in the chimney test in mice. Etoricoxib applied at its highest dose (10 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the free plasma levels of diazepam whereas the free plasma levels of phenytoin were significantly reduced.
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Thirty-six consecutive patients with metastatic CRPC were enrolled, of whom n = 18 (50%) had been extensively pretreated with radio- or radionuclid therapy and n = 16 (44%) with chemotherapies; n = 8 patients (22%) were medically none-fit, having an ECOG-score of 0-2. Nine of 15 patients with PSA response >50% showed objective response. Median time to PSA response was 2.4 months (range 1.0-7.3 months). Two of 9 patients responding with PSA < 4 ng/ml showed complete resolution of skeletal lesions after 9 and 16 months; 13 patients had a stable course of disease, and 5 patients experienced progressive disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (2.8-5.1 months) and median overall survival (OS) 14.4 months (10.7-17.2 months). Toxicities according to WHO grade II were noticed in 9 patients.
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The effect size for all coxib groups combined (0.44) indicated greater efficacy as compared with placebo, but significant heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) was observed. Rofecoxib at dosages of 12.5 mg/day and 25 mg/day and etoricoxib at a dosage of 60 mg/day had similar effect sizes (0.68 and 0.73, respectively), but these effect sizes were comparatively greater than those for both celecoxib at dosages of 200 mg/day and 100 mg twice daily or valdecoxib at a dosage of 10 mg/day (0.26 and 0.16, respectively). The effect sizes for NSAIDs or naproxen versus placebo, as determined using data from rofecoxib/etoricoxib trials, were consistently higher than the effect sizes derived from trials of celecoxib/valdecoxib. Significant heterogeneity was present in the overall effect size for NSAIDs (P = 0.007) and naproxen (P = 0.04) groups based on data available from all coxib trials.
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The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence of and identify the risk factors for clinical upper GI events in chronic COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib and etoricoxib) users.
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We describe a case of epileptic seizures occurring after the use of a COX-2 inhibitor. A 61-year-old man was admitted to our department because of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. EEG showed generalized slowdown of the activity. Neuroimaging and blood samples studies did not evidence alterations, but a careful pharmacological history revealed that the patient had taken the COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib to treat lumbago few days before the onset of clinical symptoms. No seizures were reported after etoricoxib discontinuation and an EEG resulted to be normal two months after this. Conclusion. Knowing the pharmacological history of a patient is important for understanding the clinical presentation and selecting appropriate treatment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of generalized seizures associated with the use of COX-2 inhibitors.
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After approval by the hospital research ethics committee and receipt of informed written consent, we recruited 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification I and II patients scheduled for elective first trimester termination of pregnancy. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either oral etoricoxib 120 mg (Group E, n=20) or placebo tablet (Group P, n=20) pre-operatively. A blinded observer evaluated the post-operative pain scores, need for supplementary analgesia, side effects and satisfaction scores. Sample size was calculated (power of 0.8 and alpha=0.05) to detect a 20 percent difference in fentanyl usage. Amount of fentanyl used, pain scores and satisfaction scores were analysed using non-parametric tests. The incidence of side effects was analysed using chi-squared test.
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Both drugs demonstrated a good tolerability and a low incidence of side effects. The efficacy of etoricoxib was significantly higher than that of meloxicam.
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PVP increased the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and decreased the enthalpy relaxation. Significant differences between two drugs were observed with respect to their relaxation behavior which may be due to differences in intermolecular interactions as predicted by Couchman-Karasz equation and molecular mobility. Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was found to be inadequate in describing complex molecular relaxations in binary dispersions. The enthalpy relaxation behavior of VLB and ETB was found to be significantly different. PVP stabilized VLB significantly; however, its effect on ETB was negligible. The extent of enthalpy relaxation was found to correlate with hydrogen bonding tendency of the drug molecules.
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Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever.
A double blind randomized prospective trial was carried out. Patients treated in hospital for a chronic lumbar pain syndrome without neurological deficits within a multimodal treatment program were screened for indications for an epidural steroid injection (e.g. diseased lumbar disc and intention to treat). Patients eligible for the study were randomized into two groups. The treatment group received an epidural injection of 80 mg triamcinolone and 8 ml bupivacaine 0.25 %. The control group received only an epidural injection of 8 ml bupivacaine 0.25 %.
Significant predictors of clinical events and complicated events included age ≥65 years [hazards ratios (HRs) = 2.25 (1.84-2.76), 4.09 (2.82-5.92)], prior event [HRs = 2.57 (1.94-3.39), 3.23 (2.09-5.00)], low-dose aspirin [HRs = 2.34 (1.87-2.92), 3.41 (2.33-5.00)] and corticosteroid [HRs = 1.85 (1.41-2.43), 2.09 (1.29-3.38)]. Predictors of discontinuation due to dyspepsia included prior dyspepsia [HR = 1.78 (1.44-2.00)], prior event [HR = 1.78 (1.40-2.27)] and age ≥65 years [HR = 1.35 (1.16-1.57)].
We searched the following databases in January 2015: Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, November 2014 issue), MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. We also searched clinical trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP). We checked the abstracts of major scientific meetings and the reference lists of relevant articles.
Etoricoxib is a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2-selective NSAID with a higher COX-1 to COX-2 selectivity ratio than the other COX-2-selective NSAIDs rofecoxib, valdecoxib or celecoxib. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, improvements in tender and swollen joint counts and patient and investigator global assessment of disease activity were significantly greater in etoricoxib than in placebo recipients in two studies. Etoricoxib was also significantly more effective than naproxen in one of these studies. In patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, etoricoxib was significantly more effective than placebo and had similar efficacy to naproxen with regards to improvements in pain and physical function scores and patient global assessment of disease status scores in two studies. Etoricoxib had similar efficacy to diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-dose etoricoxib relieved pain in patients with postoperative dental pain in two studies. Similar scores assessing total pain relief over 8 hours (TOPAR8) were reported in etoricoxib and naproxen sodium or ibuprofen recipients, and higher TOPAR8 scores were reported with etoricoxib than with paracetamol (acetaminophen)/codeine. Pain relief was significantly better with etoricoxib than placebo in two studies in patients with chronic low back pain. Etoricoxib had similar efficacy to indomethacin in a study in patients with acute gout, and single-dose etoricoxib had similar efficacy to naproxen sodium in a study in women with primary dysmenorrhoea. Compared with non-COX-selective NSAIDs, etoricoxib was associated with significantly fewer upper gastrointestinal (GI) perforations, ulcers or bleeds, and was significantly less likely to result in treatment discontinuation because of NSAID-type GI symptoms or any GI symptoms.
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Etoricoxib should be considered as a risk in the development of immune hemolytic anemia, with the causative antibodies potentially reacting with other COX inhibitors.
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First-trimester abortions especially cervical dilation and suction aspiration are associated with pain despite various methods of pain control.
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To analyse retrospectively tolerance to etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and to meloxicam, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, in children with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs.
The erythema multiforme (EM) spectrum of bullous eruptions (toxic epidermal necrolysis [TEN] and Stevens-Johnson syndrome [SJS]) are rare and serious skin reactions that have been reported for cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors. Our objectives were to identify and describe cases of serious skin reactions reported during postmarketing studies of COX-2 selective inhibitors.
In today's literature there are no defined guidelines for the treatment of postoperative pain in corrective surgery of hallux valgus. In this study we evaluated the use of a new treatment protocol designed to minimize the postoperative pain related to the surgical treatment of hallux valgus.
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Patients > or = 50 years with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to diclofenac (150 mg daily) or etoricoxib (60 or 90 mg daily). Patients with hepatic disease or who reported > or = 14 alcoholic drinks weekly were excluded. Patients had visits (with liver tests) every 4 months and were contacted by phone between visits and every 6 months after discontinuation until the end of the study. Causality assessment was performed for liver-related hospitalizations, Hy's cases (serious adverse events with AST or ALT >3 x upper limit of normal (ULN) and bilirubin >2 xULN), and liver failure/transplant/death.
This 2-part, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week study evaluated 2 doses of etoricoxib (90 and 120 mg) compared with naproxen at 1,000 mg. A 6-week, active-comparator- and placebo-controlled period (part I) was followed by a 46-week active-comparator-controlled period (part II). The primary outcome measures (on 100-mm visual analog scales) were patient's assessment of spine pain, patient's global assessment of disease activity, and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index.
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The results show that analgesics and lasers are effective in the management of orthodontic pain at its peak intensity. Further research is required to improve the quality of evidence, especially for analgesic interventions.
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Dr Steven Nissen is a heart specialist and currently holds the position of chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA. His work has involved the development of miniaturised ultrasound imaging devices that can be threaded into a patient's heart that allow measurement of the size and composition of plaques, which indicate early artery damage. The ability to characterize and measure the size of plaques provided a novel, effective method to evaluate the efficacy of anticholesterol medications, and for the past two decades Dr Nissen has been using these and other techniques to examine the efficacy of drugs. He has also developed a strong interest in drug safety. His work linked COX-2 inhibitors such as Celebrex and Vioxx (Merck, NJ, USA) with heart attacks, and prevented Merck's similar product, Arcoxia, from being approved. He also highlighted the serious heart attack risk associated with the experimental drug Pargluva and the drug was subsequently not approved by the US FDA. More recently, Dr Nissen's work has focused on the drug rosiglitazone, which was shown to have high cardiovascular risks and has since been given a FDA warning. Here, Dr Nissen discusses the publication of the rosiglitazone meta-analysis and why he considers work in this area to be crucially important for patients.
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To assess the safety of etoricoxib and effect on disease activity in patients with IBD in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-control study.
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Several anti-inflammatory drugs have been used to reduce pain and discomfort after periodontal surgeries. This study evaluates the efficacy of using etoricoxib and dexamethasone for pain prevention after open-flap debridement surgery.
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For every 2 patients treated with etoricoxib, 1 achieved a clinically meaningful (≥30%) improvement in spine pain and BASDAI beyond that expected from placebo, whereas the corresponding values were approximately 1 in every 3 patients treated with naproxen. Use of NNTs and responder analyses provide additional, complementary information beyond population mean responses when assessing efficacy compared to placebo and amongst active therapies.